Lower Austria

Lower Austria
national flag Landeswappen
Landesflagge Landeswappen
base data
state capital: Sank polarized
largest city: Sank polarized
ISO 3166-2: AT-3
homepage: www.noe.gv.at
map: Lower Austria
Österreich Karte (Niederösterreich)
Politics
national captain: Erwin Pröll (ÖVP)
governing parties: ÖVP
allocation of seats in
the federal state parliament
(56 seats):
ÖVP 31
SPÖ The 19
Greens 4
FPÖ 2
last choice: 30. March 2003
next choice: 2008
population
inhabitant: 1.545.804 (15. May 2001)
- rank: 2. of 9
population density: 81 Einwohner/km ²
Geografie
surface: 19.177, 78 km ²
geographical situation: 47° 25' -49° 1 ' n. Break.
14° 27 ' - 17° 4 ' o. L.
Expansion: North south: 178 km
west east: 196 km
highest point: 2,076 m
(snow mountain)
deepest point: 139 m
(municipality mountain)
administrative arrangement
of districts: 4 Statutarstädte
of 21 districts
of court districts: 32
municipalities: 573

Lower Austria is one of the nine Lands of the Federal Republic of Austria (old name: Ore duchy Austria under the Enns). After the surface it is the largest and after the number of inhabitants the second largest Land of the Federal Republic. It borders in the north Tschechien, in the northeast to the Slowakei, in the southeast to the castle country, in the south to the Steiermark and in the west at upper Austria. It encloses the country Vienna, which belonged until 1922 to Lower Austria. Lower Austria and thatNeighbour Land of the Federal Republic upper Austria are together the heartlands of the State of Austria.

Sank polarized is by a popular vote since 1986 state capital of Lower Austria. Before it the federal state government and bureaucracy were accommodated in Vienna.

Table of contents

Geografie

Lower Austria that is surface moderate with 19.177, 78largest Land of the Federal Republic of Austria. It is landschaftlich divided in quarters: the wine quarter and the forest quarter north, the Mostviertel and the industrial quarter /Thermenregion south the Danube. The quarters exhibit geographically a perfectly different structure. During it in the Mostviertel the Ausläuferthe lime alps with mountains around the 2,000 m üNN, is the forest quarter gives a granite plateau main. In the northeast the hilly wine quarter, that is appropriate for the Danube Viennese the basin into the flat Marchfeld drops and south.

Lower Austria borders upa length of 414 km to the neighboring countries Tschechien and Slowakei, and is the Land of the Federal Republic with the secondarylongest external border.

The quarters in westeastern direction by the Danube , in north south direction are separated by the one hard mountain and the Viennese forest with the hot spring line.

<th colspan= " 2 " align= " centers " bgcolor= " #EFEFEF ">Quarter one and districts of Lower Austria< /th>< /tr> <tr>< td colspan= " 2 " align= " centers "> Forest quarter Wine quarter
bild:Karte_Aut_Noe_Bezirke.png
of Mostviertel Industrial quarter </td>< /tr>

mountains

alpine transitions

rivers

Lower Austria nearly completely over the Danube one drains. The only river, which has its discharge over the Moldau and the Elbe into the North Sea, is those layman seat in the northern forest quarter.

The most important rivers north the Danube are the Kamp, Krems, layman seat, March and Thaya. The Danube are southern there the Enns, Ybbs, Erlauf, milk, Traisen, Schwechat, Fischa, Schwarza and the Leitha.

lakes

surface distribution

kind of culture surface in km ² % the total area
field 7.000 42
forest 6,711 40
meadows 1,750 11
Almen and pastures 300 ,1.7
wine gardens 315 ,1.9

population

Population
development
date inhabitant
around 1527 500,000
around 1600 580,000
around 1700 630,000
1754 922,000
1780 974,000
1790 1.000.000
1794/1795 1.028.300
1810 1.040.700
1821 1.142.600
1830 881,500
1840 896,600
1850 976,600
1857 987,900
1869 1.077.232
1880 1.152.767
1890 1.213.471
1900 1.310.506
1910 1.425.238
1923 1.426.885
1934 1.446.675
1939 1.455.329
1951 1.400.471
1961 1.374.012
1971 1.420.816
1981 1.427.849
1991 1.479.187
2001 1.542.574
2004 1.563.872

the population increases in the central areas in the surrounding countryside of Vienna constantly, partly by influx from the urban range, in addition, by influx from the peripheral areas, for instance the forest quarter or the peripheral areas of the wine quarter, the partialalso problem areas at the job market are. Since sank polarized the state capital is, can be recognized also here a stronger Zuwanderung. Since in sensitive areas as in the Viennese forest by the influx the danger of a Zersiedelung exists, constantly more restrictive measures in the regional planning policy becomespecified.

The foreigner portion is, measured at completely Austria, with 6,3% below average.

The population numbers in accompanying table are based on the data of the Austrian office for statistics and are converted to the today's area conditions. The indicated numbers to 1700 became from official siderounded, and between 1754 and 1857 one counted the present civilian population, whereby up to the counting of 1821 Vienna was taken in account to Lower Austria. Starting from 1869 in ten-year distances censuses were held, with which until 1923 further the present civilian population was counted,and from 1934 to 1981 the resident population. The numbers from 1982 to 2001 expel the population of annual average, whereby these numbers only 2002 were determined retroactively. Since 2002 main domiciles on basis centers of the Melderegisters are consulted for the population determination.

Religion

in the year 2001 79.3% the inhabitant were Roman catholic, 3.3% Protestant Islamic with 60 churches in 27 Pfarren, 3.2% and 10.8% denominationless.

politics

the political landscape in the down-Austrian Land of the Federal Republic become since1945 - in most cases also by an absolute majority - of the ÖVP dominate, which place since then the national captain. At present is Erwin Pröll national captain (see also list of the Austrian national main people). Also on district level the ÖVP holdsa strong majority, so that the mayors predominantly belong the ÖVP. Second-strongest political Kraft is the SPÖ.

In the first republic Lower Austria was divided into four constituencies and had 60 deputy seats in the Viennese parliament. 1932 was increased the constituencies to eightand the deputy seats to 56 seats reduces. Thus one, in view of the strong-becoming NSDAP, wanted which strengthen large parties to ungunsten of the smaller parties.

In the today's second republic four parties are represented in the down-Austrian federal state parliament:

(conditions: 2003)

The federal state government sits down together from the national captain, its two deputies and six cabinet members, which are called national advice. The parties send the members of the federal state government to thatRelationship of the reached votes. Therefore are - although the ÖVP with absolute majority governs - also SPÖ members in the federal state government represent.

Into the Upper House of Parliament the Land of the Federal Republic sends 12 authorized agents; of it seven the ÖVP, four the SPÖ and one belong thatThe Green on.

In the national council the ÖVP with 17, the SPÖ with 13, is which represents FPÖ and the Greens with 2 authorized agents each (conditions 2005).

administration

Lower Austria is arranged into 21 political districts and 4 Statutarstädte.Since the last municipality reform in the year 1970 and some smaller changes are there 573 municipalities.

The seat of the down-Austrian federal state government is since 1986 the state capital sank polarized. Lower Austria had its seat in Vienna until 1996 in the country house in thatGentleman lane in the first district. Zuvorf took place a country-wide popular vote over the so-called capital question .

At the same time with the removal of the federal state government after pc. Also an administrative reform were introduced, also the decentralization of the authorities meant and one polarized the particularsAdministration offices more near in individual national quarters at individual district main crews settled.

In many interests the Land of the Federal Republic is divided also administratively into the four quarters, whereby it is to be noted that for example the district Tulln ranks by the situation of the district capital among the Mostviertel,while a part of the municipalities north for the Danube and thus geographically in the wine quarter are appropriate. With the district Krems is similar the situation.

Statutarstädte

of districts


see also:

Districts in Lower Austria
municipalities in Lower Austria

economics

traffic

the most important traffic veins lead toward Federal Capital Vienna, like the southern highway and the west motorway, the south course and the west course. Means of transport, which their terminator point in sank polarized have, are the weasel penalty.

The goods navigation on that Danube has a large traffic meaning with the largest Danube port Krems. The passenger liner travel is mostly limited to the Wachau for the tourism. Relatively few ships drive on the entire distance in Lower Austria. Mostly there is cruise ships, those from Passau coming to in Black sea drive.

After the case of the iron curtain the road and rail traffic increased particularly in the east and in the north of Lower Austria strongly. While in former times the Zielverkehr led usually in the Viennese area, now the transit traffic has itselfin east and strongly increases Central European countries. Therefore at present the west motorway is completely dreispurig removed and also the west course around a high-speed distance is supplemented. But the distance must partly due to the topografischen conditions (special by the Viennese forest)again to be located.

economics

the economically strongest regions in Lower Austria are along the hot spring line. The district with the strongest tax revenue is direct the district Mödling at the Südrand of Vienna. The further the areas of Viennaremoved, all the more weakly becomes their resource lies. This is also still due to the fact that after the Second World War Lower Austria lay in the Soviet zone of occupation, which a substantial location disadvantage meant for the economy. During in the other parts of Austria thoseEconomics with the reconstruction to already begin knew, remained in the Soviet zone of occupation many large-scale enterprises destroyed or was in the hands of the USIA - enterprises. The large reparations to the Soviet Union became and. A. in the form of oil, that in the Marchfeldpromoted, one carried out.

Only after the independence of Austria by the convention 1955 could be begun in Lower Austria with the reconstruction. In addition, the iron curtain worked itself rather restraining for the resource out, particularly to north and onthe east border. Thus also today still many humans from the forest quarter oscillate as daily or week final drivers for their occupation to Vienna.

The policy is constantly endeavors new enterprises in Lower Austria to settle - this mostly over the local society Eco pluses -, but still can be supplied not all job seekers humans in Lower Austria with jobs. The power supply with river and gas takes place up to the peripheral areas via the EVN. Of Lower Austria largest media are the ORF Lower Austria and thatperiodic printing element Niederösterreichi message (NÖN), the flagship of the down-Austrian press building.

in addition,

agriculture Lower Austria is above all an agricultural country. However approx. 42% of the entire national surface constitute field. 40% are proven as forest surface. Both Utilizable aminal husbandry in the hilly regions, and agriculture is a strong industry in this Land of the Federal Republic. However the number sank at persons employed in this industry in the last 50 years on approximately 10%. A further important industry is that Viticulture, which above all - how already the name says - in the wine quarter, in addition, in the Wachau and in the hot spring region is to be found. Also forestry is an important restaurant part.

tourism

was Lower Austriain former times in the tourism the tail light under the Austrian Lands of the Federal Republic, then changed the situation today by the tourists from east and Central European countries strongly. So for example the forest quarter has the strongest growth rates at Nächtigungen. The tourism economy applies forwardseverything the large cultural centers in the country, like the many monasteries and locks. In addition, for example vacation at the farm is strongly applied and accepted gladly, in order to make for the agriculture possible in the mountains an auxiliary income. In the winter the down-Austrian haveSki areas a great economic importance, because this attract above all guests from the east. Nevertheless the tourism not yet the great importance compared with the western and southern Lands of the Federal Republic within the national economy.

culture

beside numerousMonasteries (milk, Dürnstein, Göttweig, monastery new castle, Zwettl), locks with current exhibitions (Schallaburg, lock Grafenegg, lock Thürnthal, lock yard) and museums (federal state museum Lower Austria in sank Pöltner culture district, the art mile Kremswith the arts center and the caricature museum) the Roman excavations are in Carnuntum, the Festspielhaus pc. , The city stage as well as the well visited summer stages in Berne village, Stockerau, Langenlois, white churches polarized a bathing in the Wachau and with that To mention castle Liechtenstein. Large meetings are the two-annual national exhibitions and the Donaufestival.

history

major item: History of Lower Austria

Lower Austria is the heartland of Austria. It has therefore hardly its own historical tradition, those from Austrian history deviates.

The central scientific mechanism for the documentation of the history of Lower Austria is in the NO national archives.

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Commons: Lower Austria - pictures, videos and/or audio files
Wikinews: Lower Austria - current messages
Wiktionary: Lower Austria - word origin, synonyms andTranslations
 

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