The Netherlands

of the titles of this article is ambiguous. For further meanings see the Netherlands (term clarifying).
Koninkrijk of the Nederlanden
Kingdom of the Netherlands
Flagge der Niederlande: Trikolore, Streifen von oben nach unten: rot, weiß, blau Wappen der Niederlande
(detail) (detail)
Wahlspruch: “For each Maintiendrai”
franz.; too German: “I will persist”
to office languages Netherlands and Friesisch (province Friesland) and of Lower Saxony
capital Amsterdam
seat of the government the Hague
system of government parliamentary monarchy
queen Beatrix
Prime Minister Jan Peter Balkenende
surface 41,526 km ²
number of inhabitants 16.334.378 (1-11-2005)< /small>
Population density of 390 inhabitants per km ²

(482 Ew. per km ² land surface)

independence proclamation to 2. July 1581, 1648 recognition (Westfäli peace)
currency euro
time belt MEZ (UTC +1)
national anthem Het Wilhelmus
Kfz characteristic NL
Internet TLD .nl
preselection +31
Lage der Niederlande in Europa
Karte der Niederlande

</div> The Netherlands (Netherlands Nederland) are part of the kingdom of the Netherlands in Western Europe. They are one of the most closely settled states of the world. A quarter of the country lies approximately below the sea level and is protected with approximately 3,000 km dykes.

In the German and English linguistic area as also in the Netherlands themselvesin place of the official and correct designation the Netherlands colloquially frequently the name Holland for the entire national territory is used. This designation originates from the old county Holland and refers actually only to the today's provinces north and south Holland. - See in addition also the column “different” at the end of page.

Table of contents


spatial situation

Approximately half of the country lies less than a meter over, some areas even below the sea level. The highest point of the country, the Vaalserberg in the southeast, is 322.50 m over the Amsterdamer level, there lies also at the same time that Three-landhit a corner to Germany and Belgium. The flat areas are usually protected by dykes against storm tides.

Parts of the Netherlands, like for example nearly the entire province Flevoland, were gained from the sea by land reclamation. They become as Polderdesignated. Approximately a fifth (18.41%) of the national surface is covered with water, about which the IJsselmeer constitutes the largest part, a former North Sea bay, which was eingepoldert 1932 by 29 km a long closure embankment. The most important rivers in the Netherlands are that Rhine, the Waal and the Maas.

Klimadiagramm Amsterdam
Climatic diagram Amsterdam

the main wind direction in the Netherlands is southwest, from this a moderate maritime climate results with cool summers and mild winters. The Netherlands border in the west and the north on the North Sea,in the east at Germany and in the south at Belgium.

See also: Netherlands islands, Westfriesi islands, cities in the Netherlands [

work on] population

the Netherlands would list is with approximately 480 inhabitants per square kilometer land surface one toclosest populated countries in the world (to the comparison:Germany 236, North Rhine-Westphalia 530, Monaco 16,435, Namibia 2).

The office language is Netherlands in the entire state; besides down-German dialects are spoken. Friesi is office language in the province Friesland (Provinsje Fryslân) andthere also broadcast and administrative language. In the northeast dialects of Lower Saxony are spoken, in the southeast high-German dialects. Netherlands also the office language is in Flanders, Surinam, on Aruba and on Netherlands Antilleses. In South Africa a so-called independent is Africa to Development language, which developed from the Netherlands one. With something trouble Africa to speakers and Dutchmen can those different language in each case read and understand.

In the Netherlands immigrated humans from the whole world live: Indonesia, Karibik, South America, Africa, Turkey, Poland, etc.


the most important religions (conditions: 2002) the catholicism ( 31%) is, that protest anti-mash (21%) and the Islam (5.5%). Most Protestanten belong to a calvinistischen church, mostly the Nederlandse Hervormde Kerk. 40% thatDutchmen do not feel associated a religious community. In earlier times this was different and was Protestant a small majority of the people, while the remaining part of the population was catholic.

The catholic population lives particularly in the south and unites regions inThe east, the Protestant particularly in the north and in the west of the country. A church tax does not give it.

Other religious minorities educate the Jews, Hindus (particularly from Surinam) and the Buddhisten.

See also: Catholic church into thatThe Netherlands


major item: History of the Netherlands

History of the Benelux states
Frankish realm
approx.800 - 843
central realm (Lotharii Regnum)
843 - 855
855 - 977
different noble properties
977 - 1384
diocese Lüttich
985 - 1795
BurgundiThe Netherlands (house Burgund)
1384 - the 1477

Burgundi Netherlands (house having castle)
1477 - 1556

Spanish the Netherlands
1556 - 1581

Republic of that filters combined the Netherlands
1579/1581 - 1795
southern Spanish the Netherlands
1581 - the 1713

Austrian Netherlands
1713 - 1795

Batavi republic
1795 - 1806

France (first Republic of)
1795 - 1805
Kingdom of Holland
1806 - 1810

France (first Empire of)
1805 - 1815

united kingdom of the Netherlands
1815 - 1830

kingdom of the Netherlands

Kingdom of Belgium

Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

after thatTo allocation of the Franconia realm belonged to low country to the eastFrankish Kingdom of (Regnum Teutonicae) and afterwards to the holy Roman realm of German nation. Under emperors Karl V., which was at the same time Spanish king, the country was in seventeen provinces divided and coveredalso the majority of today's Belgium. After the declaration of independence of the sieved northern provinces (alliance of Utrecht) of 23. January 1579 and the following eighty-year old war against the Spanish having citizens became the formal independence from Spain in peacetime from Münsteras part of the Westfäli peace to 15. May 1648 sealed, that, at the same time with Switzerland, for the separation from the medieval German one Reich led. This date is considered as birthday of the today's Netherlands.

In the consequence the Netherlands grew and/or. in such a way specifiedlow German country („land de nederen duitsche”) as republic of the united Netherlands, to one the largest sea and economic powers 17. Century. During this time colonies and commercial posts in the whole world were established. Admits is the establishmentof again Amsterdam (Nieuw Amsterdam), which was renamed later in New York. In Asia the Dutchmen created its colonial empire Netherlands India (“Nederlands Indië”), the today's Indonesia, which December 1949 became independent. Also in the northeast South America (Surinam) and the Karibikdeveloped Netherlands colonies (Aruba, Curaçao), (Bonaire), (Saba), (pc. Eustatius) and (pc. Maarten); these islands (Aruba and the Netherlands ones Antilleses (the five remaining islands) are today autonomous part thatNetherlands monarchy (kingdom). Therefore the kingdom of the Netherlands (“Koninkrijk of the Nederlanden”) consists officially of three parts: the Netherlands, Aruba and the Netherlands Antilleses.

1796 were created with French support the Batavi republic (designated after the Germanic trunk of the Bataver, which had first settled the area between Rhine and Maas;1806 made the Kingdom of Holland for Napoleon from it.

After the incorporation by France under Napoleon I. 1815 the kingdom of the Netherlands were created, which covered also today's Belgium.First king became William I. from the house Oranien Nassau. Belgium and thus down-Frankish Flanders attained after the Belgian revolution of 1830 its independence, however only the 1839 of William I. one recognized.

The Netherlands king was at the same time Grand Dukeof Luxembourg, where the Sali law did not permit a female head of state. As a William III. with his death 1890 only one daughter (queen Wilhelmina) left, changed the Luxemburger throne on another succession line into the house Nassau and William cousin There Adolf of Nassau took over the government.

The Netherlands remained officially neutral in the First World War and could keep itself also successful from the war. They kept their troops however nevertheless mobilized up to the end of war and had besides with a largeTo do refugee wave from Belgium occupied by the German Reich.

Also in the Second World War the Netherlands government tried first to keep out from the war; different phrased warnings one did not believe. Hitler however instructed the Okkupation of the Netherlands, all the France underTo be able to take evasion of the “magic emergency line” from the north. After three-day-long fight forced the realm-German troops in the evening 14. May 1940 the Netherlands with the bombardment from Rotterdam to the task. The city center became by bombs and the followingFires as far as possible destroys. It was the first surface bombardment in the Second World War. The country was kept occupied by May 1940 until May 1945 of the armed forces. Many Dutchmen arranged themselves with the crew regime and many Dutchmen internal-light also the ideology onelarge German and/or. largeGermanic realm, to which also the down-German-language Dutchmen should belong. Jew pursuit slammed shut in the Netherlands particularly violently: from no other European country so many humans of Jewish faith were removed into the extermination camps. Still is thoseRolls Netherlands administration offices and for instance to the Netherlands railway with the evacuation of this person's group not completely clarified. Symbol for Jew pursuit is the case of the Anne franc. By the majority the population had to suffer however in the crew time. The southern part thatThe Netherlands one released in the second half of the yearly 1944 from the advancing allied ones; the north of the country only by the end of war.

From 1949 to 1963 the West German city Elten ( with Kleve ) with environment was posed under Netherlands administration.Their inhabitant Netherlands passports received and became legally on an equal footing to Netherlands citizens. Attempts to attach parts of a territory of the cathedral Muenster and the Niederrheinlandes close to the border to the Netherlands whose citizen spoke dialects of Lower Saxony and down-Frankish - just like in the Netherlands -, knew itself inthe Netherlands in the long run do not intersperse.

In February 1953 a storm tide devastated the southwest of the Netherlands and demanded 1800 dead ones.

The Netherlands are initial member of the Benelux - economic union (planned since 1944, at the 3. February 1958 fixed and at the 1. November 1960 inKraft stepped). They were likewise joint founders of NATO and the European Economic Community (and thus the European union).

In the 80's-years the liberals regulations were introduced into things minorities and consumption of soft drugs. Heavy arguments with foreigners went to these law changesahead, which forced the Netherlands government to acting. The Netherlands regulations were before everything else as exemplary.

In the 90's-years above all the massacre had large political effects of Srebrenica and forced the government 1994 to the resignation.

In thatthe multi-cultural political tolerance model of the Netherlands stood for recent past on the test stand. Above all the murder at the Populisten Pim Fortuin pointed the problems out of this politics, which gave a deep scratch to the Netherlands image. Besides the liberal politics favoured thoseImmigration of radical Islamics and Hassprediger so mentioned: To 2. November 2004 came it to the murder at the director Theo van Gogh. As consequence of it it came to notices on mosques and to hate stating against Muslim citizens. Large population partssince that time demand a radical policy against violent immigrants and a change as too liberally felt Einwanderungsgesetze. Since that time numerous politicians stand under police protection, since they are threatened further by Islamics.


queen Beatrix
the Netherlands Prime Minister JanPeter Balkenende

since the end of French occupation in the year 1815 are the Netherlands a constitutional monarchy with the king house Oranien Nassau at the point. It prevails general right to vote starting from 18 years.

head of state

head of state since 1980 is queen Beatrix. Its son Willem Alexander is successor to the throne. Together with his Mrs. Màxima it has two daughters, Catharina Amalia and Alexia. In accordance with the condition Beatrix is member of the government and appoints the Ministers. In practice it leaves to one after elections informateur(usually a high civil servant) the parliament parliamentary groups ask. After its reporting the queen orders one formateur, which arranges the cabinet. It can already concern the future Prime Minister.


the parliament (Staten Generaal, general conditions)consists of two chambers. The choice of the 150 members of the second chamber (Tweede Kamer) takes place under normal conditions every four years. This chamber is the parliament in the actual sense, as representative government and control of the government.

The first chamber(Eerste Kamer), also senate mentioned, consists of 75 representatives of the province parliaments, which are likewise selected every four years. The work of the first chamber exists particularly in the investigation of laws, which the second chamber compileshas; perhaps the first chamber can block a law by a veto.

The today's Prime Minister Jan Peter Balkenende from the Christian democrats is since 2002 in the office.


see also: List of the Netherlands Prime Ministers

social policy

in the last decades the Netherlands became among other things for its liberal legal regimentation soft drugs (see Coffee Shop), the prostitution (it is a legally recognized trade and prostitute is under social security therefore), of abortion and Sterbehilfe well-known. The Netherlands was also the first state, which made the marriage possible for homosexual ones.

WithException of the Randstad in such a way specified (Amsterdam, Rotterdam and the Hague) openness and tolerance in the population of the own liberals legislation limp partly afterwards.

To 2. November 2004 was murdered the Islam-critical film director Theo van Gogh in Amsterdam.Into consequence it came to arson attacks on mosques and to moslemischen encroachments on churches. The incidents released violent discussions over the integration of foreigners and over living together different cultures and religions.

Starting from 15. March 2006 people, those must to the Netherlands to immigrate want, a test to complete. The test contains questions over Sprachkenntnisse, culture and some further topics. The test is available at 140 Netherlands consulates in 14 languages and costs 350 euro plus 64 euro for the learning material.Besides the minimum immigration age on 21 was raised.


the compulsory military service was suspended 1996 on indefinite time. The Netherlands have thereby a regular army. The armed forces cover altogether 53,130 persons, of it been allotted to the army 23.150,on the Air Force 11,050 and on the navy 12,130 soldiers. Besides still the Koninklijke Marechaussee exists as independent part of the armed forces since 1998. The military expenditure amounts to 1.6% GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (to the comparison, Germany: 1.5%, the USA: 3,4 %).

The NetherlandsArmy („Koninklijke land power “) is by the 1. German-Dutch corps closely with the German German Federal Armed Forces tooths.


1579 begun with seven provinces, came later so-called generals country (NL: generaliteitslanden) as provinces north Brabant and Limburg in addition. Drenthe becamelikewise an own province, and the dominating province Holland 1840 split up into north Holland and south Holland. The youngest province is Flevoland, which only 1986 was created as province. Since that 1. The Netherlands were divided January 1986 into 12 provinces (NL: provincies).

The provinces again were divided into 483 municipalities (in accordance with ducks).


Satellitenaufnahme of the Europoort in Rotterdam; Part the largest port of Europe
important branch of agriculture: The tulip breed
closure embankment of the IJsselmeers

major item: Economics of the Netherlands


the Netherlands have a well working, open economic system. For years the government their economic interferences took the 1980er back to a large extent. With the producing trade food dominates - and chemical industry, oil refineries and the production of electrical appliances. Are enoughbefore its European neighbours the country provided for a balanced national budget and fought successfully the stagnation in the job market.

The modern and highly technologisierte agriculture is extraordinarily productive: beside grain -, vegetables -, fruits - and cultivation of cut flower - those Tulip breeding affected even the history of the country - there is still dairy cattle husbandry in large yardstick. The latter supplies the basis for cheese as important export product. The Netherlands agriculture busily scarcely under 4% the employee, contributes however substantially to the export.The Netherlands are to the USA and France the world-wide third biggest exporters of agricultural products.

As joint founders of the euro - zone became in the Netherlands for banking transactions at the 1. January 1999 the previous currency, which guldens, by which euro supplements. ThreeYears later, at the 1. January 2002, the euro coins replace and - to notes for the consumers the guldens as currencies.

natural resources

the Netherlands order close Groningen over natural gas camps, from those as well as in the southern North Sea in largeYardstick is promoted.1996 became 75.8 billion m ³ (after BP) promoted. Thus the Netherlands stand in the land comparison during the natural gas extraction on place five, to Russia (561.1 billion m ³), the USA (546.9 billion m ³), Canada (153.0 billion m ³) and Great Britain (84,6Billion m ³). Further there are smaller Erdölreserven and larger salt deposit places at the emsländischen border with Delfzijl and Hengelo. Apart from peat (and. A. in the Bourtanger) the Netherlands have moorland no further considerable Bodenschätze.


1992 and 2000 the portion of the public expenditures for the health service


queen Beatrix at the Koninginnedag

of holidays

date name German name notes
1. January Nieuwjaar New Year
March/April Pasen Easter Karfreitag (Goede vrijdag; for some a day off), Ostersonntag and Ostermontag
30. April Koninginnedag day of the queen the birthday of the former queen July IANA (Beatrix' nut/mother). National holiday
4. May Dodenherdenking dead anniversary anniversaryto the dead ones of the wars (no day off)
5. May Bevrijdingsdag release day celebration for the surrender of the German troops in the Second World War. (for some a day off)
40 days after Easter Hemelvaartsdag Christi Ascension Day
7 weeks after Easter Pinksteren Whitsuntide Pfingstsonntagand whit-monday
5. Decembers Sinterklaasavond or Pakjesavond Nikolausabend (no day off), instead of Christmas the day, at that children to be presented
25. and 26. December Kerstmis Christmas 1. and 2. Weihnachtsfeiertag
31. December Oudejaar (sdag) Silvester (no day off)
Van Gogh “sunflowers”


many world-famous painters were Dutchmen. One of the most well-known early artists was Hieronymus Bosch. The bloom time of the republic in 17. Century, the so-called golden age brought large artists such as rem Brandt van Rijn, Johannes sea, Fray to neck, Carel Fabritius, Gerard Dou, Paulus Potter, Jacob Izaaksoon van Ruisdael or Jan standing out. Famous painters of later epochs were Vincent van Gogh and Piet Mondriaan. M. C. A well-known commercial artist is E.


Netherlands architects gave important impulses for the architecture 20. Century. To emphasize above all Hendrik Petrus Berlage and the architects De Stijl are - group (Robert van't hope, J.J.P. Oud, Gerrit Rietveld). Johannes Duiker was a representative of new building. The so-called Amsterdamer school (Michel de Klerk) made a remarkable contribution to expressionistischen architecture.

Also after the Second World War innovative Netherlands architects stepped out. Aldo van Eyck and Herman Hertzberger coined/shaped the architecture current Strukturalismus. Piet Blom became by its self-willed tree houses admits.


from the Netherlands came Erasmus from Rotterdam, Baruch Spinoza and Christiaan Huygens. René Descartes spent the majority of its work timein the Netherlands. At all numerous pursued scientists in the Netherlands asylum and capabilities found since the early modern times. The modern sociology owes S. to its Netherlands founder. Rudolf stone-cutter important suggestions.


in „the golden age “(De Gouden Eeuw) of the Netherlands flowered beside the painting also the literature, as most well-known representatives would be Joost van to the Vondel and P. C. To call Hooft. During the German crew (1940-1945) Anne franc in Amsterdam wrote its world-well-known diary. Important authors 20. Century are Harry Mulisch, January Wolkers and Simon Vestdijk.


the Netherlands music life was not organized in the range of the classical music long time on the level of other European states. OnlyEnd 19. Century took place a Professionalisierung and it formed numerous orchestras and chamber ensembles. Important composers in 20. Century are Julius Roentgen, Willem Pijper, Mathijs Vermeulen, Louis Andriessen, Otto Ketting, clay/tone deLeeuw, Theo Loevendie, Misha Mengelberg, Tristan Keuris and Klaas de Vries (list of Netherlands and flämischer composers). The probably most well-known Netherlands skirt volume golden Earring had its largest hit with “radar Love” into the 1970er years. Likewiseworld well-known the Classic was skirt volume Ekseption around Rick van the lime trees into the 1970er years.

The Netherlands have a very alive music scene on high level. It gives numerous meeting restaurants and in the media becomes to the artists much areagiven. Internationally well-known Netherlands musicians e.g. are.Anouk dte Uwe or the groups of Within Temptation and The Gathering (volume).

For some years “nederlandstalige is very successful muziek”, music in the national language. The most famous Pop/Rockbands is Blof, the usually-played volumein the Netherlands radio of the past years, and Acda EN de Munnik, a duo, which admits with small art programs became. Still higher disk sales figures obtain hit artists, like Marco Borsato and fray farmer. Well-known Netherlands RWSby are Ali B and long one Fray & to Baas B.

nature marriage worthynesses

Netherlands kitchen

to the nationalusual kitchen see to major item Netherlands kitchen.


the correct use of the name the Netherlands is not common many speakers, which toothe usual use of the name Holland contributes. A Pluralform represents the Netherlands; comparably with the USA (the USA). There is not the country name in the singular.

see also

Leuchtturm von Marken
lighthouse of marks

Web on the left of

Wiktionary: The Netherlands -Word origin, synonyms and translations
Commons: The Netherlands - pictures, videos and/or audio files
Wikiquote: Netherlands proverbs - quotations

coordinates: 51°-53° N, 3°-7° O


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