Lower Saxony

Lower Saxony
national flag Landeswappen
Landesflagge Landeswappen
(detail)
base data
state capital: Hanover
surface: 47.619, 63 km ² (2.)
Inhabitants: 8.005.930 (4.) (1. January 2006)
Population density: 168 Einwohner/km ² (12.)
Unemployment ratio: 11,7% (February 2006)

11,6% (annual average 2005)

system of government: more liberally, republican, more democratically, more socially and the protection of the natural bases of life obligated constitutional state
debts: approx. 6.260 € per inhabitant (April 2006)
debts entirely: 50,1 billion € (April 2006)
ISO 3166-2: DE-NI
official Website: www.niedersachsen.de
Politics
Prime Minister: Christian Wulff (CDU)
governing parties: CDU - FDP - Coalition
allocation of seats in the federal state parliament
(183 seats):
CDU 91
SPD 63
FDP 15
alliance 90/Die the Green 14
last choice: 2. February 2003
next choice: 2008
parliamentary agency
Voices in the Upper House of Parliament: Is appropriate
for 6
Land Niedersachsen in Deutschland

map Lower Saxony in Northern Germany in the down-German linguistic area. It is surface moderate after Bavaria the second largest country of the Federal Republic of Germany. State capital is Hanover.

Table of contents

Geografie

spatial layer

Lower Saxony has a natural delimitation in the north by the North Sea and the underflow of the Elbe. Excluded of it the office new house is, thatnorth is appropriate for the Elbe, and the südelbischen parts of Hamburg. As enclave on the Landesgebiet the country Bremen with the cities Bremen and Bremerhaven lies. In the southeast the national border runs across the resin, a German low mountain range. ThatLowlandses, the south belong to northeast and the west of the country - altogether approximately 3/4 of the national surface - to the mountain country of Lower Saxony with the Weser mountain country, the line mountain country, the foam citizen country , the Braunschweiger country , the Untereichsfeld to the north German, Elm and honing-lapping forest. In the northeast of Lower Saxony the Lüneburger heath extends. During there poorer sandy soils (heath and Geest) dominate, are in the east and southeast in the Hildesheimer Börde therefore the best soils of Germany. Underthe country is agriculturally well opened for these conditions (loam - and sandhaltigen soils). In the west of the country are appropriate the Ems country, for old citizens the country, old citizens the cathedral Muenster and - at the coast - East Frisia.

OfThe south/southeast northward/northwest of flowing rivers of all, Weser, Ems and Elbe coins/shapes Lower Saxony.

The highest mountain is the worm mountain (971 m) in the resin. For further mountains see: List of the mountains and collections in Lower Saxony. The very most mountainsand hills are to be found in the southeast of the country.

climate

the climate Niedersachens is coined/shaped by temperatures moderated all year round and sufficient humidity. The climate is thus called maritime.

neighboring countries

adjacent countries are Schleswig-Holstein, Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Brandenburg, Saxonia-Anhalt, Thuringia, Hessen, North Rhine-Westphalia and Bremen. No other German country has more neighbouring countries.

Lower Saxony has an external border to the Netherlands and portion of the German North Sea Coast.

history

after the Second World War receives the country Hanover with the regulation No. 46 of the British (united kingdom of Grossbritanien and Northern Ireland) military government of 23. August 1946 „concerning the dissolution of the provinces of the former country Prussia in thatBritish zone and its new formation as independent countries “ its legal bases.

To 23. November 1946 approves the British military government the combination of the country Braunschweig (with exception of the eastern part of the district bright castle as well as the Exklave Calvörde of the district Helmstedt,to the Soviet zone of occupation fall and into the country Saxonia-Anhalt to be integrated), the country Oldenburg and the country the foam castle lip with the country Hanover (with exception of the office new house, that to the Soviet zone of occupation falls and only 1993 Lower Saxonyagain) to the new country Lower Saxony is attached.

The name “Lower Saxony” as region designation is however very much older; Name and coats of arms of the new Land of the Federal Republic fall back to the race that Saxonia, its residential area for instance the today's Lower Saxony and unite adjacent areascorresponded. (Ur) the language of the native population is the of Lower Saxony; a language Niederdeut. The additive “down” originates already from the Middle Ages (realm circle of Lower Saxony) and differentiated the old Saxonia country from the late Central German mentioned for dynastischen reasons “(upper) Saxonia Principalities (see Free State Saxonia, Saxonia-Anhalt).

Historically exists close, by the personnel union 18. Century justified connection of the aristocracy house in Hanover to the united Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The “song that Lower Saxony” (Lower Saxony song) becomes as Landeshymne outstandingly.

At the 1. June 1993 came into force the new condition of the country, which replaced the “provisional condition of Lower Saxony” from 1951. It makes for the first time referenda and popular votes possible and embodies environmental protection as state maxim.

After a citizen decision 1993 that becameformerly hannoversche office new house with the municipalities at that time Dellien, hair, Kaarssen, new house (Elbe), pile, Sückau, Sumte and Tripkau as well as the local parts again Bleckede, again Wendischthun and Stiepelse of the municipality Teldau and the historical hannoversche area in Forstrevier the Bohldamm in the municipalityGarlitz separated by the country Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania to the country Lower Saxony and as new municipality office new house the district Lueneburg attached.

To the 1. January 2005 the four governmental districts, of which Lower Saxony consisted to date, were dissolved. This were the governmental districts Braunschweig, Hannover, Lüneburg und Weser-Ems Der Regierungsbezirk Lüneburg war aus der Zusammenlegung der ehemaligen Regierungsbezirke Lüneburg und Stade entstanden, der Regierungsbezirk Weser-Ems aus der Zusammenlegung der ehemaligen Regierungsbezirke Aurich und Osnabrück sowie des Verwaltungsbezirks Oldenburg (Oldb).

politics

Sitzverteilung im Landtag

with the elections of the federal parliament to 2. February 2003 suffered the SPD a heavy defeat and lost its government majority. Choice winner was the CDU, those with her leading candidate Christian Wulff the Prime Minister in a coalition with that FDP placed.

The Prime Ministers of Lower Saxony since 1946:

of election results and federal state governments since 1947.

If the federal state parliament of Lower Saxony is dissolved not prematurely, the next election of the federal parliament can do in accordance with the national condition at the earliest to 4. November 2007 take place. The latest permissible choice date is that 3. February 2008.

In the Upper House of Parliament Lower Saxony has six voices, the most possible number, just like Bavaria, Baden-Wuerttemberg and North Rhine-Westphalia.

62 delegates represent the niedersächischen citizens and citizens in the German Bundestag: 27 of the SPD, 21 ofthe CDU, six of the FDP, five of the Greens as well as three of the left wing party.

Ten delegates from Lower Saxony belong to the European parliament: Five of the CDU, two of the SPD and in each case one of FDP, the Green and left wing party.

administration

administrative reform

to the 1. January 2005 the governmental districts existing so far were dissolved. Medium-term (probably 2008) in Lower Saxony probably a circle regional reorganization will be accomplished, in their process the partially very insolvent districts folded upbecome. The Kreisgrenzen will presumably orient themselves thereby at the borders of the landscape federations of Lower Saxony. The education of the region Hanover from the district Hanover and the circle-free city was considered as “test run” to the assumption of authority of the circle by municipalities. Oneintends comparable authority distributions with the lining up circle regional reorganization. Zurzeit exist in many municipalities merger plans with neighbour municipalities.See also for this in the article over the district Lüchow Dannenberg

administrative arrangement

the country is divided into 38 districts and 8 circle-free cities.

districts

Lower Saxony consist at present of the following districts (in parentheses the license numbers):

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  1. Bunting country (WST)
  2. Aurich (AUR)
  3. county Bentheim (NOH)
  4. Celle (CE)
  5. Cloppenburg (CLP)
  6. Cuxhaven (CUX)
  7. Diepholz (DH)
  8. Ems country (EL)
  9. Friesland (FRI)
  10. GIF horn (AP)
  11. Goslar (gs)
  12. Goettingen (GÖ)
  13. Hameln Pyrmont (TC)
  14. Region Hanover (H)
  15. Harburg (wl)
  16. Helmstedt (HE)
  17. Hildesheim (REAR)
  18. Holzminden (GET)
  19. empty (LER)
  20. Lüchow Dannenberg (DAN)
  21. Lueneburg (LG)
  22. Nienburg (Weser) (NEVER)
  23. Northeim (NOM)
  24. Oldenburg (OIL)
  25. Osnabrück (OS)
  26. Osterholz (OHZ)
  27. Osterode at the resin (OHA)
  28. Peine (PE)
  29. red castle (ROW)
  30. foam castle (SHG)
  31. Soltau Fallingbostel (SFA)
  32. Stade (STD)
  33. Uelzen (UE)
  34. Vechta (VEC)
  35. Verden ()
  36. Weser march (BRA)
  37. joke mouth (WTM)
  38. Wolfenbüttel (WF)

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circle-free cities

  1. Braunschweig (BS)
  2. Delmenhorst (DEL)
  3. Emden (EMD)
  4. Oldenburg (Oldb) (OIL)
  5. Osnabrück (OS)
  6. salt lattice (sp)
  7. Wilhelmshaven (WHV)
  8. wolf castle (WOB)
work on []

Largest cities

City district inhabitant
31. Dec. 2000
inhabitants
30. June 2005
Hanover region Hanover 515,001 515,772
Braunschweig circle-free 245,816 245,895
Osnabrück circle-free 164,101 164,066
Oldenburg (Oldenburg) circle-free 154,832 158,341
Goettingen Goettingen 124,132 121,865
wolf castle of circle-free 121,805 121,829
salt lattices circle-free 112,302 108,340
Hildesheim Hildesheim 103,909 102,767
Wilhelmshaven circle-free 85,287 83,765
Delmenhorst circle-free 76,644 76,046
Lueneburg Lueneburg 67,398 71.532
City district inhabitant
31. Dec. 2000
inhabitants
30. June 2005
Celle Celle 72,127 71,402
Garbsen region Hanover 63,269 62,960
Hameln Hameln Pyrmont 58.807 58,789
Wolfenbüttel Wolfenbüttel 54,690 54,537
north horn county Bentheim 51,968 53,026
Cuxhaven Cuxhaven 53,391 52,384
Emden circle-free 50,963 51,719
Lingen (Ems) Ems country 51,684 51,318
Langenhagen region Hanover 49,432 50,613
Peine Peine of 49,494 49,885

further articles

European politics of Lower Saxony

economics and traffic

industry

industrielle the center of Lower Saxony Hanover is - Braunschweig/wolf castle with several automobile works, under it the Hauptwerk of Volkswagen in wolf castle , and that in Peine and in the area Salt lattice resident steel industry. In addition Braunschweig is an important science location.

fair

an important restaurant factor are the fairs taking place in Hanover (e.g. CeBIT and Hanover Fair).

structure promotion

the Ems country, the Elbe Weser triangle, those Lüneburger heath and parts of the coastal region belong against it for a long time to the structure-weak areas. There is in the meantime a number of projects, in order to improve the economic situation in these areas. In addition belong:

  • The Ems land motorway along-financed from means of the local economy A 31, which leads from East Frisia by the Ems country after Bottrop into the western Ruhr district.
  • The coastal motorway A 22, which is to lead the Elbe tunnel planned by Schleswig-Holstein by with Stade and the Weser tunnel with Dedesdorf to A 29 with Oldenburg
  • Several Ethen pipelines, those will come the chemistry locations into North Rhine-Westphalia with those into Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein to connect to be supposed and into Lower Saxony in particular the production locations Stade and Wilhelmshaven to property
  • the container port JadeWeserPort into Wilhelmshaven, that as only German sea port alsoby the largest container ships of future generations could be started.

agriculture

the agriculture finds very different conditions in Lower Saxony. The soils in the Hildesheimer Börde and between resin and central land channel draw by very high Bodenzahlenout and are particularly suitable for the cultivation of sugar beets and grain. In the Lüneburger heath the soil is meager, Hauptprodukte is potatoes and as speciality asparagus. In the march areas at the coast however the cattle breeding dominates.

Beside grain Raps, sugar beets, salad (special iceberg salad) are cultivated , to Kohl , Möhren (carrots , carrots) and owing to the sandhaltigen soil asparagus in parts of the country. Admits is also the green Kohl culture of Lower Saxony (in southeast regions alsoas a brown Kohl admits). Apart from the vegetable growing and the cattle breeding the cultivation of fruit ( special in the north, old country) is an important industry.

economics at the coast

at the coast plays the port economy an important role, while thoseMeaning of shipbuilding decreased.

German Federal Armed Forces as restaurant economics

the German Federal Armed Forces will be also in the future an important employer in Lower Saxony. Also over 55.000 soldiers and civilian persons employed Lower Saxony becomes after the planned German Federal Armed Forces reduction the Land of the Federal Republic with the largestNumber of officials of German Federal Armed Forces its.

atomic power plants present, with Lingen, are energy industry at three locations in Lower Saxony with Grohnde and with Nordenham in enterprise.

tourism

points of attraction for the tourism are the North Sea Coast, that resin, Hanover, Braunschweig, Lueneburg, Celle, Wolfsburg with the autocity, the calibration field, the Weser mountain country and the line mountain country, East Frisia, the Lüneburger heath, the Wümmeniederung, the Steinhuder sea, that More stupidly, old persons the country, the Elbe valley and the rivers of all, line, Hunte, Wümme and Weser. The customs cover among other things the green Kohl meal and contactor celebrations.

traffic

according to the population distribution an emphasis of the transportation network is in the southeast Lower Saxony with the centers Hanover, Braunschweig, Hildesheim and Salzgitter. In this area traffic streams (railways as well as motorways 2 and 7 cross/27) from the Ruhr district to Berlin and of South Germany to the coast. A further traffic axle in the form of railway and motorway runs from the Ruhr district over Osnabrück, Bremen to Hamburg (runway and A1). The most important airport is in Langenhagen with Hanover. Largest seas port are Wilhelmshaven, Emden, Cuxhaven and Brake. Most important binnenwasserstrassen are the central land channel, the Weser, the Elbe and the Ems.

science

meaning scientific locations are Goettingen, Braunschweig and Hanover. Smaller one scientific mechanisms are the University of Osnabrück, Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg in Oldenburg, the technical University of Clausthal, the University of Lueneburg, the University of Hildesheim and the duke August library in Wolfenbüttel.

The professional school Oldenburg/East Frisia/Wilhelmshaven is the largest professional school of the country.See also: List of scientific mechanisms in Lower Saxony, scientific commission Lower Saxony, Website of the Ministry of Lower Saxony for science and culture

population

ethnical groups

the historically traditional population setsitself from Lower Saxony and Friesen together. In addition a multiplicity comes out completely Germany of zugewanderter persons. After the Second World War Lower Saxony was one of the main settlement areas for refugees of homeland from (sorted according to number of persons descending) Schlesien, East Prussia, Pommern and the Sudetenland.After the latter according to classified counting 30% were the inhabitant of Lower Saxony refugee, refugees or children from appropriate families. From the many industrial companies in the area Hanover Braunschweig salt lattice wolf castle resulted during the Wirtschaftswunders a high need at workers, why one many immigrant workers from Italy, Spain and Turkey enlisted, which remained frequent in Lower Saxony. Since the end of the cold war many evacuees and late repatriate came from the former Soviet Union and from Poland into the country.

religions

protest anti-mash

thatlargest part of Lower Saxony is originally coined/shaped by the Evangelical-Lutheran church. Regional churches exist as Evangelical-Lutheran regional church of Hanover, Evangelical-Lutheran regional church foam castle lip, Evangelical-Lutheran regional church in Braunschweig and Evangelical-Lutheran church in Oldenburg. The Evangelist-reformed church in Northwest Germany has a great importancein East Frisia, it has its own nationalchurch organization, details sees under the left. In the same region including the county Bentheim gives it still the Evangelist-age-formed churches.

catholicism

the Ems country, old citizens the cathedral Muenster, the Untereichsfeldand the villages of the “old pin” with Hildesheim are traditionally catholic coined/shaped. The Roman-catholic municipalities belong to the dioceses Hildesheim, Osnabrück, Münster and Paderborn (bath Pyrmont). By the settlement of refugees after the Second World War andby the influx of late repatriates however meanwhile large municipalities exist to that in each case different large Christian denomination in in former times almost clean denominational coined/shaped regions.

further groups

after the war it came as into completely Germany to a multiplicity ofChurch withdrawals and for the formation of Islamic municipalities particularly for türkischstämmige inhabitants. By the influx of many humans of Jewish faith from the former Soviet Union the Jewish municipalities register an intensified growth since 1990.

language

in Lower Saxony high German becomes, Friesisch (Saterfriesisch) and different forms of the flat German spoken. These down-German language forms become nowadays in the old citizen country, in East Frisia, in the Ems country, in the Wümmeniederung, which uses Lüneburger heath and to the Waterkant (North Sea Coast). DialectsOstfäli still in small measure in the Weser mountain country, in the Braunschweiger country and in the calibration field are spoken. The discussion of the high German in the environment of Hanover is generally considered as exemplary, because the writing language next (the ostfälische flat German is therealready for a long time disappeared). However the language possesses also there an localown colouring, which is spoken at the Ursprünglichsten in the western quarters lime trees and Ricklingen - predominant under older old-established ones -, coined/shaped by worker traditions, (example: Leine= Laane, Garten=Gachten). Office languages are high German and since the signing of the European language Charter also flat German and Saterfriesisch.

Particularly alive the flat German still is in East Frisia. Flat-German has itself here independently of other down Germans (more exact: ) dialects of Lower Saxony develops and showslarge connection with the Netherlands one and Friesi, that in East Frisia however since that 18. Century by Niederdeut was displaced. The number of speakers Niederdeut is in East Frisia with more than half of the population particularly highly, altogetherspeak and understand about 40% of the population of Lower Saxony the traditional dialect of her region, whereby a strong city land downward gradient is to be determined.

kitchen of Lower Saxony

see major items: Kitchen of Lower Saxony

culture

of landscape federations

after dissolution of the governmental districtsbetween the country Lower Saxony and the landscape federations contracts were closed, after which these are responsible in the future for cultural interests in the respective regions.

history of art

building-historically important in Lower Saxony was the epoch of the Renaissance, itself inmany buildings in the style of the Weser Renaissance reflects. A further object of interest are the gardens in gentleman Mr. (Hanover) - the only received and never changed baroque gardens of the world.


regions

see also: Condition of Lower Saxony, list of the places in Lower Saxony, Landscape federations in Lower Saxony

personalities

carrier the national medal of Lower Saxony

this list is not complete.

  • Johannes Lilje (1899-1977), theologian, art historian and national bishop
  • Josef Homeyer (* 1929), catholic bishop of the diocese Hildesheim (in the retirement)

Literature

  • Fritz Mielert: You beautiful Lower Saxony.(3 volumes; Part 1: Hanover, Oldenburg, Bremen, Braunschweig, Schaumburg-Lippe, Hessen (nördl. Kassel); Part 2: Luebeck, Mecklenburg, Lauenburg, Vorpommern with Rügen, Usedom and Wollin; Part 3: Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein.). Johann George Holzwarth/Carl Schünemann. Bath Rothenfelde/Bremen.1921 - 1923
  • Erich Schrader: Lower Saxony. 2. , edition improved. August Lax publishing house, Hildesheim 1952
  • small literature history of Lower Saxony in three volumes of poet princes and other poets. Given change of Dirck Linck (III), Jürgen Peter (I-III) and William Heinrich Pott (I+II). WithRegister and bibliography. Bound. 8°.
    • Volume I. Thirty-two Portraits of Roswitha from Gandersheim to Johann Peter Eckermann. 256 sides. 38 fig. ISBN 3927715298 (1993)
    • volume II. Thirty-filter Portraits from Stendhal to Arno Schmidt. 288 sides. 40 fig. ISBN 392771531X (1994)
    • Volume III. Forty-five Portraits of Arno Schmidt to Hans's polarizing ski ski. With photographies of Isolde Ohlbaum, Brigitte Friedrich among other things 336 sides. 60 fig.ISBN 3927715301 (1996)” stories, set from poet lives, scientifically founded and erzählerisch prepares to a history of living persons. “(NDR,Wolfgang house man)
  • walter Kremser: Forest history of Lower Saxony. An integrated culture history of the northwestGerman Forstwesens. Red citizen writings, special volume 32. Homeland federation Rotenburg/Wümme, red castle (Wümme) 1990

Web on the left of

Commons: Lower Saxony - pictures, videos and/or audio files
Wikinews: Lower Saxony - current messages
Wiktionary: Lower Saxony - word origin, synonyms and translations

see also portal Lower Saxony.

 

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