Nigeria

Federal Republic of OF Nigeria
Federal Republic of Nigeria
Flagge Nigerias
Wappen Nigerias
(detail) (detail)

Wahlspruch: “Peace and Unity, Strength and progress”
English. for „peace and agreement, strength and progress “

office language English
capital Abuja
system of government Federal Republic of
president and head of the government Olusegun Obasanjo
Surface 923,768 km ²
number of inhabitants 128.771.988 (conditions July 2005)
population density of 139 inhabitants per km ²
currency Naira
gros domestic product/inhabitant 839 US-$ (2006)
time belt UTC +1
national anthem Arise Oh Compatriots, Nigeria's call Obey
Kfz characteristic WAN
Internet TLD .ng
preselection +234
Nigerias Lage in Afrika
Karte Nigerias

the Federal Republic of Nigeria [niˈgeːri̯a] (Federal Republic of OF Nigeria [naɪˈdʒɪərɪə], German also Nigerien) a former British colony is in west Africa and borders on Benin, the Niger, Chad and Cameroon. It is with distance the most densely populated country of Africa andtries after years of the military dictatorship its democratization and economic development. Nigeria could not use so far its rich oil deposits to the successful poverty fight. Corruption, force and ethnical conflicts between the Muslim north and that like a Christian - the animistischen south are the main obstacles, in order to make of Nigeria population a better life possible.

Table of contents

geography

  • expansion: WHERE 1200 km, LV 1100 km
  • 12% forest and shrub country, 34% field, 23% meadows and pastures
  • geographical location: between 4° and 14° northern latitude as well as 2° 40 'and 14° 40 of ' eastern length
  • surface texture (from south to north): lagoon-rich swampy coastal strip; Lower the underflows by the Niger and Benue; Josplateau; saharanischer Sahel and Chad in the extreme northeast
  • geological characteristics: The Chappal Waddi is with 2.419 m highest mountain, thataltogether 4,184 km the long Niger longest river part.
  • National borders: 4047 km (Benin 773 km, Cameroon 1690 km, Chad 87 km, the Niger 1497 km)
  • coast: 853 km
  • largest cities (conditions 1. January 2005): Of Lagos of 8.789.133 inhabitants, Kano of 3.626.204 inhabitants, Ibadan 3.565.810 inhabitants, Kaduna of 1.582.211 inhabitants, haven Harcourt of 1.148.753 inhabitants, Benin city of 1.125.511 inhabitants and Maiduguri of 1.112.511 inhabitants; see also the list of the cities in Nigeria

to vegetation

(from south to north)

  • Mangrovenwald
  • rain forest
  • leaves-throwing off forest
  • savannah
  • Sahelvegetation

approximately alongthe 9° nördl. Width runs the precipitation border. South this border prevails double rain time, north of it simple rain time

to population

the data to the number of inhabitants is rough estimations and differs with different sources (see Foreign Office). Estimates generalone the population on 120-150 million humans, whereby further 5 million live abroad. Thus it is 9. most densely populated country of the earth. Fluctuations in the number of inhabitants concern also Lagos. The Slums of Lagos grows strongly and it givesthere no national control. With all number data therefore strong doubts are appropriate and the numbers are to be corrected rather upward.

50% of the total population are Muslims; approximately 40% of the population are Christians, of it 2% Kopten; scarcely 10%Animisten are, thus trailers of traditional African religions.

The number of different Ethnien becomes estimated on 260-380. The Hauptethnien is Yoruba (over 20,0% of the total population) and Igbo (Ibo; 30% of the population); behind it Haoussa ( 11%) follow, Fulbe (8.2%), Kanuri (5.2%), Ibibio (4.2%), Nupe (3.2%), Edo (2.4%), Ijaws (1.8%), Bura (1.7%), Tiv (1.6%) and other one (8.1%).

The life expectancy amounts to 51.3 years with the men and 51.7 years with thatWomen. The birth rate per 1000 humans is 45,4. The death rate per 1000 humans is at 15,4.

Are spoken above all Joruba, Hausa and Ibo and a three-figure number of other languages (altogether 434 languages). Office language is English.

Because of outto religious reasons imposed inoculation prohibition in parts of Nigeria were 2004 nearly two thirds world-wide over 1.250 cases of pole IO (child paralysis) in Nigeria to be found. At that time the authorities had the inoculation suspended, after Muslim of clergyman spread the rumor, the vaccine make unfruchtbar.Also into the adjacent countries Polio was transported by this prohibition.

history

major item: History of Nigeria

starting from 1861 colonizing by Great Britain In before-colonial time numerous different African states were on the today's territory of Nigeria (like that Kingdom of Benin or Oyo) as well as Ethnien, which lived without central authority.

1. October 1960 independence; in the consequence strong centrifugal forces in the large regions of the country - the predominantly Islamic north (Hausa Fulani), the west (Yoruba) and the east(Igbo), where Christians dominate

1963 transition to the republic. First president becomes Nnamdi Azikiwe

January 1966 Militärputsch by a group of young officers - above all Igbos, Putsch fails, but prime minister is killed, new military head of state: General Ironsi, unit state is aimed at

July 1966 second Militärputsch of officers from the north, head of state: General Yakubu Gowon, allocation of the four large regions of the country in 12 Federal States

30. May 1967 southeast region proclaims the “independent Republic of Biafra”, those from the military government Gowon in30 months lasting, high losses a demanding war is thrashed (surrender of Biafra: 12.01.1970).

29. July 1975 third Militärputsch, head of state: Brigadier Murtala Muhammed, administration is arranged cleaned, the national territory into 19 Lands of the Federal Republic, the powers of the centre government is strengthened.

13. February of 1976 radicalsOfficers try, the regime Murtala Muhammed will fall, murder of the head of state, struck down revolt, general Obasanjo undertake the follow-up, preparations for the return the civil government to become continued, new condition compile

1. October 1979 delivery of the Regierungsgewalt to outElections come out president Shagari (“2. Republic of ")

31. December 1983 Militärputsch and end of the 2. Republic, Military regime under major general Buhari

27. August 1985 splitting in the military guidance leads to further Militärputsch, Babangida announces a democratization program. In addition it comes to economicalEmergency situations and in their consequence for the execution of structural adjustment measures (English:| structural adjustment program (SAP)).

1989 new condition, readmission of political parties

1991 parliamentary elections

12. Presidency elections initiated by Babangida run successfully, but he cancels her to June 1993 after the presumed victoryof Abiola (end of the “3. Republic ")

August 1993 by the murder trial at Marcus L´Hoste released civilian interim government under the direction of Chief Shonekan

November 1993 Chief Shonekan is forced by general Sani Abacha to the resignation, dictatorship and isolation with regard to foreign policy

November 1995Execution of the writer and environmental activists Ken Saro Wiwa; thereupon aggravation of the sanctions of European Union and the USA, Ambassadors of the European Union and the USA and also of Poland, Hungary, Russia etc. occasionally for reporting are recalled. Suspending the Commonwealth membership

8. June 1998 deaththe general Abdulsalami Abubakar moderate by Sani Abacha, takes over power: Dismissal of all political prisoners, call for the formation of political parties

27. February 1999 former head of state Olusegun Obasanjo wins presidency elections

29. May 1999 office introduction president Obasanjos, beginning of the “4. Republic "(formal democracy )

April/May 2003 presidency and parliamentary elections, in those is confirmed president Obasanjo for a second term of office by four years

February 2005 conference of the national conference for political reforms with 400 participant inside, of it in each case to six from all 37 NigerianFederal States. Topics and goals were the constitutional reform; Of Nigeria zukünfitge political direction; the question about the structure of a responsible person (accountable) government structures, political elite and political parties; the question about handling with Nigeria Disversität and Wahlreformen. To protest on the part of NigeriaWomen's movement led the fact that from the 400 called up women only 30 women were.

23. October 2005 death of Stella Obasanjo, wife of head of state Olusegun Obasanjo in a Spanish hospital, and crash of an airplane of the airline “Bellview” with 117Dead

policy

in accordance with that, after American model sketched, condition of 1989, which however only in the course of the 4. Republic 1999 into force stepped, has Nigeria a präsidiales system of government with a senate and a Lower House. In addition itensures the condition one multiple party system and every 4 years taking place elections.

  • Health/social: Ill ones, arms and old persons are dependent on family assistance, only officials of government come into the benefit of public welfare service. Low incomes, the fast growing population and the empty treasury led toFail all plans to create a health and a pension system. Epidemic diseases often demand thousands of victims under the underfed and badly supplied Landbevölkerung.
  • Army: Regular army with 77.100 men (army 80.4%; Navy 7.3%; Air Force 12.3%). Portion of the military budget toNational budget: 0.8% (2004).
  • Social movements
    • women's movement: already before 150 years the Yan'Taru movement, an Islamic religious movement in Nigeria, which had sat down the passing on of religious as well as everyday knowledge of women at women to the goal, developed. Today givesit a number more sekularer as well as religious women, who exert themselves as Aktivistinnen or university graduate inside for women's rights. To the most important woman organizations belong among other things Women in Nigeria (VIENNA), that national Council OF Women's Societies, the Women's Aid Collective and the FederationOF Muslim Women's Association in Nigeria. Important names of the women's movement e.g. are.Ayesha Imam and Joy Ezeilo.

education

in Nigeria prevails to 9 a year old compulsory schooling of 6. up to 15. Lebensjahr. The first day at school ratio from 93% is inComparison relative to the neighbour states highly. However schools and universities particularly are in extraordinarily bad condition. In addition the small motivation of the instructors and the enormous number come at strikes, why instruction is omitted occasionally completely, under being missing salary payments.Fraud the education budget 1985 still 12.2% GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT, then the editions sank 2003 on 4,6%. Since the attendance of public schools does not ensure already long any longer, counting, to learn letters or vintages grows particularly in the cities Lagos and Abuja the number of private educational facilities, which try expectations of the rising central layer to become fair. In some provinces of the north all schools are closed. Here only Koranschulen are . The illiterate rate is with 32,7% for men and52.7% for women.

administrative arrangement

infrastructure

the railway system amounts to 3.505 km. In the road system 37,000 km are fastened of 193.198 km. It givesin the country, is more important to five international airports in the port Lagos. The national airline Nigeria Airways is bankruptcy, however there are numerous private airlines for the inland traffic. Water routes amount to 8.575 km. Transatlantic harbors are in Lagos, Calabar,Warri and haven Harcourt. Ölhäfen are Bonny and Buruti. Capital is Abuja.

On 1.000 inhabitants come 66 televisions, 3.8 telephones, 6.1 computers and 0.01 Internet entrances. 25 daily papers with a total circulation of approximately 1.7 millions Exist to piece in Nigeria. Since centerthe 1990er years is to be registered an upswing within the portable radio range with a constantly growing number at mobile telephones. Three network carriers have an increasing surface covering and Roaming - contracts with all important European nets.

economics

general suffers the economy underthe unsatisfactory infrastructure and the under-sized current supply (still 70% of the power requirement from the Niger hydro-electric power plant are covered).

  • Pro-Kopf-Einkommen in the year (BSP): 250 euro
  • of export goods: Oil (largest exporter of Africa and fifth-largest oil deposit world-wide), cocoa (with 340 millions t annually fourth largestProducer of the world), rubber
  • of import goods: Consumer goods, machines, means of transport, chemical products, raw materials, food and living person cattle
  • foreign trade: classically complementary (typically for developing countries)
  • industry: Oil refining, mining industry, food processing, rubber, iron and steel, motor vehicles, cigarettes, pharmaceutical products, cellulose and paper, skins andSkins, textiles, shoes, cement, chemical products, fertilizers
  • of raw materials: Agrarian/forest sector: Cocoa (to a large extent in the smallrural cultivation), coffee, peanuts, Palmherzen, wood; Mineral sector: Oil, natural gas, smaller quantities of other minerals
  • tourism: The tourism came to a large extent to succumbing.739,000 visitors provided 1998 for incomes of 118 millions Euro.
  • The country suffers from high corruption. In the annual report 2004 of Transparency international is led Nigeria in third last place (left). President Obasanjo, that approx. 15 years thatOrganization managed, has 2003 together with professor Peter Eigen, who founders of TI in Berlin, a campaign presented, which has the goal, which high corruption rate to reduce (left).
  • Nigeria Connection: Advance fraud, with from criminal ones Nigeria a great many enamels to be sent away, in those is asked for pre-payment for later, never taking place business.
  • Nigeria still ranks among the poorest countries in the world: still 2003 amounted the portion of the population with less than 1 US Dollar per day on 70% (see also: Table: The highest poverty world-wide).

agriculture

20% of the usable surfaces of the country are only managed. The portion of the agriculture amounted to 1995 28% GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT. The number of the persons employed in this sector rose from 45% (1993) to over 60% (2003). This is less an indicator for the increasing need at workers than rather an effect since center of the 80's tooobserving economic fall of Nigeria. The agrarian sector is aligned to two branches of product - the cash Crops and the Food Crops. To first the wide cultivation of cocoa , bananas , cotton and india rubber belongs. Food Crops (Yams, Maniok, millet and corn) are cultivated in the context of the Subsistenzwirtschaft in smallrural enterprises. The pastoral industry concentrates particularly on the north of Nigeria and there on the Haussa and the Fulani, which traditionally in the cattle breeding activelyare. In order to cover the need, however further living person cattle (cattle, camels, sheep, goats) from the neighbour states one introduces. For North American wheat (the USA and Canada) an import ban exists, in order to protect the domestic production against cheap import wheat. Itarise regularly hunger emergencies, these however not, as one to assume could on the country, but in the towns with millions of inhabitants Lagos and Abuja. Differently than on the country do not function in the cities any longer to classical solvent bad A SHANKs (e.g. Extended family).

[] Industry

gained

if 1995 53% work on the industry GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT, however only 7% of the population employed. Emphasis of the industriellen activities is the dismantling of the Bodenschätze. There here at present the oil and increasingly the natural gas thosegreatest importance is attached, explains themselves also the small rate of utilisation to the population. The international companies (Shell, Mobil , Agip , Elf and other one) are subordinate the NNOC, at the same time are them however the carriers of the work. Into that offshore and onshore plants are therefore predominantly Europeans and Thais as well as Philipinos busily. Nigerianer are only used for cleaning. There are no refinery activities, the oil as untreated raw material is thus exported. Refineries are present in the country (within the framework SovietEconomic aid), these were waited however never and are today nonfunctioning. It looks similar with other national large-scale enterprises: For 20 billion $ built steel plant in Ajaokuta produced so far no gram steel. Another example is the aluminum work in AkwaIbom, which 2000 were already finished, however never beyond test runs went. These are only exemplary examples of in the 80's the missed industrialization of the country.

foreign policy

defiance of the many problems relating to domestic affairs is Nigeria the most powerfulState of west Africa. Accordingly it holds the presidency of the ECOMOG, the safety apparatus of the ECOWAS . In addition it is member of numerous international organizations.

in addition strives Nigeria a constant seat in the UN - security council on, in which so far no African country is durably represented.

between

1992 and 2000 the portion of the public expenditures was appropriate for public expendituresfor

culture

  • national holiday: 1. October (day of the independence from Great Britain in the year 1960)
  • objects of interest:Rich artistic inheritance, in particular sculptures and Holzschnitzereien outBenin and Ife
  • Cultural influences:The Nigerian culture is interspersed not only by traditions of the numerous Ethnien, but also by Islamic influences inThe north and European influences in the south coined/shaped. - Nigeria is the world-wide largest municipality of Eckankar, the religion of light and clay/tone of God.
  • Alphabet: Pannigeriani alphabet
  • literature: The Nigerian writer Wole Soyinka received the Nobelpreis for literature to 1986. With Chinua Achebe received in the year 2002 a further important Nigerian author the peace price of the German book trade. An authoress very successful in Africa is Buchi Emecheta, itself in her work critically with the situation of the womenin the contemporary Africa argues.
  • Music: The perhaps most famous musician Nigerias is the inventor of the Afrobeat Fela Anikulapo Kuti, which gave Africa with its volumes “70” in the “Shrine” to of Lagos legendary concerts. Further characteristic music styles are about Jùjú, Apala, Fuji or Sakara.
  • Sport: Sportily internationally became the country admits particularly by the Nigerian national soccer team.

environment

heaviest damage in the Niger delta by the oil production persisting for 37 years. Pipelines run by villages and overFields; Water and air as well as food are contaminated. Protected areas: 3.22% of the national surface.

literature

Web on the left of

Wiktionary: Nigeria - word origin, synonymsand translations

Left to gene the topics in Nigeria



Coordinates: 4°-14° N, 3°-15° O

 

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