Nikolaus I. (Russia)
Nikolaus Pawlowitsch (Russian Николай I Павлович; * 6. July (25. June of Russian time calculation) 1796 in the lock Gatschina with Petersburg, † 2. March/18. February 1855) from the house Romanow Holstein Gottorp was as Nikolaus I. Zar of Russia and last king of Poland (congress Poland), crowned between 1825 and 1830, the third son of the Zaren Paul I. by its second wife, Maria Feodorowna (Sophia Dorothea of Württemberg).
Nikolaus became with its younger brother, Michael (* 1798), of its nut/mother carefully and strictly educated and enjoyed a good instruction. During the government of the older brother, Alexander I., it completely stayed away from affairs of state. 1814/15 he bereiste several countries of Europe. After it itself to 13. July 1817 also Charlotte of Prussia, oldest daughter king Friedrich of William III. from Prussia, lived he had ground withdrawn in the domestic circle in the Anitschkow palace into Petersburg. Its line of business was limited to bare garrison service, whereby it dressed the rank of an upper supervisor of the genius nature. After Alexanders I.Death (1. December 1825) was given to it due to the secret and it unknown resignation of the older brother, the large prince Konstantin, the crown of Russia. But as Konstantin its renunciation had only confirmed, took over Nikolaus to 24. December formally the government and becameat the 3. September 1826 in Moscow crowned.
One for years prepared military conspiracy of the Dekabristen, which to 26. December 1825 to the outbreak came, suppressed it with large personal courage. This event as well as the perception of a certain internal disorder, which the mild, varying regiment Alexanders I.had left, exerted surely important influence on the government politics of the new ruler, who, even if he maintained the Ministers of his brother at the beginning of, established gradually an autocratic regiment, which relied on a numerous absolutely resulted in bureaucracy, above all however by a numerous army.The preference of the military showed up already in the massive Vermehrung of the military environment of its person; the authorization of the general aides, at all authorities insight into the documents, account over the administration, Vorlegung of the calculations etc. demand to be able, placed all civil administration under military supervision. ThoseAbolition of the body characteristic leaned Nikolaus 1826 decided off. A Ukas instructed the different local authoritieses, over it to awake that the body gentlemen should not demand „anything excessive “from their farmers; but with the corruptibility of the authorities the Ukas, and even the laws, which later to, remained ineffectiveEasement of the body characteristic, improved the nature of the Eigenhörigkeit was issued only little.
The foreign policy of the emperor was preferably directed toward Asia and the conquest of Turkey in the first years of his government. The Persian war brought in the peace of Turkmantschai (28. February 1828) Russia an important area increase. 1828 it began the war against Turkey, in which it, although it did not lead the supreme command, participated, and that Russia 1829 in peacetime of Adrianopel the east coast of the black sea, free traffic on the Danube, in the black sea and in the Mediterranean and as the further consequence the establishment of the Greek kingdom brought in. The Polish collection, which was suppressed 1831 after nine-monthly devastating fight, woke itself the passionate revenge of the Zaren, that from now on as stronghold of the legitimacy and the rightagainst the revolution regarded. Russia was partitioned more and more by the western world, and an expanded police and espionage net spread in particular over the western provinces.
With the Russifizierung of the different nationalities attempts of systematic Bekehrung of the Protestanten and catholics went to the orthodox church; even 1840 had to leave the Greek university Universities of church happened their combination with the orthodox. The increasing influence of Russia in the Orient particularly showed up, as itself Sultan Mahmud II. in the contract of Hünkâr Iskelesi 1833 Nikolaus into the arms threw and of it assistance against thatrebellious pasha of Egypt requested. In the political storms of 1848 and 1849 Nikolaus retained a cautious attitude, until the favorable opportunity was to secure its influence in all directions again. Thus its intervention in Hungary attached the Austrian policy to its interest,and the failure of the German thing fastened its influence in Denmark (1. GermanDanish war), while he raised himself in the Austrian-Prussian discord 1850 to the arbitrator.
Its influence on Friedrich William IV., its schroffe energy and its decided occurrence against everything that itRevolution called, impressed, was important, and the reactionary pietistische party in Prussia admired it as its father. The production Napoleoni dock ore around in France promoted the firmer attaching of northern powers at the Zaren and granted the prospect on the isolation or confederate shank of England.The won relations proved nevertheless as insufficient, when Nikolaus walked 1853 for the execution of the plan long prepared against Turkey. England and France stepped against it into the Krimkrieg, and Austria took one more hostile than friendly on position. Nikolaus stood alone thatcombined in relation to enemies; the army organization of Russia proved as insufficient, the idea into Turkey failed, the Krim of the allied ones was attacked and the Russian army to the Alma and with Inkerman struck. Nikolaus was shaken on the highest of it, and still was the fight, as he does not terminate to 2. March/18. February 1855 died.
Its children were:
- Alexander II. (* 17. April 1818; † 1. March 1881), Zar of Russia,
- Maria (* 6. August 1819; † 9. February 1876) - marries with Maximiliande Beauharnais, 3. Duke of light mountain,
- Olga (* 30. August 1822; † 20. October 1892) - marries with Karl I., King of Württemberg,
- Alexandra (* 12. June 1825; † 29. July 1844), princess von Hessen-Kassel,
- Konstantin (* 9. September 1827; † 13. January 1892), large prince of Russia,
- Nikolaus (* 27. July 1831; † 13. April 1891), large prince of Russia, and
- Michael (* 13. October 1832; † 5. December 1909), large prince of Russia.
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|ALTERNATIVE NAME||Николай I Павлович; Nikolaus I.|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Zar of Russia|
|DATE OF BIRTH||6. July 1796|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||lock Gatschina with Petersburg|
|DYING DATE||2. March 1855|