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|federation subject:||Oblast Nischni Nowgorod|
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|List of the cities in Russia|
Nischni Nowgorod (Russian НижнийНовгород, after older Transkriptionen Nishnij Nowgorod; wiss. Transliteration Nižnij Novgorod; 1932 to 1991 Gor'kij, Russian Горький) -- not to confound with Nowgorod Weliki -- is with 1.296.828 inhabitants (conditions: 2004) the fourth largest city Russia. Nischni Nowgorod is because of the inlet of the Oka into the Volga and is the capital of the Oblast Nischni Nowgorod as well as the federation circle Volga. The geographical coordinates are: 56° 19 ' 37 " north, 44° 00 ' 00 " east.
, medieval prince seat
the city 1221 of Yuriy II. became. Wsewolodowitsch, the large prince of Vladimir, at the confluence of the two most important rivers of its realm, the Volga and the Oka, based. The literal translation of Nischni Nowgorod reads „lower new city”. Possibly one gave her this name for the distinction of the older Nowgorod. Like also Moscow and Twer, belonged Nischni Nowgorod to those neugegründeteten cities, which escaped due to their Unbedeutenheit at that time of devastation by the Mongols, itself then however in the time „of the act arene yoke” (rule of the golden horde/hurdle of 13. - 15. Century) tooimportant political centers developed. The meaning of Nischni Nowgorod took to far too after it in the year 1350 as the capital of the Principality of Susdal had been explained. The large prince Dmitri Konstantinowitsch (1328 - 83) was endeavored the capital of its realm, to oneto make equal rivals of Moscow: He let a stone fortress and several churches build and made themselves earned around the historiography. The oldest received copy of the famous Nestorchronik was provided to 1377 in its order by the monk Lawrentij.
The most powerful fortress of the Moskowiterreiches
after the city 1392 part of the Moskowiterreiches had become called itself the Nischni Nowgoroder prince Schujskie and resettled to Moscow, where it important positions at the yarddressed and briefly, in Wassili IV., the throne erklommen. Nischni Nowgorod was regarded of the Moskowitern particularly as important fortress with its wars against the Kasaner act arene. The enormous Kremlin from red clay brick, one the most powerful and oldestreceived Russian fortresses, 1508 became - 1511 under the guidance of „Peter the Italian” establish. As act arene the fortress 1520 and 1536 besieged proved it as strongly enough and withstood themselves the attacks.
1612 drove a people resistance, those outset up by the Nischni Nowgoroder buyer Kusma Minin was and by the prince Dmitri Posharski was stated the Polish troops from Moscow and terminated thereby the time of confusions. The Gebeine min in lies in the Nischni Nowgoroder Kremlin.
In the process 17. Centuryexperienced the city an economical bloom, and of the Stroganows, one of the richest buyer families of Russia, as base for its enterprises was selected. Specific, around 1700 architecture and icon style developed in Nischni Nowgorod, „Stroganow school “one calls.
The large commercial town
1817 was shifted the fair by Makarew, one of the liveliest commercial markets of the world at that time, to Nischni Nowgorod, which lured from then on year by year millions of visitors into the city. Center 19. Century hadit as the trade city of the Russian realm is established. Further industries began themselves to develop, and at the beginning of the 20-century the city was also one of the most important industrial centres of the country. The hopeless life of the urban Proletariats becomes in the novelsdescribed from Maxim Gorki, which was born in Nischni Nowgorod, realistically. A famous phrase, which reflects Nischni Nowgorods meaning as commercial town reads: Moscow is the heart of Russia, Petersburg the head and Nischni Nowgorod its bag.
Into the 1930er years got Nischni Nowgorod the status „of a closed in such a way specifiedCity”, which could not be visited by foreigners. Reason for it here were those residents of Rüstungsbetriebe, in which among other things nuclear-powered submarines, combat aircraft (for instance the MiG-29 or the MiG-31) and tanks were produced.1992 were opened the city again for visitors.
From 1980 to 1986 the city was the banishing place of the atomic physicist Andrei Sakharov. Sakharov was with the communist regime in disgrace pleases, after he had expressed himself against the introduction of the Soviet troops in Afghanistan. It was expelled from Moscowand lived in Nischni Nowgorod under constant monitoring by the KGB. he got 1986 from Mikhail Gorbatschow permission for returning to Moscow. The dwelling, in which it lived at that time, can be visited today as Sakharov museum.
the Kremlin is the historical center of the city. The building began 1501 with the Iwanowskaja tower. 1508 followed further construction measures, which were locked 1515. The complex covers 13 towers, five of it with gates and a squareSketch, eight with round form. The towers are high and through between 18 and 30 meters up to five meters thick, 12 - 20 meters long walls connected. On the area of the Kremlin is the Erzengel Michael cathedral, establishes 1628-31 ofLawrenti Wosoulin and A. Konstantinow.
Below the Kremlin a prospect place at the inlet of the Oka is into the Volga.
center for contemporary art
in that 1843 on instruction of Nikolaus I.established arsenal on the areathe Kremlin is „the center for contemporary art” untergebrach. This art museum resident an extraordinary collection of international modern art and the works of art ambitionierter young Russian artist.
left to the center
old part of town
thoseentire old part of town of the city is a large open air museum of extraordinary splendour can one a multiplicity of buildings all style pounding from the 17.Jh into the modern times find, it gives here innumerable unikale places of worship here like e.g. the Stroganow - church and those“Church of the Smolensker and Wladimirkaja nut/mother of God " in the Stroganow - baroque from that 17. Century, the Auferstehungs church of the famous Russian architect Konstantin Andrejewitsch Thon, the magnificently restored church Johannes of the Täufers from the years between 1676 and 1683, those onlywell-behaved Uspenskij church of 1672, and many different. The “bank Rukawischnikowich” was established to 1908 by Fjodor Schechtel and the urban villa of the Rukawischnikow Indian today the museum of architecture is from 1911-1912 is its work. Further important buildings of the beginning 20.Century are those of the pc. Peter citizens architect Vladimir Alexandrowitsch Pokrowski, this e.g. are. the state bank 9 building of 1911-1913 in the old-Russian style, the comedy theatre, the Uspenskij church of the Altgläubigen of 1916 and the youth centre (former farmers bank) of 1915. Likewise very beautifullythe city hall of W.P.Zeidler from the 1899-1902 years and the Spasso Preobrashenski cathedral from that are 19. Century. There are three monasteries in the city: das Mariä-Verkündigungs-Kloster (Blagowestschenski monastyr), das Höhlenkloster (Petscherski monastyr) und das Kreuzerhöhungskloster (Krestowosdwishenski monastyr). The many buildingsby Fjodor Schechtel, Vladimir Alexandrowitsch Pokrowski and many different make Nischni Nowgorod one of the most beautiful art nouveau centers of the world. Also the constructionalism and socialist realism are represented in the city with magnificent examples like e.g. the “hotel Rossia”,“institut the engineer water of transport” both from the 30ger years.
for the 90's develops modern architecture. Prominent architects are Vladimir Kowalenko, Jewgenij Pestow and Alexander Charitonow. As examplesare to be called: the Garantia bank, the golden house, the extension of the comedy theatre, „cathedral the Kutscha”, „the cascade”, „the Baschnja Reproduktor”, „the Pila”, the hotel „Oktjabrskaja”, the house of the artist, the direct current generator stadium, the house „weather”, the periscope, the firm „Titanik” and that„House with the mirror”. Far of pc. To Petersburg and Moscow prospers here experimental architecture and the art generally. Nischni Nowgorod became long a cultural center.
As only city in completely Russia Nischni Nowgorod has its own NischniNowgoroder style as Nischni of the Nowgoroder school is summarized, the aljährlich taking place event the Reiting of architecture: Nischni Nowgorod shorten the most beautiful and most daring building. The city became the center of new Russian architecture, a Mekka for all lovers thatmodern art.
Nischni Nowgoroder art museum
an outstanding position enjoys the world-famous art museum also over 12.000 exhibits, under it works of Russian artists like e.g. Wiktor Michailowitsch Wasnezow, Karl Pawlowitsch Brjullow, Iwan Iwanowitsch Schischkin, Iwan NikolajewitschKramskoi, Ilja Jefimowitsch Repin, Isaak Iljitsch Lewitan, Wassili Iwanowitsch Surikow, Iwan Konstantinowitsch Aiwasowski, and larger collections of Boris Michailowitsch Kustodijew and Nicholas Roerich,as well as Western European artists like e.g. David Teniers the younger one, Bernardo Bell petrol, Lucas Cranach the older one, Pieter de Grebber, Giuseppe Maria Crespi, a Vedute of Giovanni Battista Piranesi and many more. Much interessan are the exhibits of the Russian avant-garde with works of Kasimir Malewitsch, Wassily Kandinsky, Natalija Sergejewna Gontscharowa, Mikhail Larionow and many further. Likewise from interest is the rich collection at East Asian art.
left to the art museum
Nischni Nowgoroder university library
the librarycame out from the 1831 created public library, with 4.3 million objects to those 40,000 books from all epochs of 16. Jh. on, as well as over 600 manuscripts of 15. Jh. with the only copy of the “Latukhin chronicle” from that17. Jh., thus is world-wide it one of the largest and most important libraries.
left to the library
Nischni Nowgoroder opera
the opera in Nischni Nowgorod enjoys world-wide meaning, the ballet troop is exquisit very much and giveseverywhere in the world of appearances.
left to the opera
play art is at the Volga much likes, that theatres is very experimental and modern. The magnificent and architecturally very important theatre building the end of the19. Century of the GermanRussian architect Viktor Schröter from pc. Petersburg was established.
park „Nischni Nowgoroder Switzerland”
southern of the old part of town is the park „Nischni Nowgoroder Switzerland”.
the Strelka (the arrow) is just as howin pc. Petersburg the point of an island. „The Strelka” opposite the Kremlin with the Alexander new ski - cathedral from that 19. Century is one point of suit for tourists.
Nischni Nowgoroder fair
the legendary fair was created 1817 by Makarewand a aljährliches Mekka for prospective customers of innovations and look-merry was, the fair building of A.A.Betankur from that 19. Century is a magnificent building with a steel glass floor structure construction. On the fairground is in addition the cathedral of Augusts de Montferrand, thatalso the Isaakskathedrale in pc. Petersburg created. Today the fair up-arose again.
left to the fair
economics and infrastructure
the city is seat of the car manufacturer GAS and threw„Krasnoje Sormowo”, which builds among other things submarines of the Kilo class.
already in the year 1895 the open streetcar Nischni Nowgorod with their 198 kilometers route network is enough mastered together with numerous Buslinien and the 90 years later in enterprisetaken Metro Nischni Nowgorod a majority of the public local passenger traffic within the city.
From the port of the city navigation on the Volga is possible toward Kaspi sea , Baltic Sea , white sea , black sea and Asow sea.
In the city existing resuming educational facilities
- academy for government service of the area Wolgo Wjatsk
- branch of the university for economics
- branch of the public regional university
- branch of the Russian public ones technical university for traffic facilities
- branch of the national University of Nischni Nowgorod
- branch of the spirit-scientific institute NischniNowgorod
- branch Muscovites of institute for economics, management and right
- Handelsinstitut Nischni Nowgorod
- Institut for management and Business Nischni Nowgorod
- Institut for rehabilitation
- legal Institut Nischni Nowgorod of the ministry of the Interior of Russia
- national M. - I. - Glinka conservatoire Nischni Nowgorod
- right academy Nischni Nowgorod
- national academy forWater way traffic of the Volga area
- national one agricultural academy Nischni Nowgorod
- national one linguistic N. - A. - Dobroljubow university Nischni Nowgorod
- national medicine academy Nischni Nowgorod
- national N. - I. - Lobatschewski university Nischni Nowgorod - http://www.unn.ru/
- national one educational University of Nischni Nowgorod
- national one technical University of Nischni Nowgorod
- national university for architecture and architecture NischniNowgorod
- national engineer-educational Institut of the Volga area
partnerships between cities
Nischni maintains partnerships between cities with:
- Tampere (Finland)
- Linz (Austria)
- Philadelphia (the USA)
- Jinan (People's Republic of China)
- meal (Germany)
- Charkiw (Ukraine)
sons and daughters of the city
- Vladimir Dawidowitsch Aschkenasi, pianist and conductor
- Mili Alexejewitsch Balakirew, composer, pianist and conductor
- Nikolai Nikolajewitsch Bogoljubow, physicist
- Nikolai Alexandrowitsch Bulganin, Soviet statesman
- Maxim Gorki, writer
- Raphael of Koeber, Philosopher and musician
- Dmitri Borissowitsch Konyschew, Russian cycle racing professional
- Grigori Abramowitsch Krejn, composer
- Nikolai Iwanowitsch Lobatschewski, mathematician
- Zdzisław Lubomirski, great land owner and politician
- Nina Wladimirowna Makarowa, Komponistin
- Sergei Nakariakov, Trompeter
- Pjotr Nikolajewitsch Nesterow, pilotand airplane technical designer
- Iwan Stepanowitsch Silajew, Prime Minister Russlands
- Igor Michailowitsch Schukow, pianist and conductor
- Jakow Michailowitsch Swerdlow, leader of the Bolshevik party and politician
- Alexander Iljitsch Uljanow, brother of Lenin
Web on the left of
|Commons: Nischni Nowgorod - pictures, videosand/or audio files|
- objects of interest of the city
- architecture of the city - English
- Website of the national art museum (Russian)
coordinates: 56° 19 ' 37 " N 44° 00 ' 00 " O