of the Nobelpreis was donated by the Swedish inventor and Industriellen Alfred Nobel. In its will it specified that with its fortune a donation should be created, their interest „as prices to those assignedbecome, which carried the largest use out in the verflossenen year of mankind “. The money should be distributed to five equal parts on the areas physics , chemistry , physiology or medicine , literature and for peace efforts. The Nobel donation became to 29. June 1900, four years after death Alfred Nobels, based, the first prices then to 1901 lent. Since lent 1969 also a price for economic science, however by the Swedish realm bank, in memory of Nobel, donatedbecame.
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The Nobelpreis is today thosehighest honor in the scientific world. It becomes since 1901 each year at Nobels day of death, that 10. Decembers, lent. The winners become on basis of the sent in nominating and the recommendations of the Nobelkomitees, which do not have to be considered however, ofdifferent committees selected and at the beginning of of Octobers communicated:
- For physics and chemistry of the royal-Swedish Academy of Sciences
- for physiology or medicine of the Nobelversammlung of the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm
- for literature of the Swedish academy
- for the Nobel peace prize of onesince 1969 the price
- of the Swedish realm bank for economic science in memories of Alfred Nobel, donated by the Swedish realm bank , is lent to family of five committee of the Norwegian parliament apart from the prices donated by Nobel. The winners become likewise from the royal-Swedish academythe sciences determines.
There is not a Nobelpreis for mathematics (see in addition also the section: Comparable prices). Bad tongues state, this would be to that allegedly also an affair because of a disliking Nobels with the mathematician Gösta noon Leffler, alsoNobels woman to have had is. The latter emerges particularly frequently, is however wrong with security, since Nobel was married never. Over a disliking of Nobel and noon Leffler officially likewise nothing is well-known. That it now however no Nobelpreis for mathematicsit gives, is probably because of the fact that the practical man Nobel could never particularly suffer these „subsidiary science “; it did not belong for it simply to the categories, which get mankind going. A later offer of the Nobelkomitees on mechanism of a Nobelpreises for mathematics is ofprominent mathematicians rejected to probably increase in order the competition among the scientists additionally.
The Nobel peace prize is lent in Oslo, all other prices of the Swedish king in Stockholm. It is not exactly well-known, which reasons Sweden AlfredNobel induced have to assign a committee of the Norwegian parliament this honorable task. Norway and Sweden were at present still in a personnel union under Swedish guidance connected for the donation of the price and the foreign policy lay with the Swedish Reichstag. It becomesassumed that Nobel thought rather the neutrality necessary for the selection to the Stortinget capable of. 1905 dissolved the union and Norway became an independent kingdom. But and for the formulation that” prices independently of the nationality to the best ones “to go, were extremely unpopular Nobels will should at the beginning with the Swedish king.
all winners receives a document, gold medal and a money. This is of the annual interest yield thatNobelstiftung dependently. In the year 1901 the price was endowed with 150.800 crowns. It increased since 1970 of converted 288,000 DM on approx. 1,1 millions Euro (10 million crowns correspond) in the year 2004. Somewhat problematic in the meantime Nobels is order,that the price in a category may not be lent at any more than three persons. Within many fields of the science today new realizations go out however no longer with individual scientists, but often internationally in large teams are compiled. So farthe price only four humans was twice lent - to Marie curie (1903 for physics and 1911 for chemistry), Linus Pauling (1954 for chemistry and 1962 for peace), John Bardeen (1956 and 1972 in each case for physics) and Frederick singer (1958 and 1980 in each case for chemistry). The UN Hochkommissariat for refugees (UNHCR) received 1954 and 1981 the Nobel peace prize. Its predecessor organization, the international Nansen office for refugees (Hochkommissariat of the Völkerbundes), was distinguished 1938 with this price,its leader Fridtjof Nansen 1922. The international committee of the red cross was distinguished for its peace efforts even three times (1917 , 1944 , 1963), 1963 together with the international federation of the red cross and red half moon companies. The founder of the IKRKand Henry Dunant, 1901 received the first Nobel peace prize to the red cross movement, together with the French Pazifisten Frédéric Passy.
From 1937 to 1945 German the acceptance of the Nobelpreises was forbidden “for all future”; as a substitute the German national price for art became andScience imported, to which only 1937 and 1938 were lent.
Despite its high reputation the “mistakes” of the committee are extensive. In particular the order Nobels to honour the winners due to its achievements in the respectively recent past is often ignored andthe Nobelpreis rather as appreciation of a life's work lent. Since the price is not lent posthum, some entitled person the price remains withholding due to dying.
Also the woman portion is very low and gives earnings/services of women surely not sufficientlyagain - a prominent example is Lise Meitner, whose colleague Otto cock was distinguished with the Nobelpreis and Mrs. Meitner non although is undisputed that the Nobelpreis at the basis lying achievement in one on achievements both being based joint venture workone furnished.
Individual decisions it is occasionally very controversially discussed - an example are Henry Kissinger and Le Duc Tho, which received the Nobelpreis for it awarded (only Henry Kissinger took the price on) that her - after millionsof victims - terminated which in own joint responsibility war begun.
the nominating process
over for a Nobelpreis to be applicable, one must be nominated. To express a nominating different persons have the right depending upon price category:
- In principle earlierWinners of the respective category
- for physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine and economic science are the members of the respective Nobelkomitees, the academy of the sciences, professors of the respective field on certain Scandinavian universities and further select individuals and instructors at selectedfurther universities nominate-entitled.
- For the Nobelpreis in literature suggestions can be submitted by literature and linguistics professors, members of the Swedish academy and similar institutions, and the presidents of representative writer combinations.
- Each member of a government or an international knows suggestions for the Nobel peace prize Court make, in addition professors of the fields social science, history, philosophy, right and theology as well as the ladder of peace research institutes and similar organizations.
In accordance with the statutes of the donation become information about nominated one and nominating as well as relevant opinions and investigations on the part ofthe committee held for one period of 50 years under catch.
comparable ones of prices
- right Livelihood Award (alternative Nobelpreis)
- peace: Albert Einstein peace price
- art and science: Wolf price
- literature: Pulitzer price
- architecture: Pritzker price
- mathematics: Falling DS medal, Abelpreis
- mathematics, geosciences, biology,Astronomy:Crafoord price
- computer science: Turing price
- religion: The Templeton price
- art: Praemium imperial
- music: Polar music Prize
- Ramon Magsaysay Award, the asiatic Nobel peace prize
- price prince von Asturien
- Africa Prize
- The World's Children's Prize for the Rights OF the Child - the child Nobelpreis
- To Kyoto price
- Grawemeyer Award
- Gandhi internationally Peace Prize
- Brockhaus Nobelpreise - chronicle of unusual achievements. 2. Edition. Mannheim, Leipzig 2004, ISBN 3-7653-0492-1
- Bernhard Kupfer: Encyclopedia thatNobelpreisträger. Duesseldorf 2001, ISBN 3-491-72451-1
- shedding mountain encyclopedia of the Nobelpreisträger - all winners since 1901, its achievements, its life, its effect, 2. updated and extended edition. Shedding mountain, Dortmund 2001, ISBN 3-611-00612-2
- knows Fant: Alfred Nobel - idealist between economics andScience. Birkhäuser, Basel 1995, ISBN 3-7643-5059-8
Web on the left of
- official side with biographies of all Nobelpreisträger (English)
- Nobelmuseum Stockholm
- private project from Munich
- a listing of all Nobelpreisträgerinnen
- annual Nobelpreisträgertagung on the island Lindau in the Bodensee
|Wiktionary: Nobelpreis - word origin,Synonymous one and translations|