Nobelpreis for physics
of the Nobelpreis for physics is the highest honor for achievements in the area of physics, each year in Stockholm to 10. December is lent, to the day of death of the price founder Alfred Nobel (1833 - 1896).
] Nobelkomitee for
physics the Nobelkomitee for physics of the royally Swedish Academy of Sciences 2005:
- Sune Svanberg, professor for atomic physics, chairman
- Lars mountain-flow, professor for theoretical physics, secretary
- by Carlson, professor for elementary particle physics
- Mats Jonson, professor for the physics of condensed subject
- Joseph Nordgren, professor for the physics of soft gamma radiation
- Lennart Stenflo, professor for plasma physics
- Ann Kristin Danielsson, administrator
the nominating process for the Nobelpreis begins in September, i.e. before the publication of the previous year winners, with which dispatching of invitations at scientists of numerous countries by the Swedish academy of the sciences, in which these are asked for suggestions for candidates for the Nobelpreis of the coming yearly. In detail this Swedish
- and foreign members of the royally Swedish Academy of Sciences of members
- of the Nobelkomitees for physics are
- past winners of the Nobelpreises for physics
- tidy one and extraordinary professors of physics at the universities and technical institutes in Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Iceland and Norway as well as the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm
- owner of comparable chairs of at least six further universities or technical universities - the selection takes place via the Academy of Sciences, so that a suitable dispersion is ensured over different countries and fields of activity.
- other scientists, who consider the academy suitable.
The written down persons have the right, up to the 1. To submit February suggestions with the Nobelkomitee. Although many candidates are suggested several times, the number of nominating amounted in the last years to approximately 250 to 350 per year.
The Nobelkomitee, which was extended in the last years by extraordinary members with same right to vote, determines five members, that sight and with the assistance of independent experts examine the nominating in the spring and summer. The committee decides its recommendations to the academy, at the beginning of of Octobers in the early autumn over the suggestions co-ordinates. The academy can lend the price at one, to two or three persons and passes its decision on, which is final and without objection possibility, to the winners and the press. Information about the nominating, the examinations and opinions concerning the price is regarded secret as 50 years.
award of the prize
to 10. Decembers are invited the winners as well as chemistry, medicine, literature and peace winners to Stockholm to the official award by the Swedish king. They receive the Nobelmedaille, a personal diploma and prize money with these ceremonies from at present 10 million Swedish crowns (about 1.1 millions Euro), which the winners of a category divide. Each winner keeps a Nobelvortrag subsequently, in which usually the bases and background the excellent achievement are stated.
- Der erste Preisträger 1901 to war to der Deutsche Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen
- Der to bisher jüngste Preisträger to war mit 25 Jahren Lawrence Bragg (1915)
- Der to bisher älteste Preisträger to war mit 88 Jahren Raymond Davis Jr. (2002)
- John Bardeen was distinguished as only winners twice with the Nobelpreis for physics (1956 and 1972); Marie curie was distinguished beside the Nobelpreis for physics (1903) also with the Nobelpreis for chemistry (1911)
- among the 173 winners to 2004 to find excellent only two Mrs. , Marie curie and Maria Goeppert Mayer, the Nobelpreis for physics points itself with it the lowest woman portion of all Nobelpreise up only in the economic science so far still no woman.
- As an only married couple 1903 Marie and Pierre curie distinguished (its daughter Irène Joliot curie was distinguished 1935 together with its married man Frédéric Joliot with the Nobelpreis for chemistry)
- it were distinguished four times so far father and son with the Nobelpreis for physics: William Bragg and Lawrence Bragg (1915), Niels bore (1922) and Aage Niels bore (1975), man victory course (1924) and dock man victory course (1981) as well as Joseph John Thomson (1906) and George Paget Thomson (1937)
- it gave 47 times an exclusive winner (last Georges Charpak 1992), 26 times divided to two and 25 times 3 persons the price
in more than hundred-year history of the Nobelpreises released some decisions reactions, which were enough from lack of understanding up to indignation - in physics particularly due to the Nichtberücksichtigung of a scientist during the award of the prize.
- Chung Yao Chao could prove 1930 as first positrons from the electron positron pair creation (even if he did not know, for which it acted), with the price for the discovery became however Carl David Anderson one excellently. Chao died 1998, the Nobelpreis remained malfunctioned for it.
- Lise Meitner was not distinguished despite three nominating with the Nobelpreis. It died 1968.
- Chien Shiung Wu, which “roofridge lady of physics” was also called, disproved the preservation of the parity and with the first wolf price for physics was distinguished, the Nobelpreis remained it however failed. It died 1997.
- Jocelyn Bell discovered the first Radiopulsar as a student, however during the award of the prize 1974 was not considered. A prominent advocate of the requirements Bells was Fred Hoyle.
- Fred Hoyle was not considered during the award of the prize 1983, although even the winner William A. Fowler the achievements Hoyles for the development of the concept of the stellar Nukleosynthese recognized.
the Nobelkomitee accomplishes since 1965 symposiums, which concern themselves with topic areas, which are in paging, or which are of central cultural or social importance. From the 144 accomplished meetings (of it 12 anniversary meetings) 30 was concerned with topics from physics, of it first 1968 with the “elementary particle theory”. The next physical symposium in June 2006 will treat the range of topics “cosmic chemistry and molecular astrophysics”.