Nofretete

Nofretete (in the English linguistic area Nefertiti, actually Nafteta:, i.e. „the beautiful one is come “) was the main wife of the Pharao Echnaton (Amenophis IV.). Admits became it by the Büste from limestone and gypsum, which is to be seen in Berlin.

The Büste thatNofretete from the citizen of Berlin old person museum

table of contents

origin

itit is always said that their name is, „the beautiful one come “, on a foreign descent points. This is prove-measured wrongly; the name decreases/goes back to an old-Egyptian myth. Nofretete originates from a beside-royal line in oh-acts like, made of which already the king wife Teje comes.

[However work on

]

lives [work on

] marriage with

Echnaton at the age of 19 years are it at that time that only 14-jährigen Echnaton to have married and bore their man six daughters (Meritaton , Maketaton , Anchesenpaaton , Nefer Neferu Aton , Nefer Neferu RH and Setepenre) no inheriting.Nofretete and Echnaton were the first Pharaonen and probably the first rulers at all, who made their private life public. This was done with the representation of affectionate scenes of the two, via family scenes with their altogether six children, always protected with the sun disk of the Aton, itsJets on the pair throws. Nofretete and its husband Echnaton did not become the representatives of the new main God on ground connection, a large priest caste with high priest shank and upper priests required. The only priests are the Pharao and its wife. A special Nofretetedarstellung on three stone blocks becomes todayof researchers as proof for the fact outstandingly that it was Echnatons Hohepriesterin.

Nofretete as Mitregentin

the generally strong position of the woman in old Egypt was particularly increased under Echnaton for Nofretete. It was made for female Mitregenten a kind, and at least symbolicallyequipped with pharaonischen power. The famous blue helmet on the Büste illustrates the Cheperesh , a war helmet. It became also repeated in pharao typical scenes, like e.g. War guidance or striking down of the enemies represented. It became repeated in the rock graves of Amarna as well as Echnatonin a kind shown that today researchers accept even a kind dominating Mitregentschaft of Nofretete in the late government years of Echnaton.

Nofretete as a successor of Echnaton

a ever more probable theory is that she survived Echnaton against all past acceptance and afterit mounted the throne. The representations of Nofretete in pharaonischen contexts (s.o.), as well as the representation as a protection goddess of her deceased husband at the corners in fragments received and again reconstructed of the Steinsarkophags of Echnaton, interpret increasingly more researcher in such a way that them after death Echnatons evena short time governed long Egypt alone. There are however further references: After a thesis it is identical to Semenchkare. The Ägyptologe Cyril Aldred knows after that the Amarna - art style distinctions between men and women shows, according to whether the neck concave oris convex.Semenchkare and Nofretete have both a female neck, and Semenchkare has the titles of the Nofretete, „loved from Wa-EN-RH “. Wa-EN-RH was the throne name Echnatons. With the Inthronisation a new name was accepted. This is a strong indication for the fact that Nofretete under the name Semenchkare the throne to have mounted could. Unclear it is also whether Nofretete was the king widow, who wrote the hethitischen yard in order a hethitischen king son the marriage to offer (Dachamunzu affair so mentioned). New food received this assumption by the find of the wreck from Uluburun before thatTurkish south coast. A ship from the Bronzezeit, which was lifted including freight and equipment. In opinion of archaeologists it was loaded with gifts of the Egyptian Pharaonin Nofretete to the king of the Hethiter (Suppiluliuma I.?). The ship was copied and is todaytogether with finds, under it a Skarabäus of the Nofretete in the underwater museum in Bodrum.

death

both the reason for Nofretetes death and place and time are unknown, however it is not mentioned starting from a certain time no more in the public life. Assumptions date thatDeath year on 1338 v. Chr., that 14. Government year, their married man. Other sources put their assumed death in 12. Government year. One speculates whether it possibly murdered or offended. Also a death due to a sudden illness is considered by some researchers. If itwhen Semenchkare began the succession to the throne, then it disappeared after few years, together with its daughter and with Regentin Merit Aton. In these chaotic times a murder from follow-up disputes is possible.

According to the theory of Joann Fletcher became Nofretetes mummy 2003 in the grave KV 35in the valley of the kings identifies, after they verschollen up to then were. This is strongly doubted by the remaining professional world due to contradictory indications.

the Büste

the Büste of the Nofretete was discovered 1912 with excavations by Ludwig Borchardt and secretly from Egypt after Berlin brought. One recognized immediately the completed technical skill and the beauty of these, 47 centimeters of large Büste manufactured from limestone and gypsum, which present themselves in the style of the Amarna art. It was found in the studio of the sculptor Thutmosis, together with a set of unfinished copies. Egypt demandedit several times back.

It was to at the beginning of of 2005 in the Egyptian museum in Berlin in Charlottenburg. Since that 13. August 2005 is it on stopover in the old person museum, before it returns finally in the year 2009 to the new museum on the museum island.

Work on []

Prehistory

around the turn of the century took place a contest between the individual nations to make archaeological finds. French and English expeditions were financially better equipped and also diplomatically more successfully. The Prussian Academy of Sciences appointed therefore 1898 the Ägyptologen and architect Ludwig Borchardtscientific Attaché at the imperial Consulate General in Cairo. Thus one got first privately financed excavations in the proximity of the pyramids of Gizeh. In order financial support to received, turned Borchardt to the German Orient society (DOG). The rich citizen of Berlin cotton dealer and Mäzen James Simon followedthe call and wanted to have new exhibits for the citizens of Berlin museums.1906 one secured oneself the excavation license in Tell el Amarna.

expedition

in the autumn 1912 dug the expedition of the DOG into Tell el Amarna. To 6. December became within the range P 47, the name forthe remainders of an antique house, in the room 19 the Büste of the Nofretete in the studio of the sculptor Thutmosis found. Borchardt describes the find in its diary:

„... life-large painted Büste of the queen, 47 centimeters highly. With the straight above cut off blue Perücke (the helmet crown), uphalf height still has put down volume. Colors as evenly presented. Work completely protruding. Describe uses nothing, regard. “

Berlin

1913 is given the export licence at Simon and the Büste to Berlin is brought, where her first in Simons mansion (Tiergartenstr. 15a, today seat) one sets up to the federal state representation Baden-Wuerttemberg. The find was not strongly publicly presented, in order to avoid complications. Afterwards Simon gave the Büste to the Egyptian museum, which showed these in October 1913 in the context of the citizens of Berlin Tell el Amarna looking to the citizens of Berlin museum island. Considering the value Egypt undertookseveral attempts to exchange the Büste against other preciousnesses. 1930 could repel only strong protests the exchange.one offered even the marshal staff from Rommel to 1956 to the exchange.

Im Jahr 1943 während des Zweiten Weltkriegs wurde die Büste in dem Tresor der Reichsbankverstaut und späterin the Flack shelters zoo and saltworks - a lug in Thuringia.

the Americans in Wiesbaden a central Sammellager for art treasures arranged Wiesbaden after the Second World War (Collection POINT (CCP)). The Büste of the Nofretete reached Wiesbaden in cotton wool packed in a crate, upthat the multicolored queen written stood. The director/conductor of the art protection officers walter Farmer prevented that the Nofretete was shipped after Washington (D.C. ). Until 1956 it was issued in the Wiesbadener city museum and returned to it to Berlin Charlottenburg.

literature

  • of olive Simons: The robbery of the Nofretete.In:Ulrich van the Heyden, Joachim Zeller (Hrsg.) „… Power and portion of the world domination. “ Berlin and the German colonialism. Unrast, Münster 2005. ISBN 3-89771-024-2
  • Christine El-Mahdy: Tutenchamun. Life and dying of the young Pharao. Blessing, Munich 2000. ISBN 3-89667-072-7


 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)