the nomenclature is the system of scientific names for organisms and from rules to their education and application. Depending upon the investigation article (plants, animals, etc.) its own set of rules exists. A main goal of the nomenclature rules is the guarantee of clarityfor the scientific names.
Table of contents
form of the name for scientific names of the group of kindsthe binominalen nomenclature. Two Nomina (singular Nomen, here names) form the total name, which should be clear.
The first name is the generic name (to a certain extent the “surname”) and the second name is the kind name of the kind Epitheton is called. The generic namethereby with large initial letter and is a if necessary latinisiertes noun is written in the Nominativ singular.
The kind Epitheton is written small and is a latinisiertes adjective, participle or a noun in the Nominativ singular and/or. a noun or a substantiviertes adjective in the genitive.An adjective or a participle must follow the generic name in the grammatical sex and with a change of the kind is also accordingly adapted. Within a kind kinds must carry different names, the same kind Epitheton in different kinds are permissible against it. With animal speciescan the generic name and the kind Epitheton be identical (z. B.Eagle owl: Bubo bubo), with plant types is illegal that.
Variations of this system are:
- the indication of the name of the subspecies, which is written small behind the kind name (z.B.Homo sapiens sapiens)
- the designation of breed forms by adding a further smallwritten name and the designation var. for variation, for example with Equus przewalski var. caballus - the form bred from the house horse (Equus caballus)the Przewalski horse (Equus przewalski)
- the designation of hybrids also by indication of the kind names of both parents for instance with the Maultier (Equus caballus × asinus), that from a horse (E. caballus) and a donkey (E. asinus) one crossed.
In the print format the scientific name is to be either italically set or underlined.
who assigns the names?
The names are assigned by the researchers, who describe the kind the first time. Around the origin oneNamed to get straight, in the scientific literature the name of the author (often shortened) is attached at the scientific names.Carl von Linné, the “father” of the taxonomy, described and designated many kinds as the first. Therefore are many biologicalName of the form „kind kind L. “, whereby „L stands. “for Linné. If a kind of another kind than original is attributed, the name/the abbreviation of the Systematikers, which arranged the kind first, is written in parentheses behind the name. Seethe list of the abbreviations of biologist
criteria for the naming
the names of the generic and group of kinds often become from a special characteristic (z. B. Color, size of, behavior), from the place of the discovery or from a family namederived. The name assignment takes place into by the author, who introduced the kind or kind rule-fairly.
If an editor regards several names as synonyms in and the same kind, then the oldest available name has priority (priority principle).
international sets of rulesto the nomenclature
today the following sets of rules (nomenclature codes) are accepted:
- Plants (inclusive mushrooms and Cyanobakterien): International code of the Botani nomenclature (ICBN)
- animals: Internationally code OF Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN)
- bacteria: Bacteriological code (UC)
- cultivated plants: Internationally codeOF Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP)
- viruses: Internationally new suggested code OF virus Classification and Nomenclature (
ICVCN), but not yet accepted, are Phylocode and bio code. The bio code would like thereby a uniform system of the nomenclature for all organisms alsoException of the viruses introduce, thus the systems ICBN, ICZN, UC and ICNCP replace. The PhyloCode intends to give rules for the designation of all hierarchical groupings standing over the kind.
Problems with the standardization of the existing systems of the nomenclature prepare thosenot so few cases, in which the same scientific generic name was used both in the animal realm and in the Pflanzenreich. For example the generic name Oenanthe in the Pflanzenreich means the Wasserfenchel (Apiaceae), in the animal realm the Steinschmätzer (birds, Muscicapidae). Further doubly used generic names are for example Alsophila, Ammophila, Arenaria, …
Web on the left of
- internationally code OF Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN)
- internationally code OF Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN)
- NCBI taxonomy (English)
- Nomenclator Zoologicus volume 1-9 (1939)