Northern Ireland

Inoffizielle Flagge Nordirlands

Unofficial flag of Northern Ireland
languages English, Scots, Irish
capital Belfast
head of state Elizabeth II.
Minister for Northern Ireland Peter Hain
of first Ministers regional parliament suspends
surface 13,843 km ² (somewhat smaller than Schleswig-Holstein)
population 1.692.500 (2003) (about as many as Hamburg)
Population density of 122.3 inhabitants per km ²
currency Pound of Sterling
time belt UTC, summer time: +1 UTC
Karte von Nordirland
map of total Ireland

Northern Ireland is a region of the united Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It consists of the largest part of the historical Irish province Ulster in the north of Ireland.

In relation to the republic Ireland is Northern Ireland more closely populated and has more industry.

Table of contents

Geografie

Northern Ireland forms the continuation of the landscape in North England and south Scotland toward the west. The coastal line is richly arranged. The climate actual as everywhere on the British islands - oceanic and is affected by the gulf stream.

Northern Ireland has a north south expansion of 130 km. From the east to the west there is 180 km. The length of the northIrish coast is about 500 km. The island Rathlin in the northeast belongs to Northern Ireland.

There are three Höhenzüge: in the northwest those Sperrin Mountains, in the northeast the Antrim plateau, in the southeast the Mourne Mountains (852 m).

Important cities:

economics

Northern Ireland was coined/shaped - like the Republic of Ireland - of emigration.

Larger investments were hardly transacted due to ethnical splitting and the political uncertainty; the gross domestic product (GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT) moved 1991on 81 per cent of the average in the united kingdom; unemployment was high.

Since 1997 more is invested and the economy grows more strongly. Since 1999 the country experiences a rise with the tourism.

administration

1972 became that Northern Ireland Ministry (English. Northern Irish country Office, ABC NIO) in London production, that of a Minister (English. Secretary OF State is led). Today (2005) is this Peter Hain. The Ministry is responsible for the ranges law and Gefängniswesen (English. criminal justice and prisons), police (see below), the welfare service for victims of politically motivated crime (English. victims) as well as - since that 14. October 2002, on which the regional government was subordinated directly to the centre government -the legal supervision over the authorities in Northern Ireland.

As also in Wales and Scotland the government of Tony Blair sets its politics of the decentralization (English. devolution) also in Northern Ireland over and a regional administration created. In Northern Ireland there is thatOffice of the executive (English.Office OF the Ministers and the Deputy Minister) as well as ten regional Ministries (English. department), i.e. for agriculture (English. agriculture), for culture (English. culture, kind and leisure), the ministry for education and cultural (English. education), the Ministryfor environmental protection (English. environment), for finances (English. finances and personnel), for health (English. health), for economics (English. enterprise, trade and investing), for advanced training (English. employment and learning), for regional development (English. regionally development) as well as for Social (English. social development). The advantage of this construction is in the fact that the Ministries of the republic Ireland an opposite is promoted in such a way not to London, but to Belfast to have and gradual growing together of Ireland.

Until 1972 Northern Ireland was in sixDistricts (English.counties) arranged (average number of inhabitants: 260.000). These were Antrim, Armagh, down, Fermanagh, Londonderry and Tyrone. Since then there are 26 districts (English. districts and “boroughs”) with on the average 60,000 inhabitants.

history

To Giants Causeway

see major items: History of Northern Ireland, Northern Ireland conflict

the division of Ireland into the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland took place 1921 . In the consequence the catholic population part was disadvantaged with jobs and dwellings. The society divided into usually catholic republicansor nationalist (a goal: Combination with the Republic of Ireland) and usually Protestant unionists or Loyalisten (a goal: Remain under British government).

politics

the political parties reflect to today ethnical splitting of the province; Democratic unionist party (DUP) and UUP (moderately) begin for the Protestant-per-British-unionistic side, sense Féin (SF) and SDLP (moderately) for the catholic-per-Irish-nationalistic side. The Alliance party is an interdenominational party.

The elections of 26. The following results resulted in November 2003 (in per cent): DUP 26,1,UUP 23.0, sense fine (SF) 24.0, SDLP 17,8.

the Presbyterianer (belonged to those among other things Ian Paisley) with approximately 20 per cent forms church the largest Protestant community.

Anglikani church: Differently than in England exists since 1871 no national church. About 260,000 humans (13% of the population) rank themselves among the anglikanischen community, whose archbishop (Robert Eames) in Armagh resides and is responsible also for those about 70,000 members in the Republic of Ireland.

Besides are threePer cent of Methodists.

Catholic: Call themselves about 40 per cent of the north Irish as Roman catholic. The seat of the Primas of Ireland (Sean Brady) is likewise in Armagh. Also the catholic Primas is an totalIrish institution.

Population afterChurch affiliation (Census 2001):

  • Protestant churches: 45.57%
(Presbyterian Church in Irish country: 20.69%
Church OF Irish country (Anglikaner): 15.30%
Methodist Church in Irish country: 3.51%
Other Christian churches: 6.07%)

police

the earlier Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) are called since 1999 policy service OF Northern Irish country (PSNI). While it consisted until 1998 almost exclusively of unionistisch Protestant officials, it became 1999 around half on approximatelyReduced and Irish-catholic applicants are to adjust 7000 officials, in order to be able to ensure the social peace with new employment to the half.

tourism

Northern Ireland is a safe tourist country; the border controls between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland were void to the majority.

Having Temple/cost. Antrim

Naturdenkmal worth seeing is the Giant's Causeway (dt. Dam of the giant), approximately 40,000 basalt columns at the sea, protected by national the Trust, about 20 km to the west of Ballycastle at the north coast of Antrim. Further areas worth seeingand landscapes are:

  • The mountains of Mourne (English. the Mountains OF Mourne)
  • Lough Neagh, largest lake of the British islands
  • Lough Erne
  • strand Ford Lough
  • Carlingford Lough
  • the Antrim valleys (English. the Glens OF Antrim)
  • the sea-country of Fermanagh (English. the Fermanagh Lakeland)
  • the check in mountains (English. the Sperrin Mountains)
  • national park (English. the national park OF Northern Irish country)

like also in the republic Ireland belong gulf, fishing rods, moving and boat tourism to the possible vacation activities; itgives boat routes, which connect the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.

Cultural events concentrate in Belfast and Derry. The tourism carries with 1,5 millions Visitors (2002) to 2 per cent to the northIrish gross national income; the large majority of the visitors comes from thatRepublic of Ireland as well as from the other regions of the united kingdom. About 100,000 visitors come ever from the USA and the European union.

traffic

of flights: Northern Ireland has three international airports, two with Belfast, one with Derry.Starting from Berlin-Schönefeld in the summer only EasyJet offers direct flights from Germany to 2005.


Car: The Motorway M1 connects Belfast with Dungannon, the Motorway M2 leads from Belfast to Antrim, the Motorway M3 from Belfast to Ballymacarrett.

Bus:Since the traction network is very thin, a quite close net from Buslinien developed.

Railway: Northern Ireland has a relatively thin traction network of 340 km. Translink uses excluding courses with Diesel drive and connects Belfast with:

  • Derry (via Ballymena andColeraine) northward,
  • Portrush (via Ballymena and Coleraine) northward,
  • Larne after northeast,
  • Dublin (via Portadown) to the south
  • Bangor eastward

literature

it does not give so far (November 2004) a German-language travel guide only for Northern Ireland; Northern Ireland imagines therefore in each caseChapter in travel guides over Ireland or the united kingdom.

  • Friedhelm Rathjen: Singing bicycle tires in Ulster. An Irish border experience. Edition ReJoyce, Scheessel 2004, ISBN 3000135510
  • Dietrich Schulze Marmeling (Hg.): Northern Ireland. History, landscape, culture, routes. VG. The workshop, Goettingen 1996, ISBN 3895331775

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