North Korea

조선민주주의인민공화국
(朝鮮民主主義人民共和國)

Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk
Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Flagge von Nordkorea Wappen von Nordkorea
(detail) (detail)
office language Korean
capital Pjöngjang
system of government socialist People's Republic with considerable influence of the military
of chairmen of the Verteidigungskommitees Kim Jong IL 1
chairman of the presidency of the highest popular assembly Kim Yong nam 2
head of the government Pak Pong ju
surface 122,762 km ² (95.)
Number of inhabitants 22.912.177 (July 2005) (47.)
Population density of 186 inhabitants per km ² (42.)
GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT
- total (nominal)
- GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT/Einw. (Nominally)
2004
20.8 billion USD
914 USD
independence since 1948
Currency of northKorean Won
currency symbol ₩; ISO-4217-Code: KPW
time belt UTC +9 (KST)
national anthem Achimun pin era
Kfz characteristic kp
Internet TLD .kp (reserved, not used)
preselection +850
1 Kim Jong IL, at the same time chairmen of the Korean labour party, possesses actually oneauthority hardly limited.
2 Kim Yong nam is protokollarisches head of state. The 1994 deceased the Kim IL-sung is since 1998 “eternal president”.
Lage Nordkoreas in Asien
Karte von Nordkorea

The East Asian State of North Korea covers the northern part of the Korean peninsula. North Korea possesses borders to three neighbour states. In the south becomesit by the demilitarisierte zone separately from South Korea, with which it formed a common state up to the end of the Second World War. In the north it borders mostly on the People's Republic of China, in addition comes approx. 19 km longerBorder strip to Russia along the Tumen of river. Of North Korea west coast is to a part of the yellow sea because of the bay of Korea. In the east is the Japanese sea, which is called of the Koreans east sea (see also for this to name controversy Japanese sea).


Table of contents

13.1 general information

, designations

in Germany and Austria officially the designation democratic People's Republic of Korea one uses, inSwitzerland simply North Korea. North Korea prefers at that time the translation Korean democratic People's Republic as well as the abbreviation KDVR established in the GDR.

In North Korea the short form is Pukchosŏn (Hangeul: 북조선, Hanja: 北朝鮮, north Chosŏn) usually. In South Korea, whereTotal Korea Hanguk instead of Chosŏn is called, is called North Korea Bukhan (Hangeul: 북한, Hanja: 北韓, north Han).

geography

Klimadiagramm Pjöngjang

major item: Geography of North Korea

North Korea essentially possesses a moderate, continental climate with four minted seasons. The yearly precipitation falls mainly during of the Monsoon (jangma) in the period of June until August. The winter months are characterized by cold weather and dryness. In the autumn the country is occasionally affected by Taifunen.

The interior is only thinly populated because of its gebirgigen character. The population concentratesitself on the coastal regions in the west and the east of the country. Accordingly are there also the largest cities of North Korea; beside the capital Pjöngjang are this Hamhŭng, Kaesong, Sinŭiju as well as Ch'ŏngjin.

The highest mountain is Paektu san (2.744m), which is admired in North Korea as holy. The most important rivers are the Tumen and the Yalu.

population

North Korea possesses approx. 23 millions Inhabitant. The average life expectancy of the men amounts to 68 years, those of the Mrs. 74Years. By again and again the arising hunger emergencies and the bad medical supply the life expectancy however clearly reduced.

North Korea is ethnical homogeneous and exhibits the proportionally lowest foreigner portion of all states of this world. One sees from a small ChineseOff, then almost exclusively Koreans in the country live minority in the north of the country. Reasons for this are the nationalistic policy of the government, social proscription of all Nichtkoreaner and the small attractiveness of the country for immigrants. It is considered itself as practically impossible, asTo establish foreigner in North Korea.

Due to the difficult economic situation, in particular the bad Nahrungsmittelversorgung, in the last years many north Koreans fled to China. It is assumed that between 50.000 and 300.000 refugees in China are North Korea niche. China pushes howeverRefugees from North Korea off, so that these must back to North Korea. Data of Amnesty according to international are regarded, tortured and executed refugees, who come from the Chinese border back, in North Korea as national traitors.

It was repeated reported that the inhabitants ofare divided for the government in three classes:

  1. „Comrades “, i.e. „varying
  2. persons “„hostilely
  3. gesinnte persons “the class affiliation

the entrance to training, occupation affects loyale persons and also too of the government distributed goods like e.g. Food. One estimates that aboutThe quarter population to the class that hostilely Gesinnten to be counted.

religion

the traditional religions of Korea are the Buddhismus and the Konfuzianismus, today is however probably a majority of the population atheistisch. The article 68 thatgrants North Korea niches condition its citizen free practice of its religion, as long as this is not abused „for infiltration by outside forces or for the injury of the national and social order[1]. Nevertheless report Christian organizations such as open Doors that practicing Christians in Reeducating camps were interned. There would be several looking churches for propaganda purposes, which confirmed right by a document in the condition the Christians however refused, since it does not concern a nationally controlled organization. Nevertheless give it an active underground church [2]. Also amnesty internationally reports of the missing freedom of religion and the internment of Christian [3]. The Christianity was for a long time particularly in Pjöngjang strongly represented. However there were to approximately 2,300 churches and 300,000 Gläubige there around 1907, why the city also„Jerusalem of the east “one called.

history

history of Korea

Go-Joseon, Jin
Buyeo, Okjeo, Dongye,
Samhan, Gaya
time three realms:
Goguryeo, Baekje, Silla
united Silla and Balhae
late one three realms
Goryeo
Joseon
Japanese crew
north and/or. South Korea

history before the Second World War is to be found under Korea.

the division of Korea

after by the surrender of Japan the Second World War its end took, became since1910 of Japan occupied Korea of the allied powers along 38. Degree of latitude in two zones of occupation divided. The south was occupied by American troops, the north came under control of the Red Army.

In the following became an economic and in North KoreaSystem of government after socialist conceptions furnished. To 9. September 1948 proclaimed the head of the later Korean labour party, Kim IL-sung, the Korean democratic People's Republic than answer on the few weeks before effected proclaiming of the Republic of Korea in the American sphere of influence. Bothregarded in each case as a legal government over completely Korea. After both sides repeats itself engagements at the border had supplied, the conflict finally escalated to the Korea war (1950-53), which made all hopes for an imminent reunification destroyed.

The rule Kim IL-sungs

The three-year plan (1954-56) repaired the damage resulted from the war and brought the industrial production to Vorkriegsniveau. The following Fünf-Jahres-Plan (1957-61) and the filter yearly plan (1961 67) brought a further growth and the development to productionof infrastructure with itself. Until 1969 were North Korea economically long politically and the economically unstable south superior. Toward end of the 1960er years showed the North Korea niche economics however signs of a stagnation, which resembled the other states of the Eastern Bloc. A decrease thatagricultural production and the lack of consumer goods led to a fall of the economy, the immense military expenditure did their remaining.

Ausdruck des Personenkult um Kim-il-Sung
Expression person cult around Kim IL Sung

the controversy between the USSR and the People's Republic of China over those, budding into the 1950er yearsfurther development of communism continued to complicate the situation of North Korea. Kim IL-sung struck itself here at first on the side Mao Zedongs and took over from it in particular strict holding to traditional ideas of communism as well as concepts of the person cult. As itfinally openly the behavior of Khrushchev during the Cuba crisis 1962 criticized, cut the Soviet Union all assistance for North Korea. China, which was imprisoned even in confusions of the culture revolution, could not replace the USSR as trade partners, so that Kim IL-sung starting from 1965a normalization of the relationship to the USSR worked.

Proclaiming the Juche - ideology toward end of the 1960er years, which define the autarcy of North Korea as a the highest goal, appears as reaction increasingly on those position of North Korea isolated. Juche celebrated North Korea niche mediaeven the Leninism superior ideology and Kim IL-sung from now on as large leaders one called. With the removal of rivaling currents within the Korean labour party it succeeded to Kim IL-sung to strengthen its powerful position further.

1968 cape ores the North Korea niche navy underunsettled circumstances the American espionage ship USS Pueblo. It is today in the port of Pjöngjang and can be visited.

1972 accepted North Korea a new condition, due to those Kim IL-sung as the president were explained. The cult around its personfrom now on extents never known assumed. Officially it is explained since then as author and central figure of the communist movement in Korea.

Kim Jong IL as successors of its father

Kim IL-sung died 1994. After a nationally orderedits son Kim Jong IL the posts of the Secretary-General of the Korean labour party as well as the chairman of the national defense commission took over three-year mourning time. The post of the president is today free until, since Kim is IL-sung an eternal president. Kim Jong IL becomes since thenloved leaders calls.

Into the 1990er years continued to worsen the economic situation of North Korea and the country by large hunger emergencies was afflicted. In this time should up to two million humans be verhungert. According to estimations of the world nourishing organization suffers stilltoday over half of the population at malnutrition.

In the year 2000 Kim appeared Dae jungs relaxation successes between north and South Korea in the context of the sunshine politics. Attendance of separate for decades at short notice relatives living by the Korean division were possible. ThoseCrews of north and South Korea marched together with the olympic plays into the same year. Finally it came even to the first summit of the two heads of state. A fundamental transformation in the direction of the unit of Korea did not arise as a result of it however yet.

To 22. April 2004 came it in the city Ryongchon been because of the border to the People's Republic of China to a large railway disaster. According to the Chinese press agency Xinhua were killed at least 161 humans and hurt about 1,300. (see also: Course disaster ofRyongchon)

stood for North Korea last frequently in the focus of the world public because of the controversy over its nuclear weapon program. After own data North Korea orders concerning several operational atom bombs. One assumes that the intercontinental missile of the type at present in North Korea in development“Taepodong-2 “, equipped with an atomic blowing up head, the west coast of the USA to reach can.

chronicle of the controversy over the nuclear weapon program

into the 1950er years began North Korea, supported from the USSR, with the development of nuclear weapons. In the year1985 joined it on pressure of the USSR the nuclear weapon check contract . After the departure of the American nuclear weapons from South Korea north and South Korea agreed 1992 on an agreement, which explained the Korean peninsula as the nuclear weapon-free zone.

One year later refused North Koreahowever and threatened supervisors of the IAEO the admission to his reactor in Yongbyon with the withdrawal from the nuclear weapon check contract. After tough negotiations an escalation of the crisis could do by the signing of the Geneva outline agreement between the USA and North Korea to 21.October 1994 to be provisionally turned away. North Korea committed itself therein to the task of its nuclear weapon program as well as to the whereabouts in the nuclear weapon check contract and to the continuation of controls by the IAEO. In response the reactors with American assistance, existing in North Korea, should to light-water reactors, which are less suitable for the production of nuclear weaponable plutonium, are reequipped. Besides North Korea up to their completion should receive oil deliveries annually for the accomplishment of its energy problems.

To 18. April 1996 the first „four-party discussions became consisting “, of North Korea, South Korea, the USA andChina, celebrates. From these discussions resulted to 5. August 1997 the acknowledgment of the truce of 1953. Further negotiations failed.

To 31. August 1998 flew over a Korean medium-range missile of the type „Taepodong-1 “Japan (see also Kwangmyongsong).

In October2001 designated US president George W. Bush Kim Jong IL disparagingly as „Pygmäen “and expressed the intention for the fall of the head of state. In of Bush „speech for the situation of the nation “in January 2002 North Korea on the list „of the rogue stateslanded,„the axle of the bad one “. Officially the American government stresses however until today that it does not have an intention of proceeding against North Korea militarily.

In October the USA accused 2002 of due to secret service reports North Korea to work further on a nuclear weapon program andto hurt thus the agreements of the Geneva outline agreement. The North Korea niche government did not express itself directly to the reproaches, it mentioned however that she was justified in principle due to the “American aggression” to pursue such a program. As consequence the USA placed inDecember the oil deliveries at North Korea. Thereupon North Korea explained to 10. January 2003 its withdrawal from the nuclear weapon check contract. In the May of the same yearly it explained the agreement with South Korea over a nuclear weapon-free Korean peninsula for futile.

To 10. February 2005 statedNorth Korea finally publicly to possess operational nuclear weapons and announced at the same time nuclear weapon tests . At the same time it communicated its retreat from the six-party discussions over the settlement of the atomic controversy and threatened with the development of its arsenal. The national press agency of North Korea, KCNA, threwin the announcement the USA one „politics for the isolation and asphyxiation “forwards and justified the nuclear weapon possession as means of self-defense against the USA. Whether North Korea actually possesses nuclear weapons, is disputed.

After newest messages of the Japanese secret service the first test standsNorth Korea niches a nuclear weapon briefly before.

In the meantime again the taken up six-party discussions culminated to 19. September 2005 in a common explanation, in which North Korea signaled its readiness to give its nuclear weapon program up in favor of economical and technological assistance.

politics

Political system

Nordkoreanisches Grenzhaus bei Panmunjon.
northKorean border house with Panmunjon.

North Korea is according to condition a socialist state. The marxism however officially replaced by by state founder the Kim IL-sung developedChuch'e ideology “.

The government machinery is dominated by the communist Korean labour party, their guide rolleris embodied in the condition. The highest power organ of the state forms formally the parliament (highest popular assembly), whose members are selected on five years. Since this meets however only until twice in the year for few days, that becomesCountry during the meeting tracing the popular assembly highest of the presidency governs. Its chairman, at present Kim Yong nam, is theoretically a head of state. Besides exists the Verteidigungskommitee, which is responsible for the foreign policy as well as possesses the supreme command over the military.

ThatProcedure for the occupation of public offices is called in the condition „democratic centralism “. From elections the only, set up by the Korean labour party, candidate with overwhelming majority usually follows as a winner.

The actual power structures within the country are vaguely, abroad North Korea is regarded predominantly as totalitarian dictatorship under the guidance Kim Jong ILS. Since the death of its father the post of the president any longer not occupied, there this always Kim IL-sung („the eternal president “) is reserved. Kim Jong IL combines however apart from other tops position the presidency of the Korean labour party and the Verteidigungskommitees on itself, which were explained by the parliament in the meantime as „the highest office of the state “. This can as consequence of the Songun politics introduced of Kim Jong IL seenbecome, after which all interests of the state of the development and improvement of the military are to be subordinated. „The protection of the revolutionary guidance at any price is the highest Patriotismus and the first priority of our military and the people “, it was saidafter reports of the South Korean press agency Yonhap in a editorial of the official newspaper Rodong Shinmun. This is justified with a threat scenario, which proceeds from the always acute danger of an invasion by foreign troops. Not least also that becomes by SongunStructure of the nuclear weapon arsenal justified. As consequence the population always suffers hunger emergencies, it lacks consumer goods, the infrastructure is insufficient and the health system insufficient.

human rights

North Korea counts to those countries, in those the human rights to feware respected. Criticism at the guidance is punished strengstens. The media are controlled completely by the state, authorized meetings are forbidden. It is not permitted to the north Koreans to leave the country. Also the place of residence in the country becomes from the authoritiesprescribed. Condemned persons are often executed in the public.

Groups of human rights report of several catching and labour camps in the country, in those among other things also many political prisoners, as well as humans, who were only arrested due to their faith, are arrested. Even pregnant woman womenin these camps to long and hard work are forced. The arrested ones are delivered the arbitrariness of the attendants, besides reports over torture exist. Arrested died due to torture, hunger, by food withdrawal or due to small offenses was executed. Western relief organizationsaccording to approximately 200,000 humans interned (conditions 2005), from whom about 10 to 20% annually by miserable camp conditions or Exekutionen to death comes. Isolated a witness, who succeeded to flee from the camps and from North Korea,report besides on people attempts at prisoners with gases or viruses.

The freedom of religion in North Korea is not ensured (see section religion).

To China fled north Koreans, who were pushed away from China back to North Korea, are to have been executed, partly publicly, overTo deter compatriots before an escape. So at the beginning of of 2005 in only one month 70 humans are to have died in this way.

The distribution of food supplied by the foreign country and other auxiliary goods was so far always accomplished by the authorities. The governmentso particularly aggravated during the hunger emergency of the 1990er years the situation, since government-friendly persons and in particular the military were preferred. Since a fair distribution of the auxiliary goods could not be ensured, several relief organizations from North Korea withdrew themselves.

Uninformativeness

the public media are controlled completely by the state and its press agency KNCA. The citizens have practically no entrance to independent and foreign intelligence sources. In the 2004 of „reporter without borders “published rank list to the Pressefreiheit occupied North Korea thatlast place.

In June 2004 - 18 months after the first network carrier its service it had taken up - the government of North Korea ordered that all mobile telephones are to be drawn in and all portable radio operators are forbidden. It is to be prevented with the fact that unpleasant informationinto the country come or the same abandoned.

The North Korea niche government is anxious to prevent free reporting in North Korea. Journalists, also from the foreign country, may move only accompanied by nationally ordered testers in the country. Exemplarily this is recognizable from it,the fact that writers from South Korea were allowed to visit, the North Korea niche colleagues afterwards in their documentation only on northKorean meal reported.

North Korea is essentially partitioned of the global Internet. The Domain .kp is inactive. The few official web pages, which exist over North Korea, becomeabroad gehostet. It is to be accepted that the Nomenklatura the entrance to the global Internet is granted. Some authorities as well as government employees, Touristenguides and student, with which western visitors may converse, have E-Mail addresses with Chinese Providern, under those them alsofrom the west are attainable.

There is to be a country-wide Intranet, which connects mainly authorities and Ministries. In the large one the people may western visitors study-resound observe, how students chatten over this Intranet. To what extent its civilian use beyond that possibleis, is unknown.

In the year 2004 a read hall of the Goethe Institute in Pjöngjang was opened. The existence covers practical specialized books from medicine to civil engineerings apart from German literature above all. Additionally there German magazines and newspapers are to be freely accessible. To what extent itthe North Korea niches population is actually possible to accept this offer is however disputed.

administrative arrangement

North Korea is divided into nine provinces as well as three „special administrative regions “. Two cities are administered directly by the government.

provinces

special administrative regions

cities under direct administration of the government

  • Pjöngjang (P'yŏng yang Chik'alshi; 평양직할시; 平壤直轄市)
  • Rasŏn (Rajin Sŏnbong) (Rasŏn Chik'alshi; 라선 (라진 - 선봉) 직할시; 羅先 (羅津 - 先鋒) 直轄市)


see also: List of the cities in North Korea

infrastructure

the transportation network is particularly on thoseNeeds of the military aligned. Main traffic carrier is the railway. From Pjöngjang motorways lead after northeast. However the individual traffic in North Korea does not have a meaning. With Pjöngjang is an international airport.

economics

major item: Economics of North Korea

work upa rice field
a tautly centralized planned economy, which was aligned in the context of the prevailing Juche ideology over decades to autarcy , possesses 1989 North Korea. All Hauptindustrien as well as the agriculture are in national hand. The special attention of the Pjöngjanger guidance lies after howforwards on the militarily important heavy industry, in favor of those in particular production of consumer goods and the agriculture are strongly neglected.

The loss of the former trade partners in the Eastern Bloc led to a large extent to a collapse of the economy of the country. Due to pendingCredits at a value of approx. 12.9 billion USD are internationally not recognized endorsements of northKorean banks, what makes the foreign trade more difficult strongly. For the nutrition of its population North Korea is dependent on food supplies of foreign relief organizations. The support in the form of food and oil throughthe UN was however terminated, after North Korea refused the attitude of its nuclear weapon program. As consequence of the still strained supplying situation the government undertakes zaghafte attempts to reform the economy in free market direction. Like that it is in the meantime permitted to each citizen, into operate its spare time a small agriculture, whereby in some cities also small markets form. The moreover the government tries, by Joint ventures (see also Pyonghwa of engine) and the mechanism of special economic zones (see also administrative region Sinŭiju)to lure foreign investors in the country. By these measures in connection with extremely small labour costs it succeeded to the government, the foreign trade, in particular with China and South Korea, strongly to increase ([4]).

The large expenditures, those for maintenanceits from 1.2 million soldier existing army are necessary, affect the economic development extremely negatively. North Korea uses a third of its gross national income for its military and lies thereby at the world point, far before the USA and South Korea (approx.3% respectable. 1,4%).

There are reports, after which the Sec. Trickfilmstudio transfers to Pjöngjang order work for western of Studios; it is to have cooperated among other things in the films king of the lions and Pocahontas.

tourism

landscape in North Korea 1989
forthe tourism to North Korea the national tourism organization (Ryohaengsa) is responsible, over which each journey must be booked. Each travel's group and also alone travelers by two guides, those are accompanied permanent usually the native language of the respective touristsspeak. The entire program is determined by the guides; after possibility each contact is prevented for native population. In the last years the tourism increased strongly, even if tourists from western countries are still relatively rare. Thus spend annuallyonly approximately 100 Germans their vacation in North Korea. Most tourists come from China and Japan. For citizens of the States of the USA and South Korea no possibility usually exists of attaining a visa for North Korea.

In the Kŭmgangsan - mountains give itsome routistic plants, which were built by the Hyundai - company and are operated. Journeys there are possible, exeptionally also for south Koreans and Americans, in organized groups from South Korea (see also tourist region Kŭmgang san).

culture

This articleor section is still incomplete and exhibits the following gaps :

See: Traditional Korean ways of thinking and ideology, South Korean culture
Help Wikipedia, by extending it and working on him now!

Gesticktes picture (1989)
the North Korea niche culture is of the glorification Kim Jong ILSand its deceased of father Kim IL-sung coined/shaped. Military parades and Massengymnastiken are typical, in which thousands of humans participate. Here the imperturbable loyalty and victim readiness for the government are to be sworn to. Gestickte pictures represent a characteristic relating to crafts, on thatfirst view from photos to to hardly differentiate are.

After death Kim IL-sungs into North Korea officially after the state ideology designated „Juche - calendars “introduced. It differs from the Gregorian calendar by the annuity, those with the birth year of theState founder - 1912 - begins. The year 2006 is thus the year „Juche 95 “.

national holidays

  • birthday Kim Jong ILS: 16. February
  • birthday Kim IL-sungs: 15. April
  • day of the army: 25. April
  • day of the international socialistWorker: 1. May
  • day of death Kim IL-sungs: 8. July
  • day of the victory in the patriotic war of liberation (Korea war): 27. July
  • day of national release (of Japan): 15. August
  • day of the establishment of state: 9. September
  • day of the establishment that Korean labour party: 10. October
  • day of the condition: 27. December

library nature

Die große Studienhalle des Volkes (Mai 2005).
the large study-resounds the people (May 2005).
There is to be 15,000 libraries in North Korea. Each municipality is to be furnished obligated apart from the everyday basic supply also libraries.

Howeverthere is no bibliothekarische training. The assumption of a library line at least a university library presupposes a higher education. An initiative of the Goethe Institute tries since May 2005 to help the country to a qualified training centre for librarians.

The national library in Pjöngjang calls itself„Large one study-resounds the people “and is a mixture from library and people's highschool. It is to accommodate 30 million medium units. To visit are indeed numerous specialized read halls as well as lecture-rooms, language laboratories and mechanisms for the production of remote teaching materials.

As library system seems To come CDS/ISIS for the application and as listing formats MARKS - a derivative.

music

classical European music

the national Sinfonieorchester of the KDVR was formed from that 1950 - 1953 existing “orchestras of the People's Army” and has todayabout 120 members. It is led by Kim Byong Hwa (*1936). While first many had been trained the musician in the Soviet Union or Eastern Europe, the recent generation studied particularly at the college of music of Pjöngjang. The few outside of North Koreaavailable photographs show continuous the yardsticks of international point orchestras an appropriate level. The repertoire of the North Korea niches orchestras consists Soviet composer of compositions of well-known European composers of the classical and romantic epoch, such as Schostakowitsch and Prokofieff and above all contemporary northKorean music, thosecontinuous oriented at socialist realism and strongly is affected by Korean people music. Likes is the integration of folklore instruments into the classical ochestra. For many North Korea niches compositions the national Sinfonieorchester is indicated as an author. Almost all compositions have titles by programand refer often also to current political or social events. One of the few in particular well-known composers is Choe Song Hwan. Special reputation enjoys the GermanKorean composer Yun I sang (Isang Yun) (1917 - 1995), after alsonumerous cultural institutions are designated. A further well-known orchestra is the Yun I sang Philharmonic Orchestra, which is directed by Kim IL Jin (*1956). The music training with talented promotion and special schools corresponds to the Soviet model in the fundamentals.

Work on []

See also

literature

  • Hyondok Choe, you-Yul Song, Rainer Werning (Hg.): Where does North Korea steer? Social conditions - development tendencies - perspectives, PapyRossa publishing house Cologne 2004. ISBN 3-89438-309-7
  • Hanns W. Maull and Ivo M.Maull:In the focus: Korea. C.H. Beck publishing house Munich 2004. ISBN 3-406-50716-6
  • Pierre Rigoulot: North Korea: Stone time communism and nuclear weapons, anatomy of a crisis. Kiepenheuer & Witsch Cologne 2003. ISBN 3-462-03347-6
  • Jens Tevres, Vimal Vichare: Hands away of North Korea! Ahriman publishing house 2003 (Ketzerbriefe, 115) ISBN 3-894-84233-4
  • Bruce Cumings: Korea's Place into the Sun. A decaying History. W. W. Norton & company 1998. ISBN 0-39331681-5
  • Feffer, John: North Korea and the USA, the American interests on the Korean peninsula. Diederichs Munich 2004.
  • Maierbrugger, Arno: North Korea manual: on the wayin a secretful country. Tre, Berlin 2004. ISBN 3-89794-039-6
  • franc, Ruediger: North Korea: Between stagnation and change pressure, in: Derichs, Claudia/Heberer, Thomas (Hrsg.): Introduction to the political systems of Eastern Asia. Leske and Budrich, Opladen 2003, S. 271-325.
  • Rigoulot, Pierre: Crime, terror andSecret in North Korea, in: Courtois, Stéphane/Werth, Nicolas among other things: The black book of communism. Suppression, crime and terror, Munich/Zurich 1998 (original frz.: 1997), S. 609-629.
  • Hyok Kang: You are here in the Paradies. My childhood in North Korea, Goldmann, 2005, ISBN 3442153468 (thatEmpiric report of the 1986 in North Korea born Hyok Kang, which fled 1998 with its parents to China and 2002 to South Korea arrived, describes in shaking way the life reality in its from the “large leader” controlled homeland.)

to sources

  1. those North Korea niche condition over freedom of religion
  2. land profile North Korea of the Christian organization open Doors
  3. report of amnesty internationally

Web on the left of

Wiktionary: North Korea - word origin, synonyms and translations

general information

government-friendly pages

government-critical pages

films


coordinates: 40 N, 128O

 

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