Nubien

Nubien is the area between Aswan in Egypt (1. Nile Qatar act) and Karima in the Sudan (4. Nile Qatar act). The derivation of the name from the Egyptian word “nb.w” (nub - gold) is disputed. In old Egypt Nubien became since that Middle realm Kusch calls.

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situation and organization usual in Unternubien ( between Aswan and Wadi Halfa) and Obernubien (of Wadi Halfa to Karima).
Now and then the area between Karima and Khartum becomes, thatCapital of the modern State of the Sudan, when Südnubien designates.

Nubien is considered which can be added to Egypt and black Africa as interface between that rather the Mediterranean area. This applied in the past just like today.

prehistory

the prehistory Nubiens (bes. Unternubiens) becomesdivided into individual groups of cultures, which are named letters.

The A-group corresponds with late prähistorischen Egypt as well as with the Egyptian old person realm to approximately to 4. Dynasty (approx. 3500 - 2400 v. Chr.)
Formerly accepted B - groupexisted after newer investigations not.
In Obernubien there was the kerma culture, those in its beginnings (around 3500 v. Chr) was strongly related to the A-group. The C-group existed at present the Egyptian late old person as well as middle one of realm in Unternubien;in the 12. Dynasty became Unternubien up to 2. Nile Qatar act gradually of Egypt conquers (approx.2100 - 1750 v. Chr.). In Obernubien near that 3. Nile Qatar act developed from the kerma culture, the kingdom of kerma, that the earliestus represents to well-known Black African state. After the end of the Egyptian middle one of realm (around 1750 v. Chr.) the rulers of kerma Unternubien up to the border of the Egyptian heartland conquered and could in individual campaigns even until Egypt penetrate. Over 1500 v. Chr. destroyed the Pharaonen of the Egyptian new one of realm the realm of kerma and conquered Nubien up to 5. Nile Qatar act. The nubian peoples were assimilated culturally to a large extent. The Egyptian crew lasted to approx. 1000 v. Chr. on.

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The realm of Kusch

major item: Nubian history in the antique one

around 750 v. Chr. (possibly also already around 1000 v. Chr.) created nubian princes in the area of Karima a State of, that the old-Egyptian name Kusch took over and rapidlyexpanded. Around 700 v. Chr. Egypt was conquered. The nubian kings prevailed as 25. Dynasty over Egypt. Around 660 v. Chr. attained Egypt with assyrischer assistance the independence from Nubien, the kuschitische prince house prevailed however further south of Egypt. ThatSeat of the government lay in the city Napata with the today's Karima. Around 300 v. Chr. the capital was shifted after Meroe north of Khartum. In this time the cultural support at Egypt more and more is given up, what itself and. A. inthe development of an own writing and the use of the meroitischen language in official texts expresses. At the latest around 300 the realm of Kusch broke down, possibly. due to an environment disaster or a military defeat against the äthiopische realm of Axum.

Lufbildthe pyramids of Meroe in the year 2001

of the time of the 25. Dynasty as well as the napatanisch meroitischen realm witness in the Sudan to today above all numerous pyramids; the oldest pyramid established in the Sudan is probably those of the nubian Pharaos Piye upthe cemetery of El-Kurru. Model were probably not the Egyptian king pyramids from the time of the old person and middle one of realm, but the substantially younger Egyptian private pyramids above all the thebanischen area. But both the steep angle of inclination of the nubian speaksPyramids and the fact that they, like the Egyptian private pyramids of the new realm, are much more closely on each other built than the Egyptian king graves. Beyond that the grave form of the pyramid was reserved in Nubien not the kings, but alsowealthy private individuals left themselves in pyramids bestatten, which lets the nubian pyramids likewise stand in the tradition of the Egyptian private pyramids. The steep angle of inclination had probably also constructional reasons: A cutting design from the ruins of Meroe, near the village Begrawija, shows a Schaduf (a kind crane) as building things. The length of the arm of this crane limited the side length of the pyramids. In Nubien over 200 pyramids were found; thus stand for more pyramids than in in the Sudan Egypt. This is presenteverything to the fact that in Egypt only few of the private pyramids of the new realm until today are received.

In the fourth after-Christian century the meroitische realm seems to have disintegrated into differently smaller principalities or kingdoms. In cultural regard these small realms placethe continuation of Meroe.

See also: Pyramids of Meroe, list of the nubian kings, Ballana, Qustul

the medieval Nubien

in 6. Century was christianisiert Nubien. The principalities of Nobatia formed, Makuria and Alwa. In this time the nubian comes as writing language into use, in the Middle Ages into koptischen letters written.

In 16. Century is completely islamized Nubien. The nubian language remains itself however in use, beside as supraregional traffic languageever more interspersing Arab. From Christian time in Nubien to today numerous church ruins were found. The nubian churches had often an approximately square or cross-shaped sketch and were occasionally very small. Some assume that it only as a housefor the Liturgie of the clerics as well as a kind served vestry; the actual municipality services would have taken place before the church on free field. The most well-known works of art from the Christian Nubien are the Kirchenfresken of Faras.

Nubien in 19.Century

in the year 1821 the Egyptians, with modern European weapons equipped, conquered again Nubien and parts south of the white one Nile adjacent on it.
1882 rose the Sudanese Arabs under the guidance Muhammad Ahmads against the Egyptian rule and conquered Khartum. Muhammad Ahmad regarded itself as of God of envoy Mahdi, a kind Messiasgestalt, why this collection is called also Mahdi rebellion.

During conquest Khartums came among other things the governor of the Sudan, in Egyptian services the standing British general Charles Gordon, with the fights around the life. Several Egyptian armies led by British officers were destroying struck, among other things of general William Hicks kommandierte Anglo Egyptian expedition corps.

1898 conquered British troops under the command of Horatio Kitchener of Egypt from Nubien back and struck the Mahdisten in the battle of Omdurman with Khartum. In this battle among other things also the young Kavallerieoffizier vienna clay/tone Churchill fought. The battle from Omdurman became also admits becausethe British for the first time in the war history of machine guns in the larger style combat-moderately began here.

In order to master logistics for this campaign, the first railway line in Nubien was built along Nile.
The Sudan and concomitantly Nubien camein the future nominal under common British-Egyptian rule (Kondominium); since the British exerted in addition, in Egypt crucial influence, the Sudan was in fact British colony.

Nubien in 20. Century and today

1955a popular vote followed over the connection at Egypt, which failed negatively. Thereupon the Sudan became 1956 into independence to dismiss. The border to Egypt was specified with Wadi Halfa; Nubien was divided thereby between two states. Into the 1960er yearsby Egypt the Aswan high dam (full aluminium-Ali) was planned and built, that the capacity of the older, still Aswan dam built by the British by far to exceed should.1971 were finished the high dam. In the future Unternubien of the developing wet artificial lake became almost wholeflooded. In an unparalleled rescue action the international community of states under leadership of the Unesco converted numerous cultural Monumente into regions lain more highly; the under-nubian population was resettled to a large extent into the southern Oberägypten, where by it in otherwise continuous arabischsprachigen Egypt nubian language islandsdeveloped.

A similar situation is today in aluminium-Manasir to 4. Qatar act given, where the government of the Sudan lets a further dam establish at present with Chinese assistance. Start-up is planned for the year 2008 (S. Web on the left of). Today is thosenubian population both in Egypt and in the Sudan to its Arab environment assimilates to a large extent; the nubian language, today in Arab letters written, is however still alive.

oases in Nubien

See also

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Commons: Nubien - pictures, videos and/or audio files
 

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