Oberlausitz

the Oberlausitz (obersorb. Hornja Łužica, niedersorbisch: Górna Łužyca, lat. Lusatia superior) is a region, those mostly to Saxonia, as well as to smaller parts to Poland and Brandenburg belongs. In Saxonia the Oberlausitz covers infor instance the districts Kamenz, Bautzen, Löbau Zittau and the Niederschlesi Oberlausitzkreis, as well as the two circle-free cities Görlitz and Hoyerswerda. In Brandenburg the southern part of the district Oberspreewald Lausitz belongs to the Oberlausitz (in former times circle Senftenberg), the cities how Resting country and local edge cover. The part of the Oberlausitz between the rivers Neisse and Queis, Polish since 1945 , belongs administratively to the Woiwodschaft Niederschlesien polarize (. Dolnośląskie).

The old capital of the Oberlausitz was Bautzen. Largest city of the country is betweenGermany and Poland divided Görlitz - Zgorzelec. Has their name the Oberlausitz end 15. Century of their northern neighboring country get Niederlausitz. Originally only this Lausitz was called, which was derived from the there living sorbischen race of the Lusici. Laterthe name was taken over also for the country in such a way specified Budissin. From then on one differentiated between upper and Niederlausitz. Therefore both countries are called together in the Plural the Lausitzen.

Table of contents

geography and nature

Hügellandschaft bei Ringenhain in der Oberlausitz
hill landscape with Ringenhain in the Oberlausitz

the north country is taken by the flat Oberlausitzer heath and pond landscape. The UNESCO explained, in particular this area 1996 as the biosphere reservation for the protection of the Fischotters. The middle part is hilly, while the south is coined/shaped by the Lausitzer mountain country. The highest collections of the Oberlausitz are in the Zittauer mountains, a part of the Lausitzer of mountains, which are however to a large extent in Tschechien. The most important collectionsand mountains of the Oberlausitz are:Listen (793 m), to timber forest (749m), national crown (420 m), Löbauer mountain (448m), Kottmar (583m), Czorneboh (561m), Bieleboh (499m), Valtenberg (587 m) and Mönchswalder mountain (447m).

Oberlausitzer Hügellandschaft in Richtung Westen
Oberlausitzer hill landscape toward the west
all larger rivers of the Oberlausitz flowof the south northward. In the west the Pulsnitz formed in former times the national border to Saxonia. The Spree takes its exit completely in the south of the country and flows by Bautzen. The Lausitzer Neisse polarize (. Nysa Łużycka) forms today the GermanPolish border.It rises in the böhmischen Isergebirge, steps close Zittau on Oberlausitzer area, flows through Görlitz and leaves the country with bath mash-chews toward Niederlausitz.
Oberlausitzer Hügellandschaft in Richtung Osten
Oberlausitzer hill landscape toward the east
the east border of the old Oberlausitz was marked by the Queis, alsoLauban moves by and north in schlesischem area into the Bober continues to flow. Particularly the middle open hill and Gefildeland between Kamenz and Löbau, with Bautzen in the center, the Oberlausitzer Gefilde, were well suitable for the agriculture andis also today still very productive.

In 19. Century was found in the northern Oberlausitz and in the east to both sides of the Neisse and around Hoyerswerda brown coal. Particularly the dismantling in the open mining destroyed large parts of the old culture landscape.At present still in the open mining Nochten is promoted south of white water and in the Polish part with Turów coal. Many for the old brown coal-day-build for the 1970er years were rekultiviert, whereby particularly after 1990 particularly much value on the reorganization of the old industrial landscape putbecomes. The again-developed and developing lakes are already called “Lausitzer sea-plate”. (see also:Oberlausitzer mining district)

inhabitant

in the Oberlausitz live today about 800,000 humans, 160,000 east of it in the Polish part the Neisse. A part of theCountry belongs to the settlement area of the Sorben. Between Kamenz, Bautzen and Hoyerswerda about 20,000 humans Sorbisch speak. In addition, the German population locally is culturally not homogeneous, the cultural borders leaves itself quite good at the differentDialect regions constitute. While in the Bautzener basin a quite good high German is spoken speaks the south the Oberlausitzer dialect, an old Frankish dialect, which cannot deny the east however its Prussian tradition, here partly still spoken Schlesisch. The largestCompression of the population exhibits the GermanPolish double city Görlitz Zgorzelec . Here at present 97,000 inhabitants live, on it 36,000 in the Polish part.

In the German part of the Oberlausitz the total population decreases for more than ten years. Young people leave the region,because unemployment is particularly high in east Saxonia. Apart from the intensifying obsolescence of the population is also the birth rate, as low in completely East Germany, very. In the absence of of jobs there is hardly influx of foreigners in the Oberlausitzer municipalities.

Alsothe Polish Oberlausitz is apart from Zgorzelec (Görlitz east), Luban (Lauban) and Bogatynia (Reichenau) settles thinly. The area belongs to the structure-weak regions of Poland. Only the coal-fired power station Turów offers industrialism places to larger extent.

history

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For Ur and early history

after the present conditions ur and earlyhistorical research was appropriate the area of the Oberlausitz thousands of years off the settlement areas. The hunters of the Mittelsteinzeit (to approximately 8000 v. Chr.) the area only touched. Also the culturesthe oldest field farmers (4500 v. Chr. to 3300 v. Chr.) here only slight traces left. In the recent Bronzezeit (11. Century v. Chr. to 9. Century v. Chr.) the carriers of the Lausitzer culture penetrated ofNeissetal and from Böhmen into the region unbesiedelte up to then forwards. Finds show a way, which connects the settlement areas around Bautzen and Zittau. At this way the fastened elevator settlement on the sheep mountain has with Löbau in 10. Centuryv. Chr. a special role easily. A further important elevator settlement developed on rock over the Spree, where in the further process of history the local castle than rule and administrative centre of the region was established around Bautzen.

With the ending of the LausitzerCulture ends a first large settlement phase. Over several hundred years probably only a small population of remainder up to the immigration of slawischer trunks existed in the region.

The colonization by the Slawen set 7 since that. Century in the old settling landscapes. In the areabetween the today's cities Kamenz and Löbau the trunk of the Milzener established itself . Their center was the castle settlement in the place of the today's local castle in Bautzen. Also in the Neissetal it gave already early a slawische settlement. Thoserural sorbische population established numerous castle barrier plants, which were however already on the one hand master centers and escape castles, on the other hand the domiciles of the slawischen aristocracy, which points on frühfeudale development beginnings.

the Middle Ages

the independent development of the Milzener became in 10. Century throughthe east expansion of the frühfeudalen German state interrupted. King Heinrich I. the period of military subjecting of the Sorben introduced with its war courses of 921/922 and 928/929. The Milzener was forced 932 to tribute payments. After 936 could it due to the tensions the foreign rule breaking out after Heinrichs death again shake off. Only it succeeded to 939 to king Otto I.to defeat the Milzener again. He occupied all important castle barriers in the border areas, let her develop and as starting point for furtherConquests prepare. To the place of the Milzenerburgen German Burgwarde ( 1006 for the first time mentioned) stepped like for example the local castle into Bautzen, or the castles into Doberschau and Göda. In the year 1002 mentioned Thietmar of Merseburg those for the first time City Bautzen. Into the second half 10. Century continued the fights, only around 990 could Mark count Ekkehard I. subject the Milzener from Meissen finally. The Oberlausitz had church been assigned to that 968 created diocese Meissen. InYear 1007 received the diocese the first donation in the Milzenerland, the three castles Ostrusna (eastcut?), Trebista (supposed with Dolgowitz) and Godobi (Göda). For 1091 a further donation is testified to the Meissener church. Emperor Heinrich IV.conveyed their five furtherVillages in gau the Milsca, four of it south of Göda.

Soon the German Feudalherrschaft of the erstarkenden Polish Feudalstaat was threatened, which arranged its expansionist tendency after the west. 1002 forced duke Boleslaw I. Chrobry of the German king Heinrich II.the Belehnung with thatGau Milsca. In peacetime of Bautzen, to 30. January 1018 between the two rulers after several changeful and embittered war courses was locked, remains the Milzenerland and the Lausitz (the today's Niederlausitz) first with Poland, although as GermanLehen. Only 1031 came it to the victory king of Konrad II. over the Polish duke Mieszko II. again under the rule of the Meissener Mark counts.

1076 transferred king Heinrich IV. the Bautzner country duke Vratislav II. of Böhmen as Reichslehen, afterit had given because of its realm property politics with the Saxonian-Thuringian regional aristocracy, among them also with the Meissener Mark count, arguments. The son-in-law of the böhmischen duke count Wiprecht I. from Groitzsch the government led across the Milzenerland independently from that from 1084 to 1108Local castle out. For the year 1144 it is proven that provincia the Zagost, which was southeast from Görlitz area lain around silk mountain, part of the country Bautzen. Also in this region the diocese Meissen had been equipped with possession. Thusthe late Oberlausitz had country mentioned its largest expansion eastward already in 12. Century reaches and the Queis remained in the long run the border to Schlesien.

1156 went to emperor Friedrich I. Barbarossa an alliance with the böhmischen dukeVladislav II.. But it promised it beside the king crown also the Belehnung with the castle and the country Budissin; both was put two years later into practice. With it the first durable böhmische period in history that beganOberlausitz, which should prove for the development of the country as consequence-fraught.

In the first century of the böhmischen rule - apart from the older Bautzen - all important cities of the Oberlausitz developed, and also all important church institutions of the country became inthis time based. Bishop Bruno II. arranged between 1213 and 1218 the Kollegiatstift pc. Peter in Bautzen, also of king the Přemysl Ottokar I. and his successors richly one endowed; Queen Kunigunde donated the Cistercian interior monastery pc. to 1234. Marienthal, to 1244 the Diözese Prague and Bernhard von Kamenz was subordinated created 1248 the second Cistercian interior monastery pc. Marienstern.

By Rodungen for approximately 1100 above all sorbische farmers had extended the culture country. In this time new places developed inArea around Hoyerswerda. Among the böhmischen kings intensified itself in the middle 12. Century the national development in the Oberlausitz, which was operated by the kings and the Meissener bishops quasi in the competition. German farmers were gotten in the country; this rodetenlarge forest areas and put on numerous new villages. Pretty often also sorbische Weiler were extended by German settlers. The again settled farmers were legally better posed than the old-established population. (The mass of the sorbischen farmers were Hörige and body-own, the Fronarbeit to perform had. Thus it remained in the old settling country also after German conquest). Because by Rodung the rule areas of the noble ones got only a value, the Kolonisten received its agricultural holdings as an inheritance. They had only small interest to thoseBasic gentlemen pay and few services for it perform. Also they had available more soil than the farmers in the sorbischen old settling area. The new (usually Germans) village municipalities could regulate their affairs in addition relatively autonomously. If sorbische farmers were involved with the national development,enjoyed they the same rights as the German Kolonisten.

From immigration from that west the Elbe which were appropriate regions with the time its own oberlausitzer aristocracy had resulted. This regarded the country as the king or the Mark count under control andLehen got assigned as return. The aristocracy consisted only of such Lehensleuten, because after conquest the whole country belonged to the king. There were free land gentlemen with Allodialbesitz, which constituted the largest part of the aristocracy in Böhmen, in the countryBautzen not. The emergence of a Ministerialadels was impossible in the Oberlausitz, since it gave here at no time a yard attitude to national gentlemen and concomitantly no Dienstmannen.

Between 1253 and 1262 the Askanier was into the possession of the countryBautzen arrives. Neither the exact time of the acquisition nor the legal form of the possession - Lehen, marriage property or pledge rule - can be determined with security. With the installation of Landvögten as deputies national gentlemen created the Askanier the most important nationalwonderful officein the Oberlausitz. In principle the powers of the castle counts and land judges were combined from the böhmischen time in a hand and even still extended. The Landvogt was as deputies of the national gentleman a highest official, he decided in Lehenssachen, stood for thathighest court forwards and was military commander in chief. On the whole the fundamental powers of the Landvögte remained until to the dreissigjährigen war, whereby in this long time the administrative practice changed repeatedly.

During the rule of the Askanier was thoseby Mark count Otto IV. 1268 made division of the Oberlausitz into the countries Bautzen (country Budissin) and Görlitz the most important event. Only the independence handing to 1329, those in shape of the duchy Görlitz between 1377 and 1396 againrevived, durably to the division in two parts of the noble national municipality and the administration had led. In the country Görlitz were held from now on own meetings of the aristocracy and this in such a way remained also after the reunification of both countries. Görlitz won as center of the eastern region rapidlyat meaning and developed to the economically strongest city of the entire Oberlausitz.

After becoming extinct the brandenburgischen Askanier 1319 the princes of the neighbouring territories, under it also the böhmische king Johann stressed, the Oberlausitz for itself. After that the OberlausitzerConditions close standing historiographischen tradition these have „over sake protection, freywillig and ungezwungen themselves king Johanni Lucemburgico resulted in “, what cannot be proven however surely. Anyhow the böhmische king became 1319 of emperor Ludwig IV.with the country Bautzenbelehnt, the eastern national half fell against it as marriage property to the schlesischen duke Heinrich of Jauer, which surrendered the country Görlitz (with exception of the area around Lauban) to 1329 to the böhmischen king. In the same year inkorporierte Johann terra et civitas goerlic the crown Böhmen. That is called the Oberlausitz durably with the Kingdom of Böhmen was state-legally closely and connected, without its internal order would have been touched.

1346 created the five royal cities of the Oberlausitz and at that time still böhmische Zittauthe six-standard ware. The united forces of the cities should secure the land peace and proceed against the noble Raubrittertum. This was also in the sense national gentlemen, emperors Karl IV., the cities with numerous privileges supported. The six municipalities could intersperse themselves successfully in the future against the aristocracy. With their economic Prosperität rose also their political influence. They knew an important portion of the flat country by the purchase of numerous villages in the following 200 years under the direct rulethe town councillors bring. In addition they interspersed their court sovereignty in the context of the soft picture condition in such a way specified also over large parts the knight shank and their possessions.

As in Böhmen at the beginning 15. Century the hussitische revolution broke off, placed themselves the Oberlausitz approximatelythe Czech reformation. In the alliance with emperor Sigismund and the Niederlausitzern led one war against the armies of the Hussiten. Kamenz, Löbau, Zittau and Lauban were conquered and devastated by the Hussiten. Only the two largest cities Bautzen and Görlitz could withstand the FE storage. By the war the connections of the Oberlausitz to the Böhmi crown and due to the weakness of the Königtums loosened could the conditions of the Markgraftums their internal affairs to a large extent without royal interferences regulate. In this time developedthe Oberlausitzer federal state parliament as the most important instrument ständischer liberty.

1469 said themselves the Oberlausitzer of conditions of the böhmischen king George von Podiebrad loosely, because these the utraquistischen confession anhing, which the Pope had condemned also in his moderate form as ketzerisch. ThoseOberlausitzer recognized the Gegenkönig Matthias Corvinus of Hungary, which all böhmischen Nebenländer (Mähren, Schlesien and the Lausitzen) brings under its rule, Böhmen themselves however never to on conquer could. Up to the peace of Olmütz (1479) also the Oberlausitzer at that tookWar around the Böhmi crown part. Matthias tried to arrange the administration of its countries more efficient. In Schlesien it used therefore an upper national captain, to which also the two Lausitzen were subordinated. The Oberlausitzer of conditions saw an endangerment of their in this measureAutonomy.

With the death of Matthias Corvinus became the Oberlausitz 1490 also material a component of the böhmischen kingdom. The Landvogt George von Stein hated in the country, was driven out immediately after death its gentlemen by the Bautzener local castle.

End 15. Century the political system of the Markgraftums had strengthened to a large extent. Deputy absent national gentlemen was the Landvogt, which traditionally from the aristocracy one of the böhmischen crowning countries became to appoint. 1620 ago only once a Oberlausitzer Landvogt became.In Bautzen and Görlitz there was still ever an office captain. These three officials formed also a few secretaries the entire royal administration.
Center of power of the country was the ständische federal state parliament. Already since that 15. Itself Prälaten, aristocracy knew century andCities without consent of the king meet and independently resolutions seize. Thus they (beside the king) were more or less legislators in the Oberlausitz. The power of the cities had caused that there were only two voters of conditions: the cities evenly andthe country (consisting of Prälaten, gentlemen and knights).

The cities had large court powers also over the subjects of many knights and over the noble ones. Highest court was together formed the court by country and cities, that by both conditionsbecame. A decision gefällte there was final. To the courts of the king in Prague could not be appealed.

Between aristocracy and cities there were constantly conflicts, which concerned in principle three topics: 1. the aristocracy wanted the upper jurisdiction of the citiesloose will, 2. both conditions argued about the portions, which had to apply them in each case from the nationalwonderful taxes. 3. the aristocracy wanted to implement the allocation of the land conditions in gentlemen, knights and Prälaten with in each case a separate voice. Up to the year 1547the cities in all three questions could keep the upper hand, the böhmischen kings all raids of the aristocracy against the cities had rejected.

reformation

only few years after Luther's thesis notice in joke mountain (1517) spread thatreformatorische ideas also into the Oberlausitz out. In Görlitz, Zittau and Bautzen the first Evangelist lectures were held 1520 and/or 1521. The aristocracy and the town councillors had however few for the new church movement remaining and tried their propagationto prevent. Also the king turned with sharp mandates against the reformatorischen efforts into the Lausitzen. In Görlitz and Bautzen the urban authorities gave way however soon to the pressure of the population and led the reformation in the years 1523 and 1524 officially. The changes to the new church nature were carried out however only in small careful steps. In particular the Bautzener Kollegiatstift successfully opposed and remained in the long term catholic. Altogether it took decades, to itself the lutherische teachings inmost Pfarreien of the country had finally interspersed. That was because of the fact that to the Oberlausitz not the national prince introduced the reformation, but all local authorities (the advice of the cities and the noble basic gentlemen) for the churches those standing under their patronagenew denomination arranged and thus independently on the turn to the protest anti-mash decided.

the time of the having citizen rule (1526 - 1635)

after the death of the böhmischen and Hungarian king Ludwig II. in the battle of Mohács selectedthe böhmischen conditions Ferdinand I. to the king, who became thereby also national gentleman of the Oberlausitz. However the conditions had recognized it already before as their hereditary gentlemen, because it the brother-in-law of Ludwig II. was. To the Landvogt the new king set Zdislav Berkaof Dubá , which administered the office of the land yard master at the Prager yard also. First internal conditions of the Oberlausitz under new rule changed only slightly. Still the controversy between the land aristocracy and the six cities determined thatpolitical lives. The arguments were led thereby with all means of the diplomacy. Both sides tried to pull the king on their side. Ferdinand fällte however contradictory decisions. Thus came on switching of the royal officials 1530 and 1534 into Prague twoContracts. Once the cities were favoured and once the aristocracy. In this way no durable reconciliation could be found.

Ferdinands inkonsequente Oberlausitz politics was owed the difficult total situation, in which the Austrian having citizen was. On the one hand it had conflicts alsothe powerful utraquistischen conditions in Böhmen to exist, on the other hand one he needed the assistance of the conditions of all of his countries, in order to be able to finance the Turk war. Thus also the royal fiscal claims rose constantly, the Ferdinands of commissioners now almost annually to the OberlausitzerLand days stated. The king could not afford it therefore to annoy the conditions durably. Of a development of the nationalwonderful force was not to be thought under these circumstances. Also against always far protest anti-mash seizing around itself could the catholicKing do not intervene actively.
1537 visited Ferdinand I. the only mark in its long government the Oberlausitz. It was briefly in Bautzen and Görlitz and received on the local castle the landing accusing. On this occasion got country andCities its old privileges confirms, so that the few years were generic term-oiled before negotiated Prager of contracts.

1546 were pulled in the Oberlausitz into the Schmalkaldi war, at the king Ferdinand on sides of his brother Karl V.participated. While the utraquistischen conditionsBöhmens the king openly the obedience refused and not against the Protestanten of the Schmalkaldi federation in the field did not pull, behaved country and cities of the Oberlausitz cautiously. The by the majority Evangelist conditions saw themselves then 1547 however nevertheless forced, Ferdinand money andTo make available troops, although the Wittenberger theologian Johannes Bugenhagen had urgently requested all Protestanten of the böhmischen countries in its “Christian reminder” not to fight against their faith comrades.

By a coincidence the Oberlausitzer pulled itself six cities the angerKing Ferdinands too. They had granted their troops only for two months and these pulled as the time over were from the army camp on the Elbe off. That was now straight the eve of the decisive battle with Mühlberg. The instructionthe mercenaries to hold ready further the cities had not in time reached.

When the war was won against the princes of the Schmalkaldi federation, Ferdinand I. loaded. the representatives of the six cities to Prague forwards, where they had to answer for themselves before it.In a kind looking process the cities and lost all their privileges as well as its entire Landbesitz were condemned. Besides they had to pay the enormous sum of 100,000 guldens punishment to the king. This event went as the Oberlausitzer Pönfall into thoseHistory. The large power of the cities was not had it a predominance broken, from now on over the land conditions more. The following years were characterized of the efforts of the cities to recover old positions. Thus became numerous Landgüter, which one inPönfall surrendered to the king had redeemed, and numerous old privileges with the Prager Hofkanzlei had again acquired. Since 1560 could replace all six cities their advice and judges. In the same year the conditions agreed with the kingon the paper in such a way specified. In this document the extensive rights of the conditions were fixed and by Ferdinand I. officially recognition.

In the year 1562 Ferdinand I. gave. the conditions the upper court grace in such a way specified. Since then the entire aristocracy had andalso again the cities the complete court force over their subjects. Thus the changes made by Ferdinand came at the Oberlausitzer national condition to the conclusion. Around the center the 16. Century created condition remained on the whole unchanged until 1815into force and the relationship of the conditions intended among themselves and also for their national gentlemen. 1544 had already been entitled the emperor in the Decisio Ferdinandea designated after it to the aristocracy the privilege of the Vorritts and the rights of the large Oberlausitzer ruleMash-chew, silk mountain and Hoyerswerda defined. 1548 were fixed the again created Prager court of appeal as last appeal for the Oberlausitzer jurisdiction and one year later was created with the national captain shank an important new office. The national captain should the royal rights -particularly regarding the taxes and deliveries - intersperse. It was appointed always from the native aristocracy and was subordinate to the Böhmi chamber in Prague.

1549 became with Christoph of Dohna for the first time a native Protestant noble Landvogt appoint. The owner of the rule king-bridge made itself however within a short time unpopular with the aristocracy and the cities, because it was corrupt and did not administer the courts duly. The conditions sued Dohna therefore with the king in Prague (the Klageschriftcovered over 100 points), but still before the end of the process the Landvogt died (1560) and up to the dreissigjährigen war after old tradition only böhmische or schlesische noble ones were appointed as Landvögten in Bautzen.

Since the fifties cameit to a stabilization remaining of the catholic institutions remained in the country. This was essentially the policy of the 1559 in the office Bautzener come cathedral DEK to to owe Johann Leisentrit. Emperor Ferdinand had it to the commissioner for religion things in the two Lausitzenappointed. Leisentrit was thereby nominal the church authority for catholics and Protestanten. It used this position, in order to receive the still existing catholic Pfarreien for its denomination, behaved however otherwise the Evangelist ones opposite tolerantly. As emperors Maximilian II.1564also into the Oberlausitz the follow-up of its father, permitted he began the conditions for the first time officially the Confessio Augustana. This warranty also by its successors with country huldigungen again and again again given.

Education and culture took in thatsecond half 16. Century an upswing. In the cities Görlitz, Zittau and Bautzen were created High Schools, which were visited not only by citizen sons but also by the sons of the Oberlausitzer and increasingly also the böhmischen and niederschlesischen aristocracy. Alsoin the other cities Löbau, Kamenz, Lauban and even in smaller land cities were developed the schools. Bautzen again received regional meaning as print location at least. The Görlitzer mayor Bartholomäus Scultetus provided to end 16. Century the first map of the Oberlausitz.

End 16. Century were intensified in Europe and not least also in Böhmen the konfessionellen conflicts. In the countries of the böhmischen crown this was once the progress of the Gegenreformation owed, those the papal Nuntius in Prague, the there archbishopand the bishop von Olmütz, particularly however slowly obtained the Jesuiten. The other reason did not exist in the Erstarken in Augsburger confessional peace the included Calvinismus. In the böhmischen and Austrian countries the religious conflict was additional from the argumentaround power in the state overlays. Should this lie primarily with the by the majority Protestant conditions or however completely in the hand of the emperor? Although into the Oberlausitz the conditions the political predominance had and the religion question on the whole, also the small Markgraftum seemed clarified by political unrests in the neighbouring Böhmen was stuck on. The Protestant majority was anxious that the Gegenreformation could spread also to the Oberlausitz and the catholic cathedral gentlemen were not in Bautzen long any longer soready to compromise and accomodating as to the era Leisentrit.

Beginning 17. Century worsened the relations of the conditions with national gentlemen at that time Rudolf II.. One was dissatisfied because of the constantly rising fiscal claims because of the Turk wars, because the emperor could therebyno seizable successes obtain. The creation of the office chamber power of attorney gates (this should intersperse the financial requirements of the national gentleman better) in the year 1595 had already excited the displeasure of the conditions. Together with the Schlesiern one weighted in addition about BöhmiHofkanzlei and required the mechanism of its own Kanzlei for the German-language Nebenländer of the crown Böhmen.

After the Protestanten Schlesiens and Böhmens had wrested from the emperor weakened by the habsburgischen Bruderzwist 1609 majesty letters and thus were nationallegally recognized, also those wantedOberlausitzer such a document attain. Their efforts remained however unsuccessful. Also emperors Matthias, the Rudolf II. 1611 on the böhmischen throne followed, refused the Protestant Oberlausitzern the majesty letter. This was one of the most important reasons that itself the Oberlausitz 1618/19after the Prager Fenstersturz the böhmischen condition rebellion attached.

When unrests in Böhmen began, the Oberlausitzer of conditions behaved first passively. They ignored the urgent requests of the Böhmen to support it in the war against the having citizens. Only after deathEmperors Matthias in March 1619 changed it their politics. They joined the Böhmi Konföderation and were at the joggle Ferdinands II.and the choice Friedrich V. of the Pfalz to the king of Böhmen takes part. A goal of the Protestant conditions of theMarkgraftums was it to make the Oberlausitz a completely Protestant country. They wanted to eliminate the catholic Bautzener cathedral pin, into which few still catholic places Protestant ministers insert and created finally their own regional church. The military risk and therebyconnected costs of the list of troops of the winter king pressed by the catholic league carried it however only reluctantly and as the war on the Oberlausitz spread, were not them not in the situation to offer effective resistance. Without largerWith Ferdinand II. knew fighting. allied cure prince Johann George of Saxonia between September 1619 and January 1620 the Oberlausitz occupied.

For its military assistance against the insurgent böhmischen countries by the emperor financial remuneration had been assured to the Saxonian cure prince.If one did not pay, the Lausitzen should be handed over as pledge to the Wettiner. Ferdinand II. not pay and had 1623 could the pledge shank over both Markgraftümer grant. The delivery was regulated in the Immissionrezess so mentioned. Thus the Oberlausitz escapedthe imperial Gegenreformation, those in the twenties 17. Century in Böhmen and Mähren for the prohibition of the Protestant confessions and churches led. In the future many faith refugees came from Böhmen into the Oberlausitz. They settled themselves particularly inZittau and the neighbouring weber villages in the Lausitzer mountain country on and provided there by their trade diligence for an economic upswing.


The national gentlemen of the Oberlausitz 1526-1635

Emperor Ferdinand I. 1526 - 1564
emperors Maximilian II. 1564 of 1576
emperors Rudolf II. 1576 1611
Emperor Matthias 1611 1619
king Friedrich I. 1619 1620/1621
emperors Ferdinand II. 1620/21 1635

the Oberlausitz up to the division 1815

in the battle with Bautzen to 20. /21. May 1813 knew Napoleon its last larger victoryachieve.

Saxonian and Prussian Oberlausitz (1815 - 1945)

on the Viennese congress (1815) had to accept the Kingdom of Saxonia large area losses to favour of Prussia. Among other things also half of the Oberlausitz with Görlitz had to be retired.The Oberlausitzer of conditions had up to lastly tried to prevent the division of the country. Among other things they had contacted with an asking writing Austrian chancellor Metternich. However this initiative without success remained. The new border cut through the countryfrom northwest to southeast. It ran south of resting country and Wittichenau toward realm brook (Oberlausitz), met south of Görlitz the Neisse and ran along the Wittig up to the böhmischen border. (All places specified here fell at Prussia.) thosearbitrarily drawn border cut in 800 years a political, economical, cultural and church unit grown: From the six cities now two (Görlitz and Lauban) belonged to the Prussian state. The effectiveness of the old Oberlausitzer condition meeting remained limited to the Saxonian remainder area.The settlement area of the Obersorben was now divided on two states. The church autonomy of the Protestanten found in the Oberlausitz their end and it into the church of the Prussian union, church province Schlesien was integrated. The few catholics of the Lausitzer Administratur becamelikewise divided. The villages of the two monasteries Marienstern and Marienthal lay now on both sides the border. The catholic Pfarreien of the Prussian Oberlausitz was finally subordinated 1821 to the prince diocese Breslau. The Prussian government began after 1815 in its part of the Oberlausitz immediatelywith the urgently necessary modernization of the administration. After some experiments in the twenties four districts were formed, which were integrated all into the province Schlesien. Only since this relatively late time the schlesische area over the Queis stretchedto the west out. The Oberlausitz had never belonged before to Schlesien, although both countries of 13. - 17. Century mostly of common national gentlemen, which böhmischen king, had been governed.

Particularly in the southern part of the Saxonian Oberlausitz, in addition,in the Prussian part of the Oberlausitz (also Schlesi Oberlausitz called) one could successfully tie after 1815 to old traditions particularly with the production of textiles in addition, in many other trades. The region belonged to the early industrial areas of Germany. Alreadysince 1836 businessmen from Saxonia and Prussia were together, in order the railroad line Dresden - to plan and build Breslau across the Oberlausitz. Commencement of construction was 1844, two years later was finished the Oberlausitzer portion of the distance to Löbauplaced and in September 1847 the courses operated continuous from Dresden to Breslau.

The legal privileged position of the Oberlausitz was eliminated by the Saxonian condition of 1831. The traditional ständische rule system became gradual in the following years by the institutions of themodern state replaces. Into the fifties 19. Century lasted the separation of the rural population from the hereditary subserviency.

In the Prussian Oberlausitz profited above all Görlitz from the integration into the largest German partial state. A broad pallet ofIndustrial companies settled. Existed to the largest sales markets Berlin and Breslau good railway connections.

Since the seizure of power of the national socialists in the year 1933 the Sorben was exposed rising Repressionen to constantly. As instrument of the suppression the new ruling powers could on those alreadylonger with the office captain shank Bautzen existing turning department fall back. Until 1937 was forbidden gradually all their associations and the entire sorbische press. Also instruction in the native language and just as sorbischsprachiger religious education were not any more permitted. 1940 became allsorbischen catholic priest from the Oberlausitz proven. The Nazis with their contempting for human beings racial policy did not pursue a uniform line opposite the Sorben. Apart from humiliating and suppression inside the attempt, the turns was entitled into the “Germanic gentleman race” into the Second World Warintegrate. Therefore they were called wendische Germans, in order to separate it from the other Slawen to. The total physical destruction of the Sorben similar to the Jews was never planned. However there was considerations, the small slawische people completelyto deportieren on the occupied Balkans.

During the Second World War the Oberlausitz remained to a large extent spared by air raids. 1945 became it however combat area. First that concerned the city Lauban, which had been taken in February already by the Red Army,by the Germans however again one back-conquered. Therefore the realm propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels in Lauban produced his last week looking appearance with the usual exhortations to hold out. In April 1945 the last fighting took place in close proximity to Bautzen and Kamenz. They stoodin connection with actions of the Red Army, which aimed at on the one hand the income of Berlin on the other hand the occupation of Dresden and the raid after Böhmen. Hoyerswerda became by a mistake, it acts around the aluminum work Lauta, by the British Air Forcebombarded. While it came into Bautzen still to war-conditioned destruction, these could be prevented in Kamenz, because some citizens jumped over themselves over the instructions of the Nazi authorities and handed the city over without resistance to the Russians. Differently than many Germansthe Sorben felt the arrival of the Red Army throughout as release, because now were its ethnical discrimination and the danger of the Deportation past.

newest history since the Second World War

after the Second World War became that east thatNeisse convenient part of the Oberlausitz to Poland struck. The German population was driven out - so far it had not already fled in the last war weeks - up to the end of the summer 1945. Soon thereafter Poland (above all humans became, outthe areas pleased to the Soviet Union driven out were settled). In the East part of the city Görlitz divided now in the first postwar years also thousands refugees from the Greek civil war were accommodated. In the first postwar conferences the USSR represented the demand, thoseOberlausitz of Czechoslovakia to slam shut, gave this position up however soon.

The sorbische roof federation Domowina belonged to the first democratic combinations, which became again certified from the Soviet crew authorities.

The Oberlausitz the Neisse became western by Soviet crew power the countrySaxonia assigned. As the GDR - government 1952 the countries dissolved the largest part of the country the district Dresden was assigned. The circles Hoyerswerda and white water in the north (with several brown coal pits) the “energy district” Cottbus was slammed shut.

Although the German part thatOberlausitz since 1990 again to a large extent belonged to Saxonia, left before scarcely 200 years the division of the country deep traces taken place. Particularly in the east of the country there are today disputes around the historical identity. A parliamentary group (strengthens by the 1945in the country) the inheritance stresses and wants refugee come and its descendants from the Prussian schlesischen time consciously from the Saxonian Oberlausitz to set off. These efforts are carried also from local homeland and music associations as well as refugee organizations, those for the region occasionallythat historically and geographically nonspecific term Schlesi Lausitz use, which found for simplification reasons also in the tourism industry place.

The other side refers rather to the centuries long thing in common before the Viennese congress and sees in the division of 1815a Prussian arbitrary act, since the new Saxonian schlesische border cut through a unit grown historically.


When 1990 the Saxonian condition was prepared and the reorganisation of the municipal administration took place, the schlesische parliamentary group could succeed. Therefore the preamble of the Saxonian condition mentions thoseniederschlesischen areas expressly as a region with special historical traditions and to the Neisse again formed district got the name of Niederschlesi Oberlausitzkreis. An independent governmental district “Niederschlesien” and/or. “Oberlausitz” with seat in Görlitz, as demanded of some, became howevernot in an educated manner.

literature

  • sources
    • Collection of those statum the Marggrafthums Oberlausitz in law Polizey and other things privileges concerned. 6 Bde. and. Register. Budissin 1770-1827.
    • Tino Fröde: Collectanea Lusatica. Collection Lausitzer writings and documents. Identification book, Olbersdorf,1997
  • representations
    • Joachim Bahlcke (Hg.): History of the Oberlausitz. Rule, society and culture from the Middle Ages to the end 20. Century, Leipzig 2001.
    • Franc Nürnberger (Hg.): Oberlausitz - beautiful homeland, Oberlausitzer publishing house, Spitzkunnersdorf, 2004, ISBN 3-933827-42-6
    • Karl Heinz Blaschke: Contributions for the history of the Oberlausitz (collected essays), to 2000 ISBN 3-932693-59-0

see also

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Coordinates: 51°10'00 N 14°20'00 O

 

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