|of these articles is occupied with the Prussian province Upper Silesia. The Polish Woiwodschaft Schlesien is called occasionally for distinction reasons to the Woiwodschaft Niederschlesien also Upper Silesia.|
Upper Silesia (Polish: Górny Śląsk; Czech: Horní Slezko; oberschlesisch: Ślonsk) is a historical landscape and a former Prussian province in the southeast Schlesien, today part of Poland and Tschechien. The eastern part is a large industrial area.
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after the people migration time came the slawischen Opolanen (after them the capital Oppeln is designated) into the countryand mixed themselves isolated with Teutons left. Im Laufe des Mittelalterskamen deutsche Siedler auch nach Oberschlesien, die Kolonisation setzte in Oberschlesien jedoch relativ spät ein, da es zum einem östlicher als andere Zielgebiete lag und zum anderen wegenthe large forest and humid areas rather adverse conditions prevailed. When finally in the years 1347/48 the large plague in the realm broke out, the river of the immigrants from the realm decreased strongly and the east settlement came practically to succumbing. Thus came to a holdcontrary to Niederschlesien the linguistic assimilation process. In the cities soon the German language dominated. On the country however, beside the few German language islands, a German slawische population of mixing, who could keep their original slawische language, developed however with numerousGermanisms was shifted, in such a way specified water-Polish. Beside this dialect most spoke 19 since at the latest that. Jh as secondary language German, in the dialect form Oberschlesisch, itself of Niederschlesi and of the high German by particularly hard throat sounds and systematicEntrundung of the front rounded vowels (e.g.: Stage = bee, loosens = reads) differentiated, what also otherwise of German-speaking with slawischer native language is characteristic. While the Niederschlesier was German-language to approximately 96% (alone), about 58% the Oberschlesier used despiteGerman Nationaliät and (mostly) loyalty to the German Reich the water-Polish as Erstsprache. This situation prevailed up to the time of the industrialization of the oberschlesischen industrial area forwards: End 19. and at the beginning 20. Century increased the urbanization strongly. Camethe Oberschlesisch speaking Schlesiern also many Germans from Niederschlesien or the neighbouring Sudeten German areas and in addition a large number of Poland from the province floats or adjacent Russian “congress Poland “to Upper Silesia. Outside of the industrial area, the areas over Oppeln, the later west Upper Silesia could do itself the above mentioned. original situation receive, however water-Polish particularly between the two world wars ever the more lost at speakers.
After the First World War parts of the course of the border between Poland should and after the Versailler contractGermany over populars vote to be regulated. On the tuning day 20. March 1921 tuned 707,554 (59.6 per cent) Oberschlesier, thus also many, during an election turnout of 97,8 per cent those in censuses Oberschlesisch and/or. Polish as native language had indicated, for Germany and 478,820 (40.4 per cent)for Poland. Afterwards the smaller (29%) part of Upper Silesia became (“east Upper Silesia “or Oberschlesi industrial area) (with 90% of the coal - and iron ore occurrences and the economically meaning mining industry regions) on resolution of the Völkerbundes to 10. October 1921 Poland slammed shut.The remainder remained with Germany (“west Upper Silesia”); a part of the circle Ratibor, the Hultschiner in such a way specified Ländchen, came to Czechoslovakia.
During the Second World War Upper Silesia was conquered by the Red Army. After 1945 finally also the part came,after the popular vote the 1921 with Germany had remained, to Poland. Differently than in Niederschlesien there was no surface covering obligation evacuation in the oberschlesischen industrial area for ethnical and economic reasons: Many were already bilingual, because they used either the dialect orin the time between the world wars in the Woiwodschaft Schlesien (obligatory) Polish to learn had. Beyond that many Oberschlesier had vocational qualifications, which could be replaced in the charring and steel industry not at short notice. Who one, more or less strictly handled,and was classified as “autochthon “, received a lodging right existed Polish language test. Also Oberschlesier, which were classified as (alone) German-language, received a lodging right, if they worked in important industries. Finally about 40% became from the oberschlesischen population “only”and not, as obligation-evacuated in Niederschlesien, more than 90%. In particular around Oppeln and Kattowitz stayed therefore to today a German and oberschlesische minority, which was not driven out or lateevacuated.
Today the largest part of Upper Silesia belongs to Poland,the Hultschiner Ländchen to Tschechien. The region is also the homeland of the ethnical minority of Poland, the Poland German largest after the ethnical Oberschlesiern (census 2002 ). About 250,000 inhabitants of Upper Silesia are Doppelstaatler and have beside the Polish at the same time thoseGerman nationality.
To general history Schlesiens see Schlesien (history)
area and population
province Schlesien: 37,013 km ²; 4.846.333 inhabitants (May 1939)
administrative arrangement of Upper Silesia
original existed the province Upper Silesia only outthe governmental district Oppeln, from which then east Upper Silesia separated 1921 as Woiwodschaft Schlesien and came to Poland. These areas became finally in the Second World War with some other circles and pitch circles, until 1918 Austrian or Russian were the additional governmental district Kattowitz in summary.
administrative arrangement conditions 1. January 1945
move - Bez. Kattowitz
of urban areas
- Beuthen Tarnowitz seat: Tarnowitz
- Tost Gleiwitz (seat: Gleiwitz)
governmental district Oppeln
of urban areas
- falcon mountain O.S.
- Largely Strehlitz
- district cross castle O.S.
- praising (1941 ago: Lublinitz)
- new city O.S.
- rose mountain O.S.
Administrative arrangement today
- 1919 - 1922: Joseph Bitta, center
- 1923 - 1929: Dr. Alfons Proschke, Center
- 1929 - 1933: Dr. Hans Lukaschek, center
- 1933 - 1934: Helmuth Brückner, NSDAP
1925: Center 48.2% - 26 seats | DNVP 20.9% - 12 seats | SPD 8.5% - 5Seats |KPD 8.4% - 5 seats | Poland 7.2% - 4 seats | Strip packing 2.2% - 2 seats
1929: Center 42.2% - 24 seats | DNVP 17.3% - 10 seats | SPD 12.2% - 7 seats | KPD8.9% - 5 seats |Poland 5.7% - 3 seats | Christian-national farmer and land people party 4.7% - 3 seats | OBB 4.4% - 3 seats
1933: NSDAP 43.1% - 24 seats | Center 33.3% - 18 seats | DNVP8.3% - 5 seats |SPD 6.6% - 4 seats | KPD 6.4% - 4 seats
at 100% missing voices = in the Provinziallandtag not represented choice suggestions.
Web on the left of
(dissolved 1878 ago)
Jülich Kleve mountain -
Grand Duchy of Niederrhein -
south Prussia -
(1878-1922) East Prussia - west Prussia - floats - Pommern - Brandenburg - Schlesien - Saxonia - Westphalia - Rhine province - Schleswig-Holstein - Hanover - Hessen Nassau
(after1922 based) border Mark float west Prussia - Upper Silesia - Niederschlesien - resound Merseburg - Magdeburg