|federation circle:||Northwest Russia|
|surface:||419,800 km ²|
|inhabitants:||1.304.543 (1. January 2005)|
|population density:||3.1 Einwohner/km ²|
|Kfz characteristics:|| |
The Oblast lies in the north of the Eastern European level and is characterized by polar climate by severe winters and cool summers. Most important river is the northern Dwina, other rivers is Onega and Mesen.
The Russian settlement of the area, in which finno ugrische trunks lived before, began in the 11. and 12. Century. With the establishment of Archangelsk by Iwan in the year 1584 the trade began itself to develop the terrible one, since it was the first port of Russia.
Most important cities are Archangelsk, Sewerodwinsk and excrement-read. In addition admits is the space station Plesetsk and the monastery plants on the island Solowezki in the white sea, which ranks among the UNESCO Weltkulturerbe.
Table of contents
largest cities and urban settlements(conditions: 1. January 2005)
establishment of the monastery
the first mention of the today's Archangelsker of area gave it in the Heimskringla. There one tells, how Eric blood axe drives in the year 918 to Bjarmeland (Russia). It is called, it fought in a large battle at the river Dwina and returned victoriously home. also Harald grey skin drove and struck 970 over the white sea to Bjarmeland a victorious battle there likewise. In 12. Nowgoroder of monks at the beginning of the Dwina Deltas a monastery created century in honours of the ore gel Michael. They put on a small settlement on behalf the archbishop Johannes also beside it.
Nowgorod against Norway
Nowgorod expanded its influence due to its geographical situation during the following centuries above all northward. Thus soon the borders of the principality turned out to those of the Kingdom of Norway, which influence wanted to likewise have over the region. The two states came with one another into conflict around the fur trade and the tax receipts depending on it. That led finally in the year 1411 to the open war, when the Nowgoroder penetrated into the Norwegian Finnmark. Several war years, before 1419 Norwegian ships in the white sea ran in and many Russian settlements, followed also the monastery plünderten to the Dwina. The Nowgoroder kept however in the Dwina area the upper hand, until the city at the Wolchow was conquered in the year 1478 by the Moskowitern. The Mongol storm, starting from that the 13. Century over Russia fallow, did not concern the region.
the first port of Russia
after smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Chancellor and „the Muscovy company “the trade with Russia had begun and had developed, became soon the landing place at the ore gel monastery the most important place of transshipment of the Russian foreign trade. Iwan IV. assigned the generals Pjotr Afanasewitsch Naschtschokin and Zaleschanin Nikiforow Wolochow the building of a fortress around the monastery and a settlement for Fischer and Kaufleute. To 4. March 1583 was created the new settlement and in the year following on it finished one the attachments. Following the old commercial station one called Cholmogory, which had been once the center of the area, the city Nowocholmogory. In the year 1613 the city received to its new names after the ore gel monastery: Archangelsk, the ore gel city.
17. Century and Peter the large one
in the year 1667 a fire destroyed the predominantly wooden city, whereupon this was almost completely again developed. 1693 came Peter I.there, later „the large one “mentioned, after Archangelsk and created the Russian admiralty, to which those should be subordinate Russian war and merchant fleet which can be created here in the future. Those threw shifted it on the island Solombala, so that it could expand there. In June 1694 the first trading vessel ran, „sank Paul “from the pile in Solombala. Peter the large one came again into the city and issued to it a trade monopoly for the most important foreign trade goods. In the years 1655 to 1660 the Swedish-Polish war raved, in which Russia was only small involved. The Russians attacked at that time the Swedish live country , however were from there again driven out. Since this time existed a rivalry between two powers, which experienced a new quality to the turn of the century 1700, when the Swedish navy accomplished maneuvers in the white sea, which ranked among the Russian sphere of influence. Peter the large one took to the cause to fasten the cities to the Dwina better and instructed in addition the building of the new fortress Nowodwinsk, which was begun 1701. In the year before already the Swedish king had Karl XII. begun, against Russia allied Denmark to proceed and with it the large Nordi war kindled. To 25. June was already for the first time attacked Nowodwinsk. The fortress was still for a long time not posed, withstood however. In the year 1705 one completed the construction work.
the large Nordi war
during the war, which spared Archangelsk after the unsuccessful Swedish attack on Nowodwinsk, was explained the city 1702 from the Zaren to the new capital of the Pomorengebietes, thus north Russia. This position held before Cholmogory . To 18. December 1708 changed the Pomorengebiet into the again created province Archangelogorod, from eight Russian provinces. 1712 the city created during the Nordi war sank Petersburg explained to the Newa as the new capital. With its Baltic Sea port the new capital lay by far more near at the Western European market and for this reason lost Archangelsk gradually its outstanding position than place of transshipment. In the year 1719 the trade monopoly was finally waived.
fall and Auferstehung
for these reasons, and also because the port of Archangelsk almost froze over a half year long, lost the city rapidly at meaning. During the Napoleoni wars however Europe the so-called continental barrier was imposed over completely. Archangelsk - traditionally strongly connected with England - was the only Russian port, over which still import and export were completed, with which late Napoleon justified his attack on Russia. In 19. Century was provided the railway from Archangelsk to Moscow finished and the port became again more important for the Zarenreich. In the following years nearly all polar expeditions from the port started the Dwina.
the First World War
in the First World War was supplied Russia by its allied ones via Archangelsk with supply at weapons, ammunition and food. After the October Revolution and in the civil war of 1918-1921 the city in the hand of the Weissgardisten and the American, which could be sold only toward end of the war, were later.
after the victory of the Bolsheviks and the death of Lenin began the darkest chapter in past Russian history. Archangelsk was called to an important component of the union-far system of the labour camps, GULag. The Solowezki islands and some camps on the mainland south of Sewerodwinsk were intended for „special use “(SLON) and as first Soviet „concentration camps “in the 20's were already opened. To 23. September 1937 was divided the northern region and it developed the Oblasten Wologda and Archangelsk.
the Second World War
Archangelsk, which was not conquered in the war, was during the entire fighting between Germany and the Soviet Union the most important supply port, over the Americans the Red Army and the interior with food and weapons supplied.
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