Olsztyn/all stone
base data
state: Poland
Woiwodschaft: Ermland Masuren
district: Circle-free city
surface: 87.9 km ²
geographical situation:
Coordinates: 53° 47 ′ N, 20° 29 ′ O
53° 47 ′ N, 20° 29 ′ O
height: 90 - 156,4m and.NN
inhabitant: 173.850 (1. January. 2005)
Postal zip code: 10-001 to 11-041
telephone preselection: (+48) 89
Kfz characteristics: NO
economics & traffic
of branches:
Next int. Airport: Airport Szczytno Szymany
kind of municipality:
Municipality arrangement:
Surface: km ²
inhabitants: ()
city president: Czesław Małkowski (2006)
address: ul. Jana Pawła II 1
10-101 Olsztyn
Web operational readiness level: www.um.olsztyn.pl

Olsztyn [ˈɔlʃtɨn] (German all stone) the capital of the 1999 of created is Woiwodschaft Ermland Masuren (before Woiwodschaft Olsztyn) innorthern part of Poland.

Table of contents

geographical situation

of Olsztyn lies in the center of the Woiwodschaft Ermland Masuren at the river Łyna (everything), 125 meters over the sea level toTransition from the Ermland to the upper country. The surrounding hilly landscape is coined/shaped of the Allensteiner sea-plate and expanded forests. In the city the freeways 16, 51 and 53 as well as the lines Torun cross (dt. Thorn) - Tilsit (soot. Sowjetsk)and Danzig - Ełk (Lyck). The city is appropriate for approximately 100 km south of Kaliningrad (formerly king mountain), 120 km east of Gdansk (dt. Danzig) and about 170 km north the state capital Warsaw.


to 1945

all stone became at the river everything in the Prussian Ermland to 31. October 1353 of Johannes of Leysen in the protection of one already in the structure (construction period: 1347 to 1397) castle present of the German medal based (award thatMunicipal rights).

All stone lay in one of the four 1245 created dioceses of Prussia, in the Ermland and remained thereby under direct government of the catholic church under a prince bishop, was thus not governed not of the German medal.

In the year 1516 the nephew received andCare son of ermländischen prince bishop Lukas Watzenrode, late than astronomer the become known Nikolaus Kopernikus, the administration of the districts all stone and flour bag. Kopernikus lived during the four years of his term of office in the Allensteiner lock. At present the vorreformatorischen wars inIt went to Prussia to woman castle, came however in the autumn of the yearly 1520 again back to all stone, which it successfully defended against attacks of the German medal. Due to his successful defense Kopernikus was appointed the commissioner of the Ermlands and with thatReconstruction assigns.Tiedemann Giese was its assistant.

At present the first division of Poland (1772) the city - as part of the Ermlands - came to the Kingdom of Prussia. There the city was since 1905 governmental district seat. From 1818 to 1910belonged it to the district all stone and became then circle-free city.

The contract of Versailles determined the execution of a popular vote according to the First World War over the whereabouts with Germany or a connection at Poland.

An overwhelming majority was correct forthe whereabouts; in the city all stone with an agreement of 98%.


at the end of the Second World War became the city to 22. January 1945 taken by Soviet troops. It came through to abusing the civilian populationSoldier of the Red Army. To particularly cruel encroachments it came to eye-witness reports in the mental hospital Kortau re-designed to the field hospital, where all military hospital patients and the personnel found death. There several smaller became and with construction work into the 1950-er yearslarger mass graves discovers; the largest of them saved 227 corpses (source: S. Piechocki, S. Literature data). Until March 1945 1040 houses became destroyed in all stone by arson, before the Red Army control of the city to the Polish army transferhad. The procedure of the Soviet army in East Prussia at the end of the war and the excesses waited thereby become and. A. also in works of the Russian writers Alexander Solschenizyn (Nobelpreisträger for literature) (see. its book “eastPrussian nights”) and Lew Kopelew (see. its book “keeping for all time”) brings up for discussion, which were even soldiers and time witnesses at that time.

after 1945

after the Second World War the Ermland and thus all all this in consequence of the Potsdamer of agreement became in the year 1945 posed under Polish administration. The last soldier of the Soviet army left all stone in the year 1956. The German inhabitants fled during the last war yearly or thereafter were driven out. The city was renamed in Olsztyn and to the capital of the WoiwodschaftOlsztyn. With the regionalization of Poland developed 1999 the Woiwodschaft Ermland Masuren, which has its government seat in Olsztyn. In the same year the Ermland and Masuren university was created here. In the course of the democratization the eastPrussian population of remainder could create the “Allensteiner society of German minority”,up to the death of her contentious chairman Walter Angrik 1993 by this one led.

inhabitant development

mayor until 1945

  • Andreas Petrus Green mountain, 1809-1818
  • Karl Anton Ehlert, the 1818-1835
  • Jakobs Rarkowski, 1836-1865
  • Sakrzewski, 1866-1875
  • of Roebel 1875-1877
  • Oskar Belian, 1877-1908
  • George Zülch, 1908-1932
  • Dr. Gilka, 1932-1933
  • Friedrich Schidat, 1933-1945

economics and Infrastrukrur

economical importantly was long time the tire factory Stomil as well as the woodworking industry taken part in Michelin. Increasingly the city profitsin addition, of the tourism, which developed to a new industry. Olsztyn resident different cultural and scientific mechanisms and is today seat of the ore diocese Ermland.

objects of interest

  • medieval lock in the style of the brick gothic (partly destroyed)
  • pc. - Jakob US church (built1362)
  • Welfare and institute for care Kortau (today seat of the University of)
  • Luisenschule
  • lung welfare place “woman well-being” (since 1906)
  • more handels and higher professional school
  • pc. - Marien hospital
  • Hindenburg hospital
  • faithful thank theatre (since 1925)
  • popular vote monument (destroyed after 1945)
  • other buildings:
Transmitting pole for UKW and TV in Pieczewo (geographical coordinates: 53°45'13 " northernWidth, 20°30'57 " eastern length) with a height of 360 meters. This transmitting pole is since the collapse transmitting poles in Konstantynow the highest building in Poland ([1] and [2]).

partnerships between cities


honour citizen

  • Karl Roensch (1858-1921),there factory owner, city delegate chief, Chamber of Commerce president, honour citizen [work on] lived sons and
daughters of the city

1503, Lucas David,

other one with the city in connection standing personalities

Web on the left of


  • Anton radio: “History of the city all stone 1348-1943” SCIENTIA PUBLISHING HOUSE, 1979. - ISBN 3-511-09071-7
  • Stanislaw Piechocki: Czysciec zwany Kortau [a hell, called Kortau], Olsztyn [all stone]: Ksiaznica Polska 1993. ISBN 83-85702-02-4, 154 sides. (The book - unfortunately only in Polish language available - becomes by 59 illustrations and a summary in German language.) [
work on] see

also to list


  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)