Olympia assassination attempt
The olympia assassination attempt (also olympic tragedy) designates the assassination attempt of Palestinian terrorists against the Israeli crew during the olympic summer games of 1972 in Munich. The Palestinian group of terror of black Septembers took eleven athletes of the Israeli crew as a hostage. Two of the hostages were hurt already with the taking of hostages deadly, killed with a failed dilettante release attempt of the German authorities all other hostages, five terrorists and a German policeman. Afterwards two of the three survivors Palestinian Geiselnehmer as well as many of the supposed wire-pullers in a number of Israeli secret service actions were killed.
Table of contents
around 4:10 clock in the morning 5. Septembers 1972 climbed eight members of the Palestinian terrorist organization of black Septembers over the fence with gate 25A and entered the olympic village. They penetrated into the Appartment of the Israeli olympia crew in the Conollystrasse 31. The Geiselnehmer armed with storm rifles did not have a trouble to overwhelm the Israeli sportsmen since these had not locked the doors and the safety conditions during the olympic plays were kept consciously loose, in order to present the positive change, which had carried out Germany since the olympic plays 1936. The terrorists took eleven hostages: David Berger, Ze'ev Friedman, Joseph God friend, Eliezer Halfin, Joseph Romano, Andrei Schpitzer, Amitsur Schapira, Kahat Schor, Mark of Slavin, Jaakov Springer and Moshe vineyard. Vineyard and Romano were wounded equal to beginning of the action, both still died in the olympic village at their injuries.
The Bavarian police had been up to to the events in no regard, which by the live-transmissions of the media in all world became visible. From this late teachings were pulled and based the anti-terror unit GSG9.
The German responsible persons, in particular Federal Chancellor Willy Brandt (SPD) and Minister of the Interior Hans-Dietrich Genscher (FDP) rejected besides the offer of the Israeli government to send a special-purpose force for support. This is interpreted often in such a way that the German authorities of the opinion were to be able to regulate the affair. As the events should show, the German security forceses were however not in addition able, because they had not been at all trained for such an emergency. According to the Bavarian Minister of the Interior at that time Bruno notice it neither such an offer had given, nor the Israeli special-purpose force could have been used on the same day. The Geiselnehmer wanted on the same day Munich to absolutely leave, in order to leave to Israeli special forces no time for intervention, already to 9. May of the yearly a palästinensichen notice on a Sabena - machine in Tel Aviv had prevented.
The terrorists required the release and the free escort of 232 Palestinians, who served their detention in Israeli prisons, as well as the release of the German terrorists Andreas Baader and Ulrike Meinhof to 9 o'clock and the Japanese terrorist Kozo Okamoto. The Israeli answer followed immediately and read: There are no negotiations.
The mayor of the olympic village roll ago Tröger, NOC - president Willi Daume, chief of the police Manfred writer, the security head of the XX. Olympic plays, the Bavarian Minister of the Interior Bruno notice and also to Genscher offered themselves the terrorists as spare hostages; this was not accepted however.
One quarter of an hour before expiration of the first ultimatum was negotiated with the terrorists an extension by three hours. When this ultimatum ran off, the crisis staff negotiated again with the leader the terrorist, who called itself Issa. With the help of an envoy and the mission boss of the Egyptian delegation it succeeded to the Arab league to extend the ultimatum around further five hours to 17 o'clock. The terrorists had experienced meanwhile from radio and television of the marching-up of the police.
They required to be gone on a trip to Cairo. The German official contacts gave to agree forwards, and two helicopters transported the terrorists and their hostages to the nearby airport of prince-field-bridge, where a Boeing 727 waited for them.
The German authorities planned at the airport to accomplish an attack on the terrorists. Locally however only five snipers , because from only five Geiselnehmern one proceeded, were actually were it however eight. On the roof of the airport building and on the Rollfeld stationed police officer had no training as precision contactors. Also they were only provisional armed with select storm rifles of the type G3. In addition were there no tank cars, because these were called only during the following two-hour shooting as reinforcement, arrived however because of strong traffic and many look-merry only a half hour later.
Two of the terrorists, who called themselves „Issa “and „Tony “, stated however that no crew on board was. When these back-hurried to the helicopters, the snipers opened the fire on them. In this moment the police switched large headlights on and illuminated with it the Rollfeld. The terrorists for their part fired at the headlights. It was approx. 23 o'clock. The snipers did not have a Funkkontakt to each other and shot without goal arrangement. Besides they had neither night-vision devices nor helmets. Thus with the first salvo only one terrorist was met, i.e. the presumed command leader, that had controlled the airplane before with „Issa “. „Issa “let a hurting lie and arrived back at the remaining terrorists. Three of them began covered behind the helicopters to answer outside of the field of view of the snipers, the fire. The fight dragged on over 45 minutes, until the armored Sonderwagen of the police requested from Munich moved forward.
Thus transferred in panic, opened one of the terrorists the fire to the hostages of the first helicopter and gave thereby the opportunity to two different to emerge from covering. It jumped out of the helicopter and left a hand grenade at its place. All three terrorists died by the shots of the snipers. Those directly on it the following explosion killed the hostages in the helicopter. The other five hostages in the second helicopter were killed during the fight.
The fifth sniper had so far not intervened in the fight: It lay completely uncoveredly, in addition without helmet and protection waistcoat, on the Rollfeld, the helicopters and the terrorists between itself and its colleague. In order by these to be erroneously fired at, it did not deliver a shot during the action. Only as a fleeing terrorist inadvertently directly on him, killed him the policeman approached by a shot in the head. Thus however it excited the attention of the police reinforcement freshly arrived. Held for one the kidnapper, he and beside him a helicopter pilot under „Friendly Fire, looking for, “were taken to protection and hurt heavily.
The action ended in the disaster: All hostages and five of the eight terrorists died; a policeman indifferent at the shooting, who had observed the happening of a ground floor window of the Flughafentowers, was met by a ball erred deadly at the head.
The investigation of the Bavarian police did not exclude that some the hostage could have been shot inadvertently by the police. Exactly the same it is possible that one of the terrorists shot all hostages. A definite clearing-up of the case could not be accomplished because of the strongly burned bodies.
consequences/operation anger of God
the corpses of the five in the fire fight of prince-field-bridge killed Geiselnehmer, to Libya were transferred, where they received a hero funeral with large military honours.
The three survivors terrorists remained however only short time in the prison, there it after the kidnapping of a Lufthansa airplane to 29. Octobers without arrangements with Israel were released. The Vemutung lies near that the Federal Republic of Germany was ready because of the fear of further terrorist attacks to deal with the demands of the hi-jackers.
After it became so clear that Germany would legally not sue the authors, authorized the Israeli Prime Minister minister Golda Meïr and the safety cabinet the foreign secret service Mossad to seek out and kill the responsible persons. The Mossad set up in addition the special unit Caesarea , whose commander was a later prime minister Ehud Barak. The mission became later than operation anger of God publicly admits. According to data of Mossad director at that time Zvi Zamir the operation should be however no revenge campaign, but a purposeful impact against the structures of the Palestinian terrorism and a unmissverstänliches signal to all groups of terror that the state punishes Israel Angiffe on its citizens world-wide.
In the next twenty years (murdered) the Mossad killed at least eight of the eleven took part Palestinians: To 16. October became Wael Zuaitir, which representatives of the PLO shot in Italy. To 8. December 1972 died Muhammad Hamschiri, PLO representative in Paris, by an ignited bomb. Further presumed terrorists were killed in Cyprus , Greece and again in Paris.
To 10. April 1973 was accomplished by the Israeli special-purpose force Sajeret Matkal the operation spring of the youth. Several special commands landed at a Lebanese beach and drove to Beirut. There they shot Yusuf on-Naddschar (Abu Yusuf, allegedly deputy Yasir Arafats and one the leader of the terror command), Kamal Adwan (presumed Fatah - commander) and PLO speaker Kamal Nasir. Further Sajeret groups destroyed the headquarters of the PFLP and an explosive factory of the Fatah. With the operation also an indifferent neighbour, a 70-jährige Italian, was killed.
To 28. June 1973 died Mohammed Boudia, the operation boss of the group of terror „black September “, in Paris by an autobomb.
To 21. July 1973 afforded the Mossad a heavy error, „the Lillehammer affair “. In the Norwegian winter sports place Ahmed Bouchiki was killed, a Moroccan waiter, who did not have to do anything with the olympia assassination attempt. It after a wrong tap an informant for Ali Hasan Salameh held, the boss of Arafats special troop „Force 17 “and member „black Septembers “. The Norwegian authorities seized five Mossad agents. They were condemned to terms of imprisonment, but returned 1975 to Israel.
Salameh died to 22. January 1979 in Beirut with the detonation of an ignited autobomb.
To 8. June 1992 was shot Atif Bseisu, a Mitplaner of the olympia assassination attempt, in Paris.
Today only the assassins Jamal aluminium-Gashey, which keep themselves hidden in Africa, and Mohammed Daoud Oudeh ( Abu Daoud) live, which was responsible for planning. It stated, the today's Palestinian president Mahmud Abbas would have made the money available for the assassination attempt.
consequences for the plays
at the beginning of the taking of hostages were first continued the plays and interrupted only after protests of numerous participants and visitors. After the death of the Israeli sportsmen the plays remained interrupted for a whole day and after one intending hour in the olympia stadium let IOC - president Avery Brundage them continue; this was approved of also by the Israeli government. Nevertheless the decision was criticized by many, but only few athletes left Munich.
Willi Daume justified the decision with the sentence: „It was gemordet already so much - we did not want to permit the terrorists to murder also still the plays “. Famous also the utterance Brundages „the games must go on “. The IOC wants to today no reference on the event with the following olympic plays, since this before the head could push other members of the olympic community.
- one day in September, a film of Arthur Cohn and a book of Simon Reeve as well as the documentary film the 21 hours of Munich regenerated the events.
- Munich a film of Steven play mountain, at the end of of 2005 in the USA appeared, describes (fictitiously) the events after the assassination attempt.