Olympic summer games 1936
|XI. Olympic summer games|
|participating athletes|| of 3961|
(3633 men, 328 women)
|competitions||129 in 19 kinds of sport|
|opening||1. August 1936|
|conclusion celebration||16. August 1936|
|opens olympic||torch/flare Fritz|
|squinting gene by||Adolf Hitler olympic oath Rudolf|
| Medal mirror|
(without art competitions)
|8||Japan||of the 6||4||8||18|
|10||united Kingdom of||4||7||3||14|
|Complete medal mirror|
XI.Olympic summer games became from the 1. to 16. August 1936 in Berlin delivered. Most matches took place on the olympia area Berlin , with the olympia stadium as central arena. With 49 participating nations and 3961 athletes the plays of Berlin set up a new participant record.
The outstandingSportsman of the plays was the US-American athlete Jesse Owens, which won four gold medals. The Kunstturner Konrad Frey was with three gold, one silver and two bronze medals the most successful German athlete. Apart from the sporty meaning the plays were characterised 1936 particularly by the fact that thosegoverning national socialist it successfully as propaganda forum uses, in order to improve the picture of Germany abroad.
choice of the venue
already VI. Olympic summer games 1916 were from the international olympic committee (IOC) to Berlinassigned. In the middle into the preparations fell the outbreak of the First World War, which finally led to the refusal of the plays. After end of war the IOC Germany excluded as a war causer from the olympic community. The spell lasted until 1925. Since the resumption into the IOC busyitself the guidance „of the German olympic committee “with the thought to get the plays again to Berlin.Theodor Lewald, president of the committee, wrote 25. February 1929 a letter at mayor Gustav Böss, in which he suggested a renewed application of Berlin.
With the endMay 1930 in Berlin taking place „IX. “The realm capital their candidacy presented olympic congress. Realm Minister of the Interior Joseph Wirth stated the plan in his inaugural address in the AUDI max of the Humboldt university, without dying however concretely on a venue or the year of the plays. The application for 1936 becameonly in the evening with a flank in the red city hall expressed. At this time Buenos Aires, and except Berlin also Alexandria , Barcelona , Dublin, Frankfurt/Main, Helsinki, Cologne, Lausanne, Nürnberg, Rio de Janeiro had themselves Budapest , Rome applied. One year later, to 30. Session of the IOC in Barcelona, however only four candidates had remained remaining. When then also still Budapest and Rome withdrew their candidacies, it came to a ballot between Barcelona and Berlin.
A first tuning resulted in a majorityfor Berlin. Since due to unrests in Spain with this meeting however only 20 was present that at that time 67 IOC members, IOC president suggested Henri de Baillet Latour with agreement of the two German delegated ones granting to the absent members the possibility of a telegraphic tuning or a Briefwahl. Thosefinal counting of the voices found to 13. May 1931 in the seat of the IOC in Lausanne in presence of mayor Paul Perret and IOC Vice-president Godefroy de Blonay instead of. Finally 43 IOC members had decided for Berlin and 16 for Barcelona as well as eight of the voice had contained.
call to the boycott
as the official result of the tuning over the assignment of the XI. 1936 to Berlin was given, seemed the execution of the plays admits olympic summer games after the principles „of the olympic idea “for the Germany of the Weimar Republic to be still present.After the seizure of power of Hitler in January 1933 however in particular the discrimination of the Jews caused a wave of the indignation and Verachtung and led to considerations to boycott the plays in the USA. A broad public, from which the fair Play - movement came out, had substantial doubtsat the adherence to and the attention „the olympic Charter “by Germany and equal chances for all participants demanded, independently of denomination and race. IOC president Henri de Baillet Latour saw itself therefore on the 32. Conference of the IOC 1933 in Vienna in addition moves, a possible shifting of the plays upthe agenda to set to keep should not the German realm Reich be ready to deliver a written declaration of guarantee the rules „of the olympic idea “. Ready to compromise with regard to foreign policy, the LV government committed itself to fulfill the olympic rules consistently. They promised free entrance for all races and denominations into the olympia crewsas well as tolerance of a politically independent organizing committee (OK ONE). This was however not converted in National Socialist Germany in practice.
German left-wing intellectuals emigrants in France, who protested particularly in „Paris day sheets “against the execution of the plays in Germany, played a special role. Around thesedifferent activities against delivering the olympic summer games 1936 in Berlin to coordinate, was based to 7. December 1935 in Paris „the Comité internationally pour le respect de l'esprit olympique “. It consisted of members of the committees for the defense of the olympic idea of Great Britain, France, the Netherlands,the Scandinavian countries, Czechoslovakia as well as Switzerland and also connection to the American fair Play committee had.
„A regime, is based upon hard labour and mass enslavement; a regime, which exists the war prepared and only by verlogene propaganda, as is such a regime the peaceful sportand liberal sportsman respect? If you believe me, those of the international sportsmen, who go to Berlin, nothing else will be there as Gladiatoren, prisoners and Spassmacher of a dictator, who already feels as a master of this world.“
- Heinrich man at the conference for defense thatOlympic idea to 6. and 7. June 1936 into of Paris
the committee supported also the preparations as Gegenolympiade planned of the people Olympiad of 19. to 26. July 1936 in Barcelona, which had to be broken off because of the using Spanish of civil war, as well as the anti-fascist art exhibition „de Olympiadmore onder dictatuur “in Amsterdam. Altogether this resistance remained however chanceless in relation to the National Socialist propaganda machinery, to which the IOC gave gladly faith.
Larger weight came there to the boycott efforts in the USA, those already 1933 began and by the Verabschiedung „of the Nürnberger of race laws “of15. Septembers 1935 were lastingly affirmed. Here had itself a broad fair Play movement was formed, those by the large sport federations „the amateur Athletic union “(AAU), the largest trade union organisation „The American Federation OF laboratory “(AFL), universities and prominent sportsmen carried. A boycott thatOlympic plays by the USA for the National Socialist regime would have meant a substantial image loss. The American government wanted to exert expressly no influence on the discussion and released the AAU the decision over participation or boycott. On the annual general meeting the American „amateur Athletic union “should in December 1935 on the olympia participation of the USA to be decided. When Avery Brundage, to which chairmen of the American NOC and decided proponent of a participation saw that he would possibly lose the tuning, he retarded the decision around one day. Over night he quoted by telegramfurther voters delegated here. The proponents sat down to 8. December 1935 with 58:56 voices against the boycott supporters around AAU president Jeremia Mahoney through and the USA participated in the olympic summer games in Berlin. Most other nations followed on it this attitude.
to these plays took place for the first time a torch/flare run . After the idea of Carl Diem an olympic torch/flare in Greece one ignited and by 3331 torch/flare runners for opening meeting to Berlincarried. The run led by seven countries across a distance of 3187 kilometers. The distance had been specified and measured by coworkers of the propaganda Ministry.
The run began in Olympia (20,07.) and led Athens, Delphi , Sofia across the stations (25,07.), Belgrade (27,07.), Budapest (28,07.), Vienna (29,07.) and Prague (30,07.) At the 1. August around 11:42 clock reached the torch/flare citizens of Berlin the city. The conclusion runner of the torch/flare run was the athlete Fritz squinting gene, he ignited during the opening meeting the olympic flame. Subsequently, torch/flare runner brought the flame to the olympic match places in Kiel (02,08.) and Grünau (07,08.).
Had sketched the torch/flare of walter Lemcke and Peter Wolf, the company Krupp made available the torch/flare owners free of charge. On the shank the distance of the run and the words were engraved „as thanks the carrier “. The torch/flare was 27 cmlargely and 450 G. weighed. The point of the torch/flare consisted of magnesium, which burned approximately 10 minutes long. All 3331 of the NOC of the seven countries selected torch/flare runner received beside the torch/flare owner also a document.
Logo and hymn
shows the five olympic rings, an eagle and breaking citizens the gate, sketched olympic summer games in Berlin of the artists Johannes Boehland. The president of the organizing committee, Dr. Theodor Lewald, was with this draft however not content and energized, the lower partto open the Logos and to let thus the form of a bell develop. On the side of the bell the inscription should „I calls the youth of the world! “stand. Johannes Boehland received the order to sketch the Logo again and convert the ideas. The final Logothus the olympic bell showed, on which the olympic rings with the German eagle were shown.
Exactly the same as the olympic rings, the olympic flame and the olympic oath, also the bell became a symbol of the citizens of Berlin of plays. In the proximity citizens of Berlin of the olympia stadium1934 after the plans of professor Werner March developed for that about 77 meters high citizens of Berlin bell tower.
„Peoples! Are the people guests, durch's opens gate comes in here!
Peaceare that people celebrations! Honour should be the combat saying.
Young Kraft wants courage to prove, hot play Olympia!
Your gloss in acts praise, a pure goal: Olympia.
Many countries pride and bloom came along to the combat celebration;
all fire glowed there, strikes together highly and freely.
Kraft andSpirit approaches with Zagen. Victim course Olympia!
Who may carry your laurel, for fame sound: Olympia?
Like now all hearts strike the highest in raised
association, should in acts and in legends be oath faithful.
Freudvoll are to triumph to master, victory celebration Olympia!
Joy is still in succumbing, peace celebration: Olympia.
Freudvoll are to triumph to master, victory celebration Olympia!
Olympia! Olympia! Olympia!“
The organizing committee contacted however first the poet Gerhart captain, which also promised to write a text. Since it did not supply these however, energized Börries of Muenchhausen a price writing out, 3000 entrieshad. Börries of Muenchhausen selected of it four texts and sent it to smelling pool of broadcasting corporations bunch, which decided for that of the unsuccessful actor and Rezitators Robert Lubahn. World premiere celebrated the hymn at the 1. August 1936 during the opening meeting in the olympia stadium Berlin.
the match places in Berlin distributed themselves over the urban districts Charlottenburg, Köpenick, Wilmersdorf, Spandau and the district Havelland in Brandenburg. The central area was called „realm athletic ground “and united the largest sports sites. ThoseEstablishment of the realm athletic ground cost about 77 million Marks.
The center of the sports sites formed the olympia stadium, to which 100,000 spectators place offered and 400 meters be enough for dirt track had. There the competitions in the Leichtathletik , the jumping competitions in riding , became in the field hand ball and thosePlays in the football starting from the semi-final delivered. In addition took place there the opening and the conclusion ceremony. The pre and intermediate round plays of the olympic football tournament were delivered in the post office stadium, in the Mommsenstadion and on the Hertha BSC - place. The field hand ball competitions used also the police stadium and the BSV place.
Directly beside the olympia stadium lain the swimming stadium was venue for the swimming competitions and the Wasserballspiele. It had 18,500 spectator places and a pool in the size of 50 meters of x of 20 meters. For the Wasserspringen a 20 meter of x 20 meters large Sprungbecken stood toOrder.
In Germany-resounds, which place to 20,000 spectators offered, took place the competitions in the Gewichtheben, rings and boxes . The Feldhockey - tournament was delivered in the Hockeystadion, which had likewise 20,000 spectator places. The competitions in fencing were delivered at different places; in the house of the sport,in the dome hall, in the sport forum and at the tennis places. Also the basketball plays took place at the tennis places of the realm athletic ground.
The riding competitions were accomplished at the most diverse Lokalitäten; the Dressurreiten on the May field and on the troop exercise area in Döberitz, where also the olympic village was,the Geländeritt on the hunt course Ferbitz. The shooting competitions took place in Berlin when lake on the range „of the German laboratory for hand-held weapons “. In addition the range resting life was a venue.
The wheel stadium had a 400 meters long wood course and offered to 12,000 spectators place. Here the competitions found in Course cycle racing instead of. Start and a goal for the road competitions was the north loop „of the Avus “. The distance led across the south loop „of the Avus “, sign horn, army route, Staaken, Dallgow, Döberitz, olympic village, Priort, Kartzow, driving country, Krampnitz, large Glienicke, Karolinenhöhe, army route and sign horn again to the south loop „of the Avus “.
On the free light stage of kind of Dietrich hitting a corner the competitions in doing gymnastics took place before 20.000 spectators. Polo was played on the May field. The gulf and land club when lake were venue for the area run in the modern five-fight. In Berlin Grünau those became competition in rudders and in the Kanufahren on 2000Meters are enough for distance delivered, on whose grandstand 9000 spectators place found. The competitions in sails were delivered in the olympia port in Kiel.
The art competition began to 15. July 1936. Up to the conclusion of the olympic plays the exhibition could in resounds to VI of the fairground to be visited.The demonstration kind of sport baseball was dargeboten in the olympia stadium, the demonstration kind of sport Segelflug on the airfield Staaken.
accommodated accommodations plan of the olympic village the international olympic committee in the urban district. In the urban district Charlottenburg in the hard mountain route was the seat of theOrganizing committee. The Sportlerinnen found likewise in the German sport forum Charlottenburg accommodation. Some male athletes were accommodated in the urban district Köpenick in the lock Köpenick, in the police officer school and in the Dorotheenschule.
The majority of the male olympia participants resided however in the olympic village with Döberitz. The village should a place of the peace its, to which the sportsmen could withdraw themselves. The village at the same time made the economical accommodation and food supply possible of the athletes and offered to them training possibilities as well as a maintenance program. The organizing committee had assigned a team of architects and landscape gardners the planning of the village.The total line was with the architect Werner March, which was responsible already for the planning of the realm athletic ground and the olympia stadium. Stood in addition for it his brother walter March, the architect George stone-cutter and the garden architect and landscape designer Heinrich Wiepking Jürgensmann to the side.
The olympic village consisted ofreception building, about 140 one-story and five two-story housings, large food house, kitchen house, which Hindenburghaus, to which commander house, one sport-resounds, a natatorium, a Sauna as well as a physician and a hospital. The food house had 38 Speisesäle, which certain in each case nations were reserved. In the Hindenburghaus the abendlichen foundMaintenance meetings instead of, which were organized by the line of the LV culture municipality. In addition report belonged over the olympic plays, film week looking, features, sport films, Kabarett, concerts, ballet and Kulturfilme.
with 49 participating nations was set up in Berlin a new participant record. The States of Afghanistan, Bermuda, Bolivia, Costa Rica and Liechtenstein celebrated their premieres with olympic summer games. Originally also Haiti was announced with a sportsman,did then however without participation.(In parentheses: Number of the participating athletes)
for the olympic summer games in Berlin altogether 960 gold, silver and bronze medals were manufactured. They were in each case 81 g heavily and had a diameter of 55 mm. Those was sketched to medal made by Giuseppe Cassioli of Florenz and of B. H. Mayer from Pforzheim. On the front the goddess of the victory is explained, which holds a palm in its left hand and in its right hand a crown. Besides one coined/shaped the inscription „XI. OLYMPIAD BERLIN 1936 “. The back the medal shows oneWinner, who is carried by jubilant masses; in the background an olympic stadium is to be seen.
In addition all medal winners received documents, oak rings and each winner a Eichbäumchen. With these 70 cm large Bäumchen concerned it the German pedunculate oak („quercus pendunculata “). It founditself in a brown Keramiktöpfchen with the label „waxes in the honour of the victory - calls to the further act “. In addition the names of all winners on boards at the Marathontor of the olympia stadium were perpetuated.
To make directly at the sports facilities the winner honours that leaned the suggestion of the international sport federationsIOC off. It insisted on central winner ceremonies in the olympia stadium. There these took place often however with three-day-long delay. Altogether in 129 competitions in 19 kinds of sport medals were assigned, in addition 15 art competitions took place.
kinds of sport, schedule and results
|schedule of the olympic summer games 1936|
|field hand ball||•||208,966|
|framework meetings||796,427 ³|
|• = medal decisions|
¹ = the spectators with the struggle and Gewichtheben in summary
² = without jumping riding during the conclusion meeting
³ = to count for example for this the art exhibition and the demonstration kinds of sport
In the olympic basketball tournament altogether 199 sportsmen from 21 countries participated (only men). Basketball was 1904 as olympic discipline to be already suggested, was however in Berlin for the first time an official kind of sport. In each crew there was seven players and it at tennis places was played. Againit was that the stands with the basket stood outside of the playing field. The play time was with two times 20 minutes and the tournament as cup system was implemented. This meant that a defeated crew separated not immediately, but in a comfort round again the chance had, itself forthe next round too qualify. As 22. Crew was announced those from Spain, which was however not present due to the Spanish of civil war. From it it resulted that in the tournament altogether 40 plays came and were combatless won six plays.
The two Halbfinals found to 13.August instead of. Had qualified themselves to the crews from the United States, Mexico, Canada and Poland. In the first semi-final the United States and Mexico with 25:10, the second semi-final separated between Canada and Poland ended to 42:15. In the play around place 3 at on it the followingThe crews from Mexico and Poland faced each other day, the play ended to 26:12. To 14. Then the United States played August around 18:25 clock against Canada in the final. First won 19:8 and achieved thus the gold medal. Silver went at Canada, bronze at Mexico.
in boxes participated altogether 183 sportsmen in eight weight classes . Each country was allowed to go for each to weight class with only one sportsman to the start. In Germany-resounds for the first time in two rings one boxed. In addition the supervisors did very much, around the conditions forto improve the athletes. Thus for example the water pipelines led directly up to the rings and also the corners were illuminated. Large care one put also on the selection of the combat judges, only in one of nearly 200 fights had the judgement to be revised. This concerned Shrimpton(Great Britain), which was this-qualified because of a precipitation by Chin (China). After a protest main header the jury this disqualification however. A further innovation represented the daily weighing of the athletes, with which for some the matches were already prematurely terminated. In order to avoid this, traveledsome crews with double occupation on. The most successful Boxer came from Germany; they got altogether to two gold, two silver and bronze medal.
in fencing gave it seven competitions, six for men and one forWomen. For the first time an electrical hit indicator was used with olympic summer games. In all kinds of weapon not after victories, but to points one rated. In the single competitions three Fechter per country were startingentitled, a crew consisted of six Fechtern. Per comparison of it four could be used. AsWeapons served Floretts, sword and sword. The most successful Fechter came from Italy, it got altogether four gold, three silver and two bronze medals. Also the Fechter from Hungary were very successful with three gold and bronze medal.
field hand ball
field hand ball of the menonly 1936 were in Berlin an olympic discipline. Altogether 105 sportsmen from six countries participated in this match. One played on a football field with a 13-Meter-Torraum and a 14-Meter-Strafwurfmarke. The play time was with two times 30 minutes. In the play around place 3 to 14.The crews from Switzerland and Hungary faced each other August, the play ended to 10:5. On the same day around 16:50 clock played then in the final before 100.000 spectators Germany against Austria. Germany won 10:6 and achieved thus the gold medal. Silver turned on at Austria, bronzeSwitzerland. On the further places followed Hungary, Romania and the United States.
it became a Feldhockey - tournament of the men delivered, in which 171 sportsmen from 11 countries participated. For the first time in olympic history a Hockeystadion had been built. The twoHalbfinals found to 12. August instead of. Had qualified themselves up to then the crews from India, France, Germany and the Netherlands. In the first semi-final India and France with 10:0, the second semi-final separated between Germany and the Netherlands ended to 3:0. In the play around place 3two days later faced each other the crews from the Netherlands and France, the play ended to 4:3. The final would have originally likewise to 14. August to take place are to be shifted, had however because of strong rainfalls around one day. To 15. August around 11:00 clock played inFinal then India against Germany. India won 8:1 and achieved thus the gold medal. Silver went at Germany, bronze to the Netherlands.
at the football - tournament of the men altogether 201 sportsmen from 16 countries participated.Only 1935 had been taken up football again to the program of olympic plays, however under the condition that those did not nominate NOC professionals. No player was allowed to receive a remuneration for his loss of wages. In the tournament there were two groups with eight crews each.
- A: Egypt, Germany, combiningKingdom of, Italy, Norway, Peru, Poland, Sweden
- B: China, Finland, Japan, Luxembourg, Austria, Turkey, Hungary, United States
ever a country of the group of A one course-drew then to an opponent from group of B. The winners of the Vorrunde arrived into the intermediate round, the winners of the intermediate round into the Halbfinals.A separating of the German football crew in the intermediate round with a 0:2 against Norway in only ever of Adolf Hitler visited soccer game of the national team clouded the tendency of the Germans. Likewise in the intermediate round Austria in the extension was defeated clearly with 4:2 of Peru. Therein the break however Peruvian spectators on the playing field were stormed and a Austrian player had stepped, the play were cancelled and again set. In addition Peru did not begin however, with which the crew separated. Into Peru it came thereupon to demonstrations before the Germanand the Austrian message.
The two Halbfinals found to 10. and 11. August instead of. Had qualified themselves up to then the crews from Italy, Norway, Austria and Poland. In the first semi-final Italy and Norway with a 2:1 separated according to extension, the second semi-final between Austriaand Poland ended to 3:1. In the play around place 3 to 13. The crews from Norway and Poland faced each other August, the play ended to 3:2. To 15. August around 16:00 clock played Italy in the final then against Austria. Italy won 2:1 and achieved thus thoseGold medal. Silver went at Austria, bronze at Norway.
with after weight classes divided five competitions into the Gewichtheben participated altogether 80 sportsmen. In the Leichtgewicht two gold medals became to the Egyptian Anwar Mesbahand it assigns Austrian Robert fine why there was no silver medal winner. The speaker of the olympic oath, the German Rudolf Ismayr, reached the silver medal in the middleweight. In four of the five competitions new world records were set up:
- Feather/spring weight, Anthony Terlazzo (the USA): 312.50 kg
- Leichtgewicht, Anwar Mesbah(EGY): 342.50 kg
- middleweight, Khadr Sayed El Touni (EGY): 387.50 kg
- heavyweight, Josef Manger (GER): 410.00 kg
the most successful Gewichtheber came from Egypt, it got altogether two gold, one silver and two bronze medals. Also the Germans were with a gold, two silver and two bronze medalsvery successfully.
in the Kanurennsport nine competitions were delivered. The admission of Kanurennsport into the olympic program had been rejected 1933 still with 15:9 voices by the IOC. One year later revised the IOC this resolution and took the kind of sport with 14:8 voicesup. Per competition a Kanu for each country was certified. The long-distance running took place not on a round course, but on a straight distance. The most successful Kanuten came from Austria, it got altogether three gold, three silver and bronze medal. The Germans were with two gold, threeSilver and two bronze medals likewise very successfully.
in the Leichtathletik were delivered 23 competitions for men and 6 competitions for women. On a congress of the IAAF 1934 in Stockholm was a new type of hurdle, a reverse „L “,decided. In addition one had abolished the rule, according to which a runner, which had torn a certain number of hurdles, had to be this-qualified. In the ten-fight a new counting method, the Finnish multi-combat table, was used. A discussion was inflamed around the maximum limit of the permissible wind support. While the Germans thoseUpper limit with 0,7 m/s tail wind and 1.0 m/s cross-wind suggested, insisted the Americans on the rule to recognize no records on straight distances which were supported with more than 1.34 m/s tail wind. Finally one agreed on a since then valid limit of 2,0 m/s. That todayusual Startblock was authorized only 1938 and introduced starting from 1939. As horologe the hand stop watches developed of omega as well as the Ratrappantezähler were used.
In the marathon race the two Korean athletes son won Kee chung and Nam Sung yong gold and/or. Bronze, had however under Japanese names and for Japanrun. 1910 had been annektiert Korea by Japan. Son refused during the olympic plays signing with it forced upon the Japanese name and set occasionally even the outlines of Korea beside his signature. When during the winner honour instead of the Korean Japanese flag one go-ate,broke out it in tears. The outstanding athlete was the American Jesse Owens, which won four gold medals over 100 m, 200 m, 4 x 100 m relay and in the Weitsprung. In the Leichtathletikwettbewerben of the men beside many olympia records also some world records were set up:
- of 1500 meters (final), John Lovelock (NZL): 3:47,8 min
- of 110 meters of hurdles (qualification), Forrest Towns (the USA): 14.1 sec.
- of 3000 meters obstacle (final), Volmari ISO Hollo (FIN): 9:03,8 min
- 4 x of 100 meters (qualification), team the USA: 40.0 sec.
- 4 x of 100 meters (final),Team the USA: 39.8 sec.
- of 50 kilometers going (final), Hector Whitlock (GBR): 4:30: 41.4 h
- three-jump (final), Naoto Tajima (JPN): 16.00 m
- ten-fight (final), Glenn Morris (the USA): 7900 points
the German 4x100-Meter-Staffel of the women, which had obtained a new world record in the qualification with 46,4 sec., ledin the final with the last change with eight meters lead over the United States. However then the relay delivery of Marie Dollinger on Ilse Dörffeldt failed. The staff fell to soil and the Germans had to be this-qualified. As surely valid olympia victory for the German crewwent thus to the United States. With 14 gold, seven silver and four bronze medals was the US-American crew the most successful in the Leichtathletikwettbewerben.
with the modern five-fight altogether 42 sportsmen from 16 countries participated. On the first day the 5000-Meter becameGeländeritt delivered. There were 1.10 meters high and up to 3.50 meters broad obstacles, which overcome with a speed of 450 m/min to become had. The athletes were allowed to need maximally 11:06,7 minutes for this distance. For each begun multi-second a half point of punishing was computed. Tosecond match day took place fencing . Here everyone fought against everyone. For a victory there were two points, for a double hit one point. On the day following on it the pistol shooting was delivered, from 25 meters distance. Here the sportsmen had 20 shot in four seriesto fire with ever five shot. Was shot at a decimal bull's eye/target, the maximally attainable result lay with 200 rings.
On the fourth day the 300-Meter freestyle swimming took place , on the last match day of the 4000-Meter area run. Here the sportsmen started the order in the distance of one minute, resulted initself by place numbers. The German God hard Handrick won with only 31.5 points, the silver medal got itself Charles Leonard from the United States with 39,5 points and the bronze medal went to the Italian Silvano Abba with 45,5 points.
at the Polo - tournament of the men altogether 21 sportsmen from five countries participated. After 1900, 1908, 1920 and 1924 the last mark took place at olympic plays a Polo tournament in Berlin. Were played in the K. - o. - Chukkers sieve system to eight minutes each,with a page overflow after each gate. Hope that the United States and the famous Indian team would participate, did not fulfill itself. Since the play Hungary ended against Germany in the Vorrunde despite extension 8:8, a repetition was set, which won Hungary clearly with 16:6.In the play around place 3 to 8. The crews from Mexico and Hungary faced each other August, the play ended to 16:2.
Already to 7. August around 14:00 played in the final Argentina against the united kingdom. Argentina won 11:0 and achieved thus the gold medal. Silver wentto the united Kingdom of, bronze at Mexico. On the further places Hungary and Germany followed.
in the cycle racing four matches on the course and two on the road (only men) were delivered. In the Sprint, with the 1000-Meter-Zeitfahren, with the 2000-Meter-Tandem and in the 4000-Meter-Mannschaftsverfolgungonly one starter was allowed and/or. Go to team for each country to the start. In the final of the Radsprintens German tonuses of noticing the Dutchman air van Vliet foulte. Instead of to be this-qualified, it received a fine from 100 Marks and was allowed its gold medal to keep. The road runningsince 1906 with mass start one delivered for the first time. Since the course was however only 100 kilometers long and very flat, the field arrived almost closed in the distance of few seconds, so that the combat court was not able each driver to platzieren. Also could thus rank six of the crew valuation not to be assigned. The average speed of this running was with 39,2 km/h.
The Frenchman Robert Charpentier particularly successfully cut off, which won three gold medals. By it France was also the best nation with the cycle racing competitions, it got altogether three gold, twoSilver and two bronze medals. The Germans and the Netherlands participants were similarly successful.
on the May field . With the Geländeritt of the single valuation Konrad baron von Wangenheim with its horse fell „cure prince “and broke the left Schlüsselbein. Despite the injury it rose its horse and terminated the ride. With immovable arm it started on the next day again, fell again and forced themselves again to terminate the ride so that it saved the gold medal for the German crew. With thatThe Germans proved to riding competitions as superior and won all six gold medals, in addition silver medal. Eleven other countries got in each case medal with these competitions.
in the struggle seven matches each in the freestyle and in the Greek-Roman style were delivered. With freestyle rings tookaltogether 100 sportsmen in the different weight classes part, with the Greek-Roman struggle 110. For the first time the regulation in written form was present. The maximum duration for a fight amounted to in the freestyle 15 minutes, in the Greek-Roman style 20 minutes. The combat judges knew a soil round after the first ten minutesarrange three minutes as well as a following period of four minutes from two times standing. The Ringer became with a red and/or. becomes green volume characterized. The Ringer, who had five error points, had to separate from the tournament.
The most successful Ringer came from Sweden, it got altogether fourGold, three silver and two bronze medals. Hungary was similarly successful. Germany did not reach a gold medal, however three silver and four bronze medals. The German Ringer and communist Werner soul binder intended to refuse as indications of the protest during the winner honour the expected Hitler greeting and instead a generic term zoneTo make gesture. After a Erstrundenniederlage soul binder this plan had to give up. At the end it reserved seat four in the olympic match.
and Germany in rudders gave it. Per class could a boat for each country participate. The German athletes were most successful in this kind of sport and won five gold, a silver as well as bronze medal.
three competitions were delivered in shooting. There were two new world records:
- Small caliber lying, Willy Røgeberg (NOR): 300Free
- disk pistol, Torsten Ullman ( SWE) scores: 559 points
Germany achieved with these matches one gold and two silver medals.
in swimming six competitions for men and their five for women were delivered. Also the disciplines Wasserball with a competition (onlyMen) and Wasserspringen with four competitions (ever two for men and women) are added to the kind of sport swimming. The 4 x 200 meter freestyle relay from Japan reached in the final a new world record with a time of 8:51,5 minutes. Cut Japan with four gold, two silver and fiveBronze medals in the pure swimming competitions extremely successfully off and proved as the most successful nation. The Netherlands and the United States were similarly successful. Germany reached three silver and bronze medal.
With the Wasserball - tournament participated 140 sportsmen from 16 countries. The first two of the Vorrunden groupsthose both came best ones of the intermediate rounds played in each case around the places one to four, the remaining around ranks five to eight into the intermediate round. For a victory there were two, for an undecided one point. With point equality the gate relationship decided. Hungary won the gold,Germany the silver and Belgium the bronze medal. With the Wasserspringen ten of the 12 medals went to two bronze medals at sportsmen out of the United States, to German sportsmen.
the four competitions in sails were delivered on the Kieler Förde before Kiel. The valuation system was the same as with the olympic summer games 1932 in Los Angeles. For each duly terminated Wettfahrt with received one point plus one point each per defeated yacht. The Netherlands, Germany, Italy and the united kingdom won each gold medal.
in doing gymnastics were delivered eight competitions for men and one for women. From this kind of sport the most successful German sportsman of the olympic plays followed in Berlin. Konrad Frey achieved three gold medals at the ingot, at the since horse and with thatCrew in the twelve-fight. As well as in addition it reached silver medal to strains two bronze medals at the soil and in the twelve-fight. At the soil two bronze medals were assigned, since Konrad Frey and Swiss Eugen Mack obtained the same score.
Altogether Germany in this kind of sport achieved six gold, oneSilver and six bronze medals. Switzerland fought for a gold, six silver and two bronze medals.
during the olympic summer games in Berlin took place 15 art competitions. Premium ore here cultural contributions became from the ranges architecture, literature, music, painting and diagram as well as sculptor art.Realm propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels opened the art exhibition in resounds to VI of the fairground already to 15. July 1936. About 70 works of art were afterwards sold. Also with this competition Germany with five gold, five was silver and two bronze medals the most successful nation.
In addition became with the playslent olympique d'alpinisme in Berlin to the third and last mark the olympic mountain climber price Prix. Two Swiss Hettie Dyhrenfurth and Günther Dyhrenfurth received those to gold medal for their Himalaya - expeditions in the years 1930 and 1934. One honoured Swiss Hermann writer with the gold medal fora Segelflug over the alps. „San min Chu i “(„three principles of the people “), the Chinese national anthem, was selected for the world-best national anthem of the olympic summer games.
demonstration kinds of sport and demonstrations
as demonstration kinds of sport took place baseball and sail flies. The baseball demonstration was only one play,to 12. August around 20:30 clock in the olympia stadium under floodlight was delivered. The two US-American crews faced each other „world champion “and „Olympics “. The play ended to 6:5 for the world champion crew. Also the sail flight competitions on the airfield Staaken did not have match character. 14 pilots (under it oneWoman) from seven countries are in particular well-known, there gave however still further participants. The pilots originated from Bulgaria, Italy, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Switzerland, Germany and Austria. Swiss Hermann writer, that was distinguished in addition for a Segelflug over the alps with gold medal, tookalso at this competition part. The demonstration found to 4. August around 11:00 clock instead of. Already at the 3. August, with the exercises for the demonstrations, occurred a heavy accident. The Austrian Ignaz stepson fell with aerobatics due to a wing break deadly.
In addition it gaveDemonstrations of doing gymnastics gutters and Turnern from China, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Hungary, Sweden and Germany. In the interior of the wheel stadium presentations in the art wheel driving, Kunstreigen and wheel ball took place . To 16. August was organized in the swimming stadium a looking jumping of all medal winners in the Wasserspringen. At the venue of the Kanu competitions found Kenterübungen of 40 German Kanuten and a ramp of 116 decimal Canadians instead of. The moreover one there was a German demonstration with Viererkajaks without medal assignment over 1000 meters:
- 1. Place: V.K.C. Cöln (3: 41.3 min)
- 2. Place: K.G. Moving falcon meal (3: 42.1 min)
- 3. Place: V.K.B. Berlin (4: 24.2 min)
outstanding sportsmen and achievements
|the most successful participants|
|rank||sportsman||country||kind of sport||total|
|1||Jesse Owens||United States||Leichtathletik||4||0||0||4|
|2||Konrad Frey||Germany||doing gymnastics||3||1||2||6|
|3||Hendrika Mastenbroek||the Netherlands||If 3||1||0||4||4|
|Alfreds||black man Germany||doing gymnastics||3||0||2||5||5|
|Robert||Charpentier France||cycle racing||3||0||0||3|
the Austrian riding sportsman Arthur von Pongracz de Szent Miklos and Óvár swims, the secondaryoldest participant was with 72 years and 48 daysall times. Only the Swedish sport contactors OSCAR Swahn with the olympic summer games 1920 with 72 years and 279 days at the time of the match had been still older. The Danish swimmer Inge Sørensen became at the age of 12 years and 24 days the youngest olympia medal winner, herwon over 200 meters chest the bronze medal. The US-American Wasserspringerin Marjorie Gestring became with 13 years and 266 days the youngest Olympiasiegerin of all times and decided the competition in the art jumping for itself.
for Germany, asAggressor and loser of the First World War not invited to the olympic plays 1920 and 1924 was, meant the assignment of the plays to Berlin a confidence proof and a new chance to prove to the world that Germany can be a good host and after firstWorld war to normality found the way back. After the seizure of power by the national socialists it was however first completely uncertain whether the plays under the new government could actually take place due to the ideological aspects of the new German government.
In view of the propagandistic possibilities, which offer a successful execution of the playsit became realm chancellor Adolf Hitler stressed that he will do everything, in order to arrange the plays as perfect as possible. With the olympic plays it wanted to show the whole world that Germany under its guidance was a friedliebendes, social and economically rising country. Around thisA goal to reach, bore Adolf Hitler even the fact that Theodor Lewald, which was a president of the organizing committee, after National Socialist conception „a half Jew “. In order to prevent a shifting of the plays abroad, Adolf Hitler went officially on the demands of the IOC to adherence to the olympicRegulate. The government committed itself to permit a free entrance „for all races and denominations “into the olympia crews. In order to advance toward the boycott efforts, the organizers made a commitment to the IOC not to exclude also German Jews in principle from the plays. At the end belonged however only„a half Jew “of the German olympia crew on, the Fechterin Helene Mayer, which won silver medal. A similar alibi function had Werner soul binder, the popular repeated German master in the struggle, who was allowed to participate as a well-known communist in the plays.
Apart from the possibility, by the playsthe foreign country over the true character of the National Socialist state to be deceptive to reduce was the opportunity to meet with various construction measures of the economic misery the number of unemployed and to increase the popularity of the government in this way, a further motive for Hitler's tendency. Its resolution forthe extensive building project of the realm athletic ground justified Adolf Hitler as follows:
„If one four million unemployed person has, must one for work provide “
propagandistic and economic use expected the National Socialist government also by the increasing tourism. In addition the olympic plays were more welcomeCause, physical training demanded by the LV ideology, „the Heranzüchten of core-healthy bodies “for a healthy „people body “regarding military training and employment in the war to publicise and also into practice put on broad basis. By the integration of all compatriots into the preparation of the playsthe identification and loyalty with the regime should be achieved. Thus propaganda stressed that no German was to feel only as visitors of the plays, but that each German in itself is to have consciousness to be carriers and thus participants of the plays. With thatSlogan „Olympia - a national task “, of propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels and Ministers of the Interior Wilhelm Frick deklamiert, were prepared the Germans in desired direction for the olympic plays.
And it attached office for sport advertisement entire propaganda was incumbent on an olympia propaganda committee. In a booklet row became the peoplethe partial complicated rules of the competitions describes. As special aspect the mobile olympia itinerant exhibition, which drew one year long by Germany and in nearly hundred cities to be seen was, was considered to propaganda. Besides became with posters, folders, olympia newspapers, films and dia. lectures at home and abroad forthe plays and recruited for Germany. Abroad the branches of the National Railroad center for the German passenger traffic lured with sumptuously opened window dressings to an attendance of Germany on the occasion of the plays. Special agreement the reduction of the prices of transportation for railway travels to Germany encountered by 60 per cent. Few weeksvor Eröffnung der Sommerspiele wurde das deutsche Volk aufgerufen, durch besonders zuvorkommendes und höfliches Verhalten gegenüber den Gästen der Olympischen Spiele „alle Vorurteile gegenüber dem deutschen Volk aus der Welt zu schaffen“.
the propagandistic main event however those were verziertSummer games themselves. Against all reminders of the IOC not to abuse the host role for self-manifestation the regime used everything to demonstrate in order to sit down with one „to propagandistic synthesis of the arts “well in scene, with the inspired people Ekstase and agreement from people and leader to. With framework meetings howTheatre and opera performances, that by Carl Diem created festival „olympic youth “, different art exhibitions, the Germany exhibition and sporty Begleitveranstaltungen wanted to reproach the National Socialist ruling powers of the world the size and meaning of Germany, all past olympic plays to overtrump and as friedliebend and world open present themselves. The Zwiespältigkeit of theSystem revealed itself however in the zynischen and scruplesless kind, with which the national socialists before the guests beautiful-colored the true conditions in Germany. With fly a flag and greed-land-decorated houses and roads perfect a front was developed, over the impression of a tidy, clean, civilian and social Germanyto mediate.
In order to deceive in particular the American guests over continual discrimination and pursuit of the Jews in Germany, Karl knight of stop, the supervisor of the winter plays arranged, the distance of all describes with the label „Jews unwanted “. Each Jew-hostile expression should during the playsare omitted. Before the appearance each expenditure of the anti-Semitic weekly paper had to be submitted „the Stürmer “to the police station of the Bavarian Department of State of the inside for examination. Editors, who offended against this arrangement and published further anti-Semitic rushing campaigns, were taken in protective custody. „The prestige meeting olympic plays “should thus not to be endangered.
If National Socialist propaganda was endeavored with the winter plays to avoid each sign from Antisemitismus to then before opening of the summer games all Sinti and Roma living in Berlin were brought briefly to the outskirts of a town after March ancestor. While LV propaganda celebrated „the world peace celebration “, developedclose Berlin at the same time the concentration camp Saxonia living. The national socialists used the instrument of propaganda obviously skillfully, because many guests and functionaries saw what they should see during the olympic plays only. On behalf the realm Ministry for public enlightenment and propaganda Leni scoring steel turned thattwo-piece documentary film Olympia over the summer games of 1936, which belongs to the most well-known films of the national socialism.
the television for the first time for the first time the olympic plays directly in the broadcast. 41 broadcasting corporations were certified, it gave 68 transmission places and3000 transmissions into 40 countries. A special service of the German short wave transmitter spread the olympia messages with exception of Australia on all continents. Also the television had premiere. From the olympia stadium a Farnworth camera transferred 15 transmissions with a total time from 19 hours. In the swimming stadium was that Iconoscope of the realm post office installs. The television station Paul Nipkow would daily send from 10:00 to 12:00 and from 15:00 to 19:00 clock. Into 138 hours so 175 matches were transferred. The number of the private receivers was however small, because the transmitted signal was too weak. Instead it gavein Berlin 25 television rooms, in Leipzig two and in potsdam one. In these one counted 162,228 paying visitors.
Altogether approximately 1800 journalists had accredited. Since the Pressekarten were impersonal and transferable, it is however not possible to call the accurate number of the present journalists.In particular 700 foreign journalists from 58 states were seized. In Berlin 117 photographers were present with the competitions. The realm sport publishing house published of 21. July up to 19. August altogether 30 expenditures „of the olympia newspaper “, which reported on the most current olympia messages. 1937 gave the organizing committee a two-pieceofficial report out. In German and English version therein on more than 1200 sides all information was published to the olympic summer games 1936 in Berlin.
- of peoples intelligent ones: Olympic summer games, the chronicle I sport publishing house, Berlin 1997, ISBN 3-328-00715-6
- pure hard Rürup: The olympic ones Plays and the national socialism argon, Berlin 1996, ISBN 3-870-24350-3
- Susanne Dost: The olympic village 1936 in the change of the time Neddermeyer, 2003, ISBN 3-933-25412-4
- Jürgen Bellers: Reports of the realm propaganda Ministry LIT publishing house Dr. William Hopf, 1985, ISBN 3-886-60193-5
- Gustav Rau: The equitation of the world at the olympic ones Plays 1936 Olms, Berlin 1978, ISBN 3-487-08156-3
- Friedrich planks: XI. Olympic plays Berlin 1936, 1979, ISBN of 3-760-95016-7
- peoples Boch: The olympic plays with consideration of the Jewish sport, 2002, ISBN of 3-896-49819-3
|Commons: Olympic summer games 1936 -Pictures, videos and/or audio files|
- olympia encyclopedia
- olympia statistics
- all olympic locations and medal winner
- side of the German historical museum
- side of the IOC (English)
- official report, part 1 (English, pdf file, 42 MT)
- official report, part of 2 (English, pdf file, 76 MT)
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