Oman

سلطنةعُمان
Saltanat Uman
Sultanate of Oman
Nationalflagge von Oman Wappen von Oman
(detail) (detail)
office language Arab
capital Maskat /Muscat
system of government monarchy
Sultan Qaboos is Said is Taimur aluminium Said
of deputy prime ministers Fahd is Mahmud aluminium Said
surface 309,500 km ²
number of inhabitants 2.340.000 (conditions 2003)
1.060.000 (conditions 1980)
550,000 (conditions 1950)
population density of 9 inhabitants per km ²
independence 1650
currency 1 Omani Rial = 1000 Baisa
currency abbreviation
ISO 4217
OMR
time belt UTC +4
national anthem Ya Rabbana Ehfid Lana Jalalat aluminium Sultan
Kfz characteristic COM
Internet TLD .om
preselection +968
Bild:Oman-Pos.png
Bild:Oman.png

the Sultanate of Oman (Arab: سلطنةعُمان) a country is in west Asia, at the southeast coast of the Arab peninsula. It borders in the northwest on the united Arab emirates, in the west on Saudi Arabia and in the southwest on Yemen. The coast limited by the Arab sea in the south and the east and by the gulf of Oman in the northeast.

Table of contents

geography

in the north and northwest of the country is appropriate those only for 1999 fixed border to the united Arab emirates. In the northeast the gulf of Oman and the Arab sea in the southeast and the south lie. The mountain chain aluminium-Hajar (Oman mountains) with the highest collection of the country, the mountain Djebel, running parallel to the gulf, (3,074 m), distinguishes the fruitful coastal plain aluminium-Batinah from the desert. On the coastal strip the most important cities of Oman, the capital Maskat , Sohar , Sur and Nizwa lie.

The desert Rub aluminium-Chali, which divides Oman with Saudi Arabia and Yemen, takes the largest part of the interior and separates the southern province Dhofar from the north of the country. Because of the fruitful coast Dhofars is the province capital Salalah. The state borders in the interior are not accurately fixed, the surface of Oman amount to officially 309,500 square kilometers (other sources: 212,457 km ²).

Musandam
Musandam

for the territory of the State of belongs also the strategically important Exklave Musandam (Ruus el Djibal), a peninsula at the road of Hormuz, between Persian Gulf and the gulf of Oman, as well as an enclave named Madha within the united Arab emirates. This cape is separated from the remainder of the country by the territory of the united Arab emirates.

See also: Cities and landscapes in Oman

climate

general the climate is hot and drying, at the coasts hot and damp inside the country. The average temperatures lie in the summer months with approx. 35° C, it can be partly achieved to 52°. In the winter months the temperature lies with approx. 27°C. In the north it rains in the winter, in Dhofar under the influence monsoon from June to Septembers, so that the temperatures lie there then lower. The annual amount of precipitation is small, on the average 100 mm in the year.

Flora and fauna

by the few rains has Oman only a meager vegetation, dominating are resistant Dattelpalmen, in the damper mountains grow also trees such as Zedern or oil trees. In Dhofar a multiplicity partly for the Arab peninsula atypical plants grow, particularly in the months of the monsoon rain and in the mountains.

It gives approx. 85 kinds of native birds, in addition come migratory birds, which one can observe in Oman. Altogether over 450 different kinds of bird were already sighted. Before the fish-rich coasts can be observed over 22 different kinds by whales and dolphins.

There are protected areas for the sea turtles laying eggs at the beaches of Oman in the country. The Arab Oryx already become extinct originally in free nature was settled into the 1980ern again in a protected area, the Arabian Oryx Sanctuary was recognized of the UNESCO 1994 as a world nature inheritance.

Further remarkable land animals are different Gazellenarten, the leopard and the Arab Tahr.

Source and resuming information (English):

population

oasis in Oman

2003 had Oman 2.34 millions Inhabitant. The population density is with eight inhabitants per square kilometer.

The middle life expectancy is at 69 years. The population consists to approximately 75 per cent of Omanern, most is Arabs, in the northeast originates many also from East Africa. In the ports numerous Indian, live Pakistaner, Banglade and Filipinos. The population growth amounts to 2.93% in the year.

in addition,

languages the office language in Oman is Arab, it English, Farsi and Urdu is spoken. A part of the population speaks also a Swahili - dialect, as it is spoken in East Africa and on Sansibar.

religions

state religion is the Islam, other religions are waited. The majority of the population belongs to the Islam , the Ibaditen constitutes with 75% the largest part, followed from Sunniten, which zuwanderten from Iran and Yemen. A small part of the population are Shiites, Christians, Jews and Hindu.

education

the Alphabetisierung Oman amounts to 75.8%, 83.1% of the male and 67.2% of the female population can read and write (CIA World Factbook, 2003). Although no general compulsory schooling exists, become approx. 90% of the children given first schooling to, the school attendance are free. The only university of the country, the Sultan Qabus university was created 1986 in Mascat.

cities

the capital Maskat and have only 25,000 inhabitants, the closer capital range are spatially limited have 370,000, the entire Capital AREA 632.000.

See: List of the cities in Oman

history

major item: History Oman

Oman already was around 3000 v. Chr. the Sumerern in Mesopotamien admits (see: Magan). After the assumption of the Islam in 7. Century became Oman part of the Kalifats of the Umayyaden and Abbasiden. Particularly in the hinterland spread the sparkling wines of the Ibaditen , while Sohar ascended to the most important commercial centre of the Islamic world and China maintained contacts into the empire and to East Africa. After the destruction Sohars by the Buyiden (965) was occupied the country several times by Persian conquerers, before in 16. Century the Portuguese control of the coastal towns attained.

In the fight against the intruders Oman under the Yaruba dynasty and the Said dynasty became since that 17. Century combines. After driving the Portuguese out ascended Oman to the sea power in the Indian ocean and conquered large parts of the East Africa niches coast. By the division of the realm into the Sultanate of Oman and the Sultanate of Sansibar (1860) began the economic fall of the country, which was still intensified by the conservative policy of the Sultane. Only with beginning of the oil promotion and the accession of Qabus ibn Said (1970) a comprehensive modernization of economics and society took place.

politics

of highest rulers of the country are the Sultan, which unites the office of the head of state and head of the government in itself. As a kind condition serves that 1996 „basic Law OF the State issued of Sultan Qabus ibn Said “.

The national consultative council (Majlis Oman) is a meeting with only advisory function, developed after parliamentary system of two Houses. The upper house Majlis aluminium Dawla is determined by the Sultan. The House of Commons Majlis aluminium-Shura is selected by Omanern over 21 on three years, the Sultan has however the right the choice for invalid to explain. Political parties are forbidden.

Oman is in 8 Governorate (mintaqah) arranged, itself again into districts (, Sg wilayat. partition wilaya).

See: List of the regions and districts in Oman

infrastructure

desert in Oman

it gives in Oman approx. 32,800 km roads, in the meantime (2005) are attainable nearly all places on asphalted roads, it are missing however to cross connections (z. B. Ibri Sohar and the coastal road east of Maskat), so that the bitumen routes form still no net. Vierspurige motorways (779 km) connect Maskat with Sohar/ Fujairah and with Nizwa, and Ibri with Buraimi. Many Omaner use private passenger cars (285.000), so that the number the cross-country penalty between large places rather decrease, supplementing operate collecting taxis between smaller places. With annually about 10,000 traffic accidents approximately 600 humans die. A Eisenbahnnetz does not exist.

The transport of oil and gas takes place over approx. 7,000 km pipelines. Mina el Fahal with Maskat is the oil port of exportation. Further important ports are Mina Sultan Qaboos in Matrah and Raysut with Salalah, which is continued to develop and foreign trade zone is.

International airports exist in the southern Salala and in the northern filter (approx. 30 kilometers to the west of Maskat).

economics

currency

the currency in Oman is the Rial Omani to 1,000 Baisas. It is firmly bound to the US Dollar (1 R.O. = 2.58 US$).

foreign trade

since 1967 is exported oil, today with approx. 85% of the entire export main export property of the country, since 1978 are promoted additionally natural gas. Further export goods are fish, metals and textiles. Are imported machines and vehicles, industrial goods and food. Since beginning of the oil exports the commercial balance sheet is positive.

agriculture and Bodenschätze

42% of the population work in the agriculture or fishery, to be cultivated above all Datteln, Limetten, Granatäpfel and tobacco. The mining industry is limited to the dismantling of copper and little Chromit.

between

1992 and 2000 the portion of the public expenditures for the health service

culture

national holiday is the 18. November, on which Sultan Qabus celebrates ibn Said its birthday.

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coordinates: 17°-25° N, 52°-60° O

 

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