Operation Fortitude

operation Fortitude was a deception action in the Second World War for masking the operation Overlord. Superordinate planning for masking concerning all allied plans Europe was called operation Bodyguard.

In October 1943 the allied ones mockups

of tanks , airplanes and artillery cannons from wood or rubber and other war material than diverson set up airplane mockup of the British and in the Themse landing maneuver starting from 1943 for their operations in Scotland and practiced in the narrowest place of the English Channel between England and France with Dover.

To table of contents

operation Quicksilver

1943 started the Americans an operation around the German clearing-up over the place and the beginning of a possible invasion of the Western European mainland in the unclear one to leave. This went so far that a fictitious 1. Group of US Armies (FUSAG, the roofridge United States Army Group) with everything which to it belonged was invented, called operation Quicksilver. In falsified radiograms George S. became. Patton as a commander spent and the verschiedendsten landing possibilities from the Pas de Calais to Norway spreads. Additionally messages were set off over wedding dates and sport events of the invented soldiers.

a existente army, the 4 created operation Skye also the British. British army, for the execution of an invasion in Norway.

double CROSS

the British secret service MI5 arranged the double CROSS system, also XX system mentioned in to take in order to make German agents, imprisoned and turn afterwards as own agents. These gave then aimed wrong information to the German defense -, and/or. Security agency further. The double CROSS system worked not only on the British island, but world-wide.

By the diverson and purposefully by double agent, z. B. Juan Pujol, strewn wrong information felt encouraged the leadership level of the third realm in their opinion.


  • Roger Hesketh: Fortitude: The D-Day Deception Campaign, New York, Overlook, 2000
  • Jock Haswell: The Intelligence and Deception OF the D-Day Landings, London, asking Ford, 1979 and D-Day: Intelligence and Deception, New York, Time Books, 1979
  • James R. Cook: “Operation FORTITUDE: The Backbone OF Deception. “, Military Review 72 (Mar. 1992): 66-77.* Juan Pujol (with Nigel west): Garbo, London, pasture field and Nicolson, 1985 and Garbo: The personnel story OF the Most Successful double agent in World was II New York, random House, 1986

sees also


  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)