|conflict||the Second World War|
|date||10. July 1943 FF.|
|result||conquest Siziliens by the allied ones|
table of contents
The anglo American landing unit was subordinate the Allied 15th Army Group. It consisted of the 7. US army and the 8. British army with in each case two corps among them. Them stood that for XII. and XVI. Italian corps as well as the XIV. German opposite tank corps.
at the beginning of of 1943 crystallized that an invasion of France was impossible still in the same year. Instead the victorious forces of the Africa campaign for the invasion Siziliens were planned. The highest strategic goal was the destruction of the Basen of the Axis powers on Sicily, which served mainly hostile ships and airplanes as base, as well as freeing the Mediterranean for allied ships. Additionally the pressure should rise to Italy enormously, and so possibly to the war withdrawal induced become. The British armed forces saw the operation also as preparation for a possible invasion of Italy, against what the Americans resisted, because they did not want to permit delays of the invasion of France.
Commander of the invasion was a general Dwight Eisenhower. General Sir Harold Alexander led the ground forces, which were called 15th Army Group. It consisted of the 8. British army under general Berne pool of broadcasting corporations Montgomery and the 7. US army under general George S. Patton. The defense of the Axis powers, under the command of the Italian general Alfredo Guzzoni, consisted of 365.000 Italian and 40,000 German soldiers, with additionally 47 tanks and in approximately 200 artillery units.
the landings took place at extreme wind conditions and made the operation more difficult substantially, secured so however also the surprise element. The British army landed the American at the southwest coast at the southeast.
For the landing 9 became preparing at the night of. July on the 10. July paratrooper assigned, in each case two units on British and American side. For the American 82. US airborne division was it the first employment. The airplanes could not hold the course due to the storm and were far driven off, so that only about half of the thrown off units reached the tie point. The British used gliders , however with similar success: only 12 of the 144 gliders achieved the goal, some fell even into the sea. Nothing the despite the units gave their best, to attacked patrols and produced confusion where always possible.
The amphibious operation met, despite the weather, on little resistance. The Italian troops were insufficiently equipped stationed at the coastal line. The British marched almost problem-free into the port of Syrakus . Only at the American landing coast a counter attack largely put on took place. At the 11. July sent its reserve paratroopers to Patton in combat, however of it each unit does not seem to have been informed; after an air raid of the Axis powers the own airplanes appeared short and for a further air raid were held. 37 of the 144 own machines was shot.
the land fight
the plans for the fight after the invasion in the detail had not been prepared. Each army should pursue its own goals, only the border between the two armies was defined. The progress in the first two days was Excellency, then Vizzini in the west and Augusta (Sicily) in the east could be taken.
Afterwards however the resistance in the British sector increased. Montgomery convinced to shift Alexander the border between the two armies, so that its British army the resistance could go around and retain their key role with the income of Messina, while the American army took over the protection and the support of its flank. Patton however erstrebte a larger goal for its army and dared the attempt Palermo to take. While a clearing-up troop took Agrigent, it tried to convince Alexander to continue its raid. Alexander rejected this, its appropriate instruction however allegedly during the transmission was mutilated, and as the situation already stood Patton was cleared up before Palermo.
The income of Palermo inspired a successful Putsch against Mussolini. The elimination of Italy was a long-term goal of the Italy campaign, however the allied ones were nevertheless surprised over the suddenness.
After Palermo was taken, and which stuck British army still south of Messina, Alexander instructed an attack from both sides on the city. Patton however was as possessed from the idea to take Messina before the British. It wrote: “That is like a horse running, in that the reputation of the US army on the play stands.”. The Axis powers, now under the command of the German general Hans stroke, established a strong defense ring, the “Ätna line”, in order the city, in order to make for the enclosed troops possible as rapid a retreat as possible on the mainland. Patton began its attack on the front of Troina, however this was accordingly fastened the trick and pivot of the German defense and. Despite further amphibious landings the Germans created it to evacuate their troops without larger losses on the mainland. Parts of the third American infantry division penetrated only hours after leaving the last German ship in Messina. Thus also Patton had won its running.
consequences and consequences
on side of the Axis powers fell 29,000 soldiers, 140,000 were imprisoned taken. The income of the airport of Biscari entered as massacre of Biscari history, when US troops killed 73 prisoners of war. On American side 2,237 soldiers, 6,544 fell were wounded or turned out in shank. The British had to deplore 2,721 dead ones, with 10.122 wounded or caught soldiers. For many of the American troops it was the first employment. The Axis powers created it to evacuate over 100.000 men and 10,000 vehicles. There was a plan, which should prevent this, never.
The invasion had also influence on the events at the east front. One of the reasons, why the Germans had to break their offensive off with Kursk, was the necessary transfer from troops to Italy after becoming known the invasion.
Operation Husky was the largest amphibious operation in 2. World war, which angelandete troops and structure of front concerns. It exceeded even the landings in normandy. Strategically seen the allied ones could reach all their planned goals. Air and naval forces of the Axis powers could by the island be floated and maritime routes in the Mediterranean be opened. In addition Mussolini was fallen. Altogether operation Husky prepared the invasion of Italy, although this was not one of the principal purposes.
- operation Barclay: Deception operation, in order to mask the actual date of the correct invasion.
- Operation Chestnut: Air landing operation of two SAS with the goal of destroying communication devices (12. July 1943)
- Operation Corkscrew: Allied invasion on the Italian island Pantelleria to 10. June 1943.
- Operation Fustian: Air landing operation at the prime rose bridge to 13. and 14. July 1943.
- Operation Ladbroke: Glider landing with Syrakus to 9. July 1943.
- Operation Narcissus: Command employment on a lighthouse in the proximity of the landing zones to 10. July 1943.