Opium

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Opium is the dried milk of unreifer, attained full growth seed caps won by Anritzen to the poppy plants (Papaveraceae) of belonging sleep poppy (offered. Somniferum L.). In the process of the drying process a brown to black mass , the Rohopium results from the milk from oxidation (see illustration further below).

Sleep poppy

table of contents

general

for the production of Opium the usually following method is used: The seed caps are angeritzt, whereby the for the time being rose-pink milk withdraws. After 6 to 8 hours the black-oxidized becomesRohopium scraped off by the caps. Of this by heating up, kneading is made and careful roasting, following aqueous extraction method and mehrmonatiger fermentation with the mold fungus Aspergillus the Niger the Rauchopium ( also Chandu called), which is inhaliert. In addition, smoke or Rohopium can solved in alcohol drunk, when powders are eaten or injected as Tinktur by means of a syringe. The legal, pharmaceutical purposes serving production of Opium, the above method is usually judged as too labor-consuming. One wins therefore the Opium from poppy straw,by abmäht the plants, hooking ELT dries and the Opium with solvents washes.Heroin is the widen-common illegal Opium - derivative. The morphine salts used for the pain satisfying might belong to the most common legal Opiumderivaten. Interestingly enough the most potent pain means become in more recent timeno more from the Morphium, but from the Thebain won. Example for this is Buprenorphin. Somniverum is the most valuable welfare plant, which humans know. Already Thomas Sydenham (1624-1689), „the Shakespeare of the medicine “knew to say from the Opium to: “Among therem this which it has pleased Almighty God ton give ton one ton relieve his sufferings, none is so universal and in such a way efficacious as opium. “(Under all the means, it pleased to give the allpowerful us on which weour suffering lindern, is not so extensively applicably and as efficiently in its effect as the Opium) to it also today, nearly a half millenium later, nothing changed.

Opium, in former times also as Laudanum designation, contains 37 different alkaloids,constitute in the Rohopium up to a quarter of the mass. Main part is morphine (approx. 10%), one of the strongest well-known pain means (analgesics). It was isolated for the first time 1804 from the German pharmacist Friedrich Sertürner. After the Morphium Kodein might the most frequently pharmakologisch used Opiumalkaloid its.Codein finds mainly as cough satisfying means use, its derivative, the Dehydrokodein, also as pain means.

Further important alkaloids occurring in the Opium are Noscapin (Narcotin), Papaverin, Thebain and Xanthalin.

Opium
Opium

Its natural active substances are called Opiate, in the effect similar substances Opioide. With continued income of Opium the danger of the development of tolerance exists in relation to the effect of the different alkaloids. Cramp-solving apart from its analgetischen (pain-satisfying) effect is Opium also,Appetite restraining and antidiarrhoisch (durchfalllindernd). Besides it works also hypnotisch and reassuring, why it is used in particular in asiatic countries as Rauschmittel. In Germany at present Opium is only use upable for the treatment of chronic failure. There Opium the beta exercise central law, requires its using up a form for beta exercise central prescription is subject.

To the physical long-term sequences of Opiumgebrauch belong loss of appetite and thus decrease in weight up to the Abmagerung and complete weakening, in addition, cycle disturbance and muscular pains. In the case of overdosing acute breath paralysis threatens with death sequence. Psychological effects are dependence, drive weakness, Depressions, Impotenz, frequently strong personality changes accompanying with apathy and Teilnahmslosigkeit.

The largest Opium Anbauländer of the world

the largest Opium Anbauländer of the world is Afghanistan, Myanmar and Laos (source UNODC) (golden triangle). In Afghanistan the drug cultivation becameby the Taliban at first promoted and since a contract with the USA extensively suppresses. 2002 were terminated this regime by an alliance led from the USA. With the seizure of power of the 'north alliance 'the cultivation of sleep poppy increased however again stronglyand Afghanistan is now heroin manufacturer leading again world-wide.

intoxication

Opioide work strongly euphorisierend, fear and pain-reducing. After a lightning-like high feeling a wohlige dwell phase with internal peace follows. Negative Nachschwankung and depression as well as unrest can also occur. ThatDependence potential of Opioiden is very high.

Opium produces a wohliges and relaxing feeling in low dose. Some consumers report of day fantasy and an improved intellectual capacity. With higher dose the effect is euphoric and more benefitful. The conference areas increase, without inTo spread hallucinations. With very high doses the consumer is so calmed down that it constantly falls asleep. In the case of an overdosing breath paralyses and heart cycle stop follow.

history

the history of the Opiums is practically identical to that its raw material plant. For historysee the section history in the article sleep poppy. One e.g. smoked the Opium. also in Opiumhöhlen!

long-term sequences

liver damage, Stomach and intestine disturbances, Loss of all interests can lead admission/

duration of effect Opium to

the isolation [to work on

] becomes in the majority everythingCases in Opiumpfeifen smoked. These whistles can heat the material up up to the smoke development without it however to ignite. Not so common the so-called sheet metal smoking is heated up, with that the Opium on aluminum foil and ascending steams with a strawor other one pipe to be up-sucked and inhaliert. The oral income of the Rohopiums as meal or dte preparation is used less because of the decreased effectiveness and the bitter taste.

Opioide or morphine are squirted or taken (more rarely) as tablet.

The effect holds3-5 hours on.

references

Opiumkriege - first Opiumkrieg (1839-1842) - second Opiumkrieg (1856-1860) - British east India company - contract of Nanking - the Opiumkrieg (film) - Hong Kong - unequal contracts

literature

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