under a Oppidum (lat. oppidum attachment, digging plant, firm place; Plural: oppida) one understands a fastened, settlement city-like put on of the La-Tène-time (late Eisenzeit). The term decreases/goes back on Gaius Julius Cäsars writing De Bello Gallico (the gallische war), into which it described gallische digging plants.Oppida were common in completely west and Central Europe. Characteristically above all the attachments are by one with earth or stones filled scarf wall from wood, the Murus in such a way specified Gallicus. However Manching is the easternmost Oppidum with a Murus Gallicus, east continues to be so-called post slot walls asAttachments proven.

In addition, the term is used for settlements of late ancient times, then one speaks for instance of Salzburg as of oppidum the Iuvavum. A Oppidum is simply a settlement, which (still) does not possess municipal rights.

Oppida are often called early city-like settlement, over their infrastructurehowever little is well-known. How excavations point to Manching with Ingolstadt, on the title mountain in Luxembourg and in Bibracte in France, exhibits at least some a close and regular interior land development. Concentrations of mediterraner imported goods prove the meaning of these settlements in the commercial net of the La-Tène-time. Often are the Oppida also connected with Heiligtümern. (Celtic) the Oppida culture in such a way specified in the Spätlatenezeit is characterised above all by the fact that in these usually large settlements city-like structures were developed that various trade relations existed and an increasing specialization and differentiation of the residents of work areas (handicraft, administration),can be recognized.

Table of contents

important Oppida



  • Audouze, Françoise/Olivier socket protection, Villes, villages et campagnes de l'Europe celtique you début you IIe millénaire à la fin you IE siècle avant J. - C. (Paris, hook-rushes 1989).
  • Socket protection, Olivier: Structures d'habitats et fortifications de l'âge you fer ENFrance septentrionale (Paris, Société préhistorique française) Mémoires de la Société préhistorique française 18, 1984.
  • Collis, John, Oppida: earliest towns north OF the Alps (Sheffield, Dept. OF Prehistory and Archaeology, University OF Sheffield 1984.
  • Barry Cunliffe/Trevor Rowley, Oppida, the beginnings OF urbanisation in Barbarian Europe.PAPER presented tons of A conference RK Oxford, October 1975. Oxford: British Archaeological of report, 1976, Int 11.
  • Bettina Arnold/Blair Gibson.Celtic chiefdom, Celtic state (Cambridge, Cambridge University press 1995).

individual oppida

  • Olivier Buchsenschutz/Hervé smelling pool of broadcasting corporations, L'environnement you Mont Beuvray (Glux EN Glenne, Centre Archéologique Européen 1996).
  • Ferdinand Maier [et al.] Results of the excavations 1984-1987 in Manching (Stuttgart: Steiner, 1992), the excavations in Manching 15.
  • They verse, Susanne, Manching. Leader to archaeological monuments in Bavaria, Upper Bavaria; Bd. 3 (Stuttgart: Theiss 2003) ISBN: 3-8062-1765-3.
  • Susanne they verse, Manching: the Keltenstadt (archaeological one National collection Munich 2003)
  • Motyková, Karla/Petr Drda/Alena Rybová., Závist: keltské hradiště VE středních Čechách (Praha: Academia, 1978). Památníky naší minulosti 9.

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Wiktionary: oppidum - word origin, synonyms and translations

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