|of these articles treats the theory of seeing in the physical sense. For the music label of the same name see optics record|
optics (griech. optike ” theory of the visible one “, optikos ” duly to seeing “, too opsis ” seeing “) is a range of physics, that itselfwith the propagation of light and its reciprocal effect with subject employs.
By light one usually understands the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Many regularities and methods of the classical optics apply however also outside of the range of visible light.This permits a transmission of the realizations to the optics on other spectral regions (e.g.Roentgen optics), or in completely different kinds of radiation (e.g. Electron optics).
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subranges of the optics
one differentiates between twoclassical entrances to the light propagation: The wave optics and the geometrical optics. Basis of the wave optics is the Wellennatur of the light. The regularities of the geometrical optics apply if the dimensions of the optical system are very large in relation to the wavelengththe light.
An important partial discipline of the optics is the quantum optics, which concerns itself with the reciprocal effects of light and subject. The quantized character of the light particularly plays an important role.
Besides are the nonlinear optics and the Fourieroptikof theoretical and technical interest. An interdisciplinary subrange is the atmospheric optics, in which Leuchterscheinungen in the terrestrial atmosphere are examined.
in the geometrical optics is approximated light by idealized jets. The way of the light,approximately by an optical instrument, by pursuing the beam trajectory one designs.
The Snellius Brechungsgesetz describes the refraction of the light at transparent boundary surfaces (lenses, prisms). At mirrors the rule applies that the angle of incidence is equal to the loss angle. By means of this method leaveillustrations, for example by lenses, or lens systems (microscope, telescope) determine themselves.
Within the framework thatgeometrical optics can also partial reflection at transparent objects be treated. An example is that own reflection under suitable conditions is visible in a windowpane. The extreme case occurs, if under very flat angle of incidence total reflexion at a transparentBoundary surface arises.
wave optics is called the range of the optics, which of the Wellennatur of the light acts. She explains phenomena, which the geometrical optics cannot explain, since with them the wave characteristic of the light are relevant.Like that in principle an ideal illustration is possible in the geometrical optics, whereas the wave optics shows that by diffraction effects of the dissolution a border in principle is set. Important elements of the wave optics are:
- Interference between each other overlaying wave fronts.
- Diffraction, itselfshows, if light spreads by small columns or at edges along. (Diffraction integral)
- polarization of the light.
the reciprocal effect of light with real (D. h.did not idealize) surfaces is important for the optical perception of humans, is however so far only incompletely understood. Important the Remission, thus the absorption part of the light as well as reflection , is transmission and/or. Dispersion of the remaining spectral portion.
SomeSurfaces, as for instance the human skin, are in the highest Hautschichten partial transparency, so that optically no reflecting surface, but a reflecting layer is present. An abstract description of the optical procedures at such surfaces is complicated, and one of the reasons thatcomputer-generated pictures artificially to work can.
the human eye
the optical sensory organ of humans is the eye. This converts the absorption of light of different wavelength at the Photorezeptoren to Aktionspotenzialfolgen of the ganglion cells of the retina. Those physiological optics is concerned with the optics and the structure of the eye. In the medicine one speaks with the medicine concerning the eye of ophthalmic optics and/or. Optometrie as the measurement of the Sehweite.
thatDesign, which interpretation and the manufacturing of optical systems called technical optics and counts in contrast to the physical optics to the engineering sciences, there here the concrete construction and production of optical devices as well as the conception of specific paths of rays in the foregroundstand. In the following are therefore only exemplary the most important elements, components and devices listed:
- radiation source,
- Fresnel zone plate,
- plan plates,
- wave plate
- mirror: even and curved mirrors
- diffraction gratings
- receivers: Projektionsfläche, film level
- of telescopes
- of microscopes
- Magnifying glasses
- of spectroscopes
- pole air meter
- laser left
applications and methods
|Wikibooks: Optics - learning and teaching materials|
Optics one calls also the sum of all optical construction units of optical equipment and in the transferred sense also the appearance of an article or a certain aspect.
- Hecht: Optics. Publishing house Addison Wesley, 2003, ISBN 0-321-18878-0
- Kühlke: Optics: Bases and applications. Publishing house Harri German, 2.Auflage 2004, ISBN 3-8171-1741-8
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|Wiktionary: Optics - word origin, synonyms and translations|