organization (of griech. organon = tool) can be translated most appropriate with “managing” and means: Planning and execution of a project.

Both generally linguistic usage and in the science (sociology, political science, management economics, computer science)the term is used very variously, whereby depending upon view level different aspects are stressed.

Table of contents

organizational theories

important organizational theories are:

organization in the sociology

in the sociology becomes under “organization” according to plan coordinated and purposeful acting from humans to the production of a common material or immanteriellen product, with usually formally regulated membershipand a condition (to institutional rules, see also institution) understood. One differentiates between formal (i.e. planned) and informal (i.e. spontaneously formed) organizations. The organization sociology examines organizations primarily from institutional view. Organization is therefore a durable arrangement of elements,their doing by rules is so fixed that a task can be fulfilled in working part-industrial union-coordinated way.
But organizations also developing are investigated.

Organization by the definition of its

  1. elements, the part of the organization are defined (who belongs to everything?),
  2. their Communication structure (which element stands for other element with which in which way in the exchange?),
  3. their autonomy (with max of webers, more exactly: Autokephalie) (it or an element of it makes which changes autonomously?) and
  4. their action rules in relation to outside events(whereupon it becomes as a “collective participant” actively?).

The degree of the organizingness is therefore the degree of the definition of the elements regarding the connection with other elements and their function.

By the coordinated co-operation of the elements the organization tasks can solve, which go beyond the possibilities of the elements (“as single natures”). The price for it is the restriction of the degree of freedom of the individual elements. Advantages of organization are reinforcement (more of the same), addition (combination of different one), expansion (co-ordination in the area). Disadvantages can be:Inertia (by co-ordination), loss of interaction (in particular in the self determiningness and perception of the elements).

organization in the management economics

the management economics is interested mainly in organization in instrumental view. For an enterprise organization is a means for reachingthe company target.

With respect to this sense one can differentiate the organizations then according to two in principle different target systems:

• Organizations, to obtain a whose goal consists of furnishing achievements and/or products to finished ( production enterprises and service enterprise) or certain external effects(z. B. Administrative authorities, police, parties, syndicates, trade unions, etc.).

• Organizations, whose Zielerreichung is directed toward the change of persons (z. B. Schools, Universities of, hospitals, advisory boards, prisons etc.). This type of goal is usually called Non profit organization.

Regarding the Binnenstrukturone differentiates between two terms:

  • Organizational structure („structure “): The hierarchical structures of an enterprise. (Who has which tasks and powers of decision?)
  • Sequence organisation (in former times: „Katallaktik “): The processes of the achievement production in the enterprise („in which succession like something one makes? “)

See also: Organization (economics), Economical organization teachings

organization in the political science

own politologische organization teachings actual despite the research of z. B. Parties - not yet interspersed. But 21 opens with that. Century by the increasing meaning of the NGO (non-governmentalOrganizations) new research fields. They reach - for example - from the red cross to aluminium-Qaida.

organization in the quality management

in connection with quality management systems is defined an organization as one „group of persons and mechanisms with a structure ofVerantwortungen, powers and relations “. This knows for example (e) society, body, company, enterprise, institution, nonprofit organization, Einzelunternehmer, federation or parts and/or. Combinations of such mechanisms its.

Organization is however not only a static structure, but defined also proceedings, procedural instructions, escalation processes, handlingwith standard offences etc. This meaning is more clearly named the wordprocess organization “.

demarcation of the term institution

is usually separated the term organization strictly from the term institution. This does not succeed however always.

Regarding institutionsthere are different viewpoints:

  • prozessual: a thing is organized (RH) (organization as activity)
  • functionally: Organization as function of the authority/management
  • instrument valley/struktural/konfigurativ: a thing has an organization (organization as structure in the long term put on),to divide into:
  • institutionally: a thing is an organization (organization as concrete purposeful social thing)


  • Martin Abraham/Günter Büschges: Introduction to the organization sociology 3. Edition. Wiesbaden 2004: VS publishing house
  • Mayo Elton(1945):Problems of industrieller conditions of work. Frankfurt A.M., 1945.
  • Max webers: The legal rule with bureaukratischem administrative staff. In: ders., economics and society, Tübingen 1980.
  • How/as country hunter/Uwe Schimank (Hrsg.): Organization company Wiesbaden 2005: VS publishing house
  • roll ago Mueller Jentsch: “Organization sociology. An introduction. “Frankfurt A.M. 2004: Campus
  • Helmut narrow one: Bases and problems of the marketing and management, 12. Aufl., 2002. ISBN 3-7910-2027-7
  • green, O. (1990): Organization. in: Scheuch, F. (Hrsg.): General management economics. Vienna, S.451-513
  • Mintzberg, H.: Organization Design: Fashion or fit ones? In: HBR, January. /Feb. 1981,S.103-116
  • Grochla, E. (1982): Bases of the organizational organization, Stuttgart
  • Scherer, G. (2002): Criticism of the organization or organization of the criticism? In: Kieser, A. (Hrsg.): Organizational theories, Stuttgart, S. 1-5
  • Kieser, A. (Hrsg.) (2002): Organizational theories, Stuttgart, S. 133-168

see also

Wiktionary: Organization - word origin, synonyms and translations

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