|English: organ, ital.: organo|
| aero phon |
|entire audio range|
|Portativ, positive, shelf|
the organ (v. griech. ὄργανον (organon) „tool, instrument “) is over keys playable music instrument. Since the sound is produced by whistles, it also whistle organ is called. The organ belongs to the Aerophonen. The air column inside the whistles is brought over a Labium or a tongue sheet to swinging.
Besides givesit also electronic organs, which belong to the Elektrophonen.
Table of contents
organs are in different remarks and sizes usually in churches, in addition, in concert halls and private houses (house organ). One calls a small , einmanualige organ without pedal positive or -according to compact building method - as chest organ. One calls portable Kleinstorgeln Portativ. A special form of it is only the shelf disposed with Zungenpfeifen.
An organ is played from the play table. Larger organs often consist of partial works,in each case is assigned to those an own keyboard. The organist serves this manual of keyboards mentioned with the hands, while the pedal with the feet is played.
the difficult task
, the instrument has list and acoustics the organ farmer acousticallyto set up as optimally as possible, which is only with difficulty possible however often by structural conditions. Ideal way should be the organ sound in each point of the area balanced and transparency. The response is not to mask the Klangbild too much.
The list of an organ betraysmostly much over their liturgical regulation and their application type. While the oldest instruments often appear in the proximity of the choir or as swallow nest organs, then 17 becomes starting from that. Century the organ at the west wall common. The choir organ was traditional (orin Italy/Spain) for a catholic Liturgie determines gospels/Epistel Orgelpaar, which took place majority in the choir area of the church. When after the reformation the municipality singing at meaning won, the organ moved to the west wall and became also tendentious larger and louder, becausenow it had to be able to lead a filled singing church. Thus, to certain degrees, from the position of the organ within the church room much can be stated over its liturgical function. Also the size of the organ balcony says much about its regulationout, then e.g. was it. in Central Germany in 18. Century very often possible to platzieren at the organ balcony also still another orchestra so that the main organ came also as Begleitinstrument to its right. In concert halls the organ is usually at the wallover the orchestra podium attached.
large organs determine with the organization of their housing and the front (organ folder) the effect of the area, in which they are set up. In the Renaissance, more still in the timethe baroque, the meaning, which was attached to the optical aspect, showed up in the fact that pretty often the costs of the organ housing (with sculpture decoration, ornamentation carving work, paintings and gold plating) exceeded those of the actual organ work.
the air supply for the whistles, which became wind so mentioned, in former times produced by large bellows (drawing and wedge bellows), which were stepped with the feet. Depending upon organ size one needed up to 12 Kalkanten (Balgtreter). Today for it electrical wind machines are available. In each case magazine bellows are needed for the stabilization of the wind pressure. From this bellows the wind is continued to lead by usually wooden wind tunnels into the Windladen. On magazine bellows can with smaller organs to be done without, if the stabilization of the play wind with shop bellows under the Windladen takes place.
The manuals of today's organs have usually a Tonumfang from C to g 3 (with new buildings only rarely to f 3) or occasionallyalso to A 3 or C 4. The pedal exhibits usually a Tonumfang from C to f 1, sometimes also to g 1 or A 1. Organs of the past centuries have often a smaller Tonumfang.Like that 18 is in the end. Century a Tonumfang in the these Kant to C 3 or D 3 the rule. In the bass situation frequently the short or the broken Oktave is to be found.
The Windladen form the heart of the organ, on which the whistles. From the play table the movements become thatKeys mechanically, pneumatically or electrically over the Traktur to the Windlade led. There valves under the whistles, which open accordingly or close, are. If a key is pressed, the wind from the Windlade can by the valve into thoseWhistle flow and these to sounding bring. Additionally there is still another slide valve or a valve with the task to block the wind if the appropriate register is not pulled „“.
There are different designs of Windladen. In principle one differentiates -depending upon order of the valves for clay/tone and register - between Tonkanzellenladen (sharpening drawer, jumping drawer) and Registerkanzellenladen (cone drawer, bag drawer, diaphragm drawer). With a Tonkanzellenlade all whistles belonging to a key stand on a Kanzelle, with the Registerkanzellenlade everything, those to a registerbelong. The oldest design is the sharpening drawer, which is used because of their klanglichen advantages in the meantime also with modern organs again almost exclusively, since the whistles respond more precisely.
The main material for the building of an organ is wood. OutWood the housing, the Windladen, the keys and a part of the whistles are manufactured. With mechanically steered instruments wood finds often also for the mechanics use. For the metal whistles tin - lead - alloys are usually used (so-called organ metal),sometimes also zinc or copper. The white keys were occupied in former times with ivory, today with cattle bones, the black often are from solid ebony.
an organ has severalWhistle rows, which consist of organ pipes of same design and tone quality. Usually one, sometimes also several whistle rows into a register are combined, which can be switched on and off from the play table. The operation of the registers is usually made by Registerzüge or Manubrien Knäufe mentioned, which one must pull out and for switching off again push in for switching on on; therefore the designations agitate „a pulling “and „repelling “for switching on and off registers.
The compilation of the registers of an organ, thus an organ contains which tone qualities,is part of the arrangement of an organ. She is agreed upon of organ farmer with providing the instrument with the client and determines the application type of the organ.
pitches can have pitch the registers, whereby the pitch is indicated by the so-called foot clay/tone number. Thus one calls a register in normal position 8 ' - register, there the length of the deepest whistle (large C) of an open Labialregisters 8 foot amounts to approximate(1 foot = approx. 32 cm). A register deeper around a Oktave is 16 ' - register, 4 ' marks a register higher around a Oktave. Quinten have the foot clay/tone numbers of 2 2/3 'or 1 1/3 ', thirds toExample 1 3/5 '.
The different clay/tone situations illustrate the overtone row . By combination of a basic register (usually 8 ' - situation) with one or more overtone registers (z. B. 2 2/3 'or 1 3/5 ') becomesadded or existing it strengthens missing overtones whereby the tone quality changes.
distinction after design
According to the kind of the toner generation one differentiates between flue pipes or Labialen (toner generation as with the Blockflöte) and Zungenpfeifen or Lingualen (toner generation as with a clarinet). Labialpfeifen can be open or gedackt, the gedackten whistlessound deeper thereby a Oktave. There are further differences with materials, whistle form and the Mensur (conditions of the different whistle dimensions). Besides there are the mixed voices. It acts around registers, with those for each key several whistlesring out. In addition z belong. B. the sound crowns (or mixtures) and colour registers like the Sesquialtera. Special effect registers, like bell plays or bass drums, round organ the arrangement off with many.
The physical explanations for the influence of the design of the whistles on thoseTone quality is more exactly implemented in the article organ pipe.
use of the registers
by well-planned combining of different registers, the registration in such a way specified, different tone qualities and volumes can be stopped. The art of the organists consists of it, of the existing sound existenceto find a registration, which corresponds to the music which can be played best. The search of the organists for the suitable registration for a piece is affected by the following factors: Each epoch preferred an own in each case, special Klangbild, which one as organistknows. One cannot interpret therefore on each instrument each piece really good. Despite the possibility of a certain „classification “there are no two equal organs, since each instrument is adapted to its list area in size and execution.
with the Registerzügen arranged is the Tremulant. It varied periodically the wind pressure and provides in such a way for swinging the clay/tone. In more recent time the speed of the oscillation is often adjustable. The Tremulant affects all registers of the work,in which it is built, with old organs there is sometimes also a Tremulanten for the entire organ.
play assistance are additional functions, which facilitate the play for the organists, by making for example fast Umregistrieren possible.
ouples permit the simultaneous play of different works on a manual or the play of the manual registers in the pedal. Like that it is possible to play the registers of different manuals at the same time and a larger volume, in addition, additional combination options tooreach.
as registration assistance one designates mechanisms at the organ, which offer the possibility to the organists of being able to change registrations flexibly.
Above all organs of the romance have frequently firm combinations. Thus leave themselves of organ farmerfixed register combinations on push of a button call up. Firm one combinations p, mf, are usually about f, FF according to volume degrees gradated .
Modern organs have programmable typesetters, with whom complex tone quality changes on push of a button can be realized. They are freely programmable(free combinations) and thus substantially more flexibly applicable than firm combinations and replaced these completely. The modern computer technology opens further possibilities, then there are already organs, which can be connected with a PC and steered by these. Alsothe connection with external sound producers such as Synthesizern is possible, whereby new possibilities for composition and improvisation result.
Further registration assistance are the non-return valves or introduction footsteps particularly occurring in the French and Italian building of organs, with which determined groups of registers can or together be switched off.
swelling boxes can absorb the clay/tone of the swelling work appropriate in them steplessly by the reasoning of shutters. This mechanism was built in the time of the romance particularly in larger organ works, around the orchestra sound adapted a possibility of the To receive Crescendo and Decrescendo.
the development of the organ is divided into the entire plant of the organ (arrangement), into the artistic organization of the organ housing (see also folder), into the klangliche organization and into thosetechnical plant (see Windlade, Traktur and play table).
the first organ-like instrument became around 246 v. Chr. by Ktesibios, an engineer in Alexandrien, designs. The name of the instrument was „Hydraulis “(ofold-Greek ὕδωρ (hydor) „water “), since by water an even wind pressure was produced. The wind production by bellows came only later, probably into 2. Century, up. The Romans took over the organ of the Greeks as purely everyday (lay) instrument andunder-painted presentations in their arenas with organ music. The organ was not used by the early Christians yet. With archaeological excavations in close proximity to Budapest, the earlier Roman Pannonien, an organ became from that 3. Century found.
the Middle Ages
in the westRoman realm heard the use of organs in confusions of the people migration time (around 400 n. Chr.) for long time up. Only in the years 757 and 811 brought in each case legations, those from the Byzantine emperor yard to thatFrankish king yard came along, for beep pin the younger one or its son and successor Karl the large organs. When these organs had become defective, the son of Karl of the large one, emperor Ludwig the pious one, 826 an organ for its left itself Pfalz in Aachen build. This organ, which not from Byzanz was introduced, but built locally by a priest originating from Venice named George, is considered as the first for approximately 500 years again organ manufactured in Western Europe.
Now only, in the run9. Century, the first (bishop) churches in Western Europe began to purchase for organs monastic churches only since that 11. Century. The church organ was first a status symbol, only with the gothic developed it gradually for the main instrument of the Christian Liturgie. The earlyand high-medieval organs were so-called block works, D. h. one could not off and connect yet individual registers: If one released a clay/tone, rang out automatically all whistles, which were assigned to this clay/tone. There were also still no keyboards or manuals.A clay/tone was released, by one with the whole hand a wood slat, which pulled so-called „loop out “, and released so the wind supply to the whistles for this clay/tone.
14. and15. Century brought important innovations: Now arose individually selectable registers, manual keyboards and individual (part) works. The organs of the early Renaissance still remind of the time of the re-establishment of the registers in the outgoing Middle Ages (being correct divorce). They contain quite few registers (z. B. Prästant, Oktave, Hintersatz and Zimbel from the gothical block work, in addition to two flutes, trumpet and the shelf) and have often only a manual and an attached pedal. An existing shelf register becomes often easily accessible overthe play table arranged, since its whistles must often after-be correct. From this arrangement the chest work developed later, in which the shelf whistles still easily accessible completely in front.
In the high Renaissance fully removed organs developed. The sound idealorients itself at the then usual ensemble music on homogeneous instruments. Thus stand Prinzipale, mixture and Zimbel for the actual „organ sound “. In addition come numerous registers, which are to copy the sound of the then usual instruments, above all wind instruments. With the Lingualregisternis this z. B.Trumpet, trombone, zinc, Schalmei, Dulzian, climb-chain, bent horn and Sordun, with the Labialregistern z. B. Blockflöte, transverse flute (usually not as over-blowing register) and Gemshorn. The manual number lies betweenone and three, everyone with an own work, in addition its own pedal work usually comes. On such organs also very well the lay music of the Renaissance can be shown beside Sakralmusik. In the late Renaissance first regional began themselvesTo form differences in the building of organs out.
in 17. and 18. Century achieved the baroque building of organs in most European countries its largest bloom.
For organs from the baroque time one knows the registersdivide depending upon tone quality and use in three functional groups, which are distributed however equally on the entire organ:
- The first group forms stepping out voices, those with the typical „organ sound “for a strong total sound, the plenum in such a way specified, designedare. To it belong the Prinzipale, Oktaven, Quinten in Prinzipalmensur and mixtures, in addition, vollbecherige tongue voices, which are drawn to the plenum or their own Lingualplenum to form.
- The second group has rather gentle, flute-like tones, which mix outstandingleave. There is the far open, the conical, the Gedackten voices in all its variations.
- The third group strike ago are the voices, which are to be used best solistisch, like aliquot registers, tongue voices and particulars.
structure of work
intypical characteristic of baroque organs is the so-called work principle. This does not state different one, each partial work (Hauptwerk, Rückpositiv, chest work, in addition, the pedal work) is on the one hand as independently as possible, on the other hand in addition, equivalent beside the other organ works.Therefore each partial work is both and Tutti, and and solo or Begleitwerk to use, them differs only by the sound characteristic. A further dynamic or functional partitioning (Hauptwerk, swelling work, Nebenwerk, echo work) develops only in the romance.
Due tothe purely mechanical Spieltraktur comes it to further characteristics:
- Manual arrangement: With a dreimanualigen organ with Rückpositiv, Hauptwerk and chest work the Hauptwerk is always the middle manual, since otherwise the Spieltrakturen of the works would cross.
- Work size: Each additional register upa Windlade increases the play weight of the key, therefore here natural maximum limits are set, since an organ would be otherwise not playable. As rule of thumb one counts on maximally 10-12 registers per Windlade.
- Ouples: With a dreimanualigen organ the manual ouples are limited upIII-II as well as III. A manual ouple III-I was technically not yet realizable.
In the baroque organs on the iberischen peninsula the work principle is often differently realized. These instruments have often only one manual, always with loop division with C 1 of /cis 1.The different works (are usual:organo mayor (Hauptwerk), cadereta exterior (Rückpositiv), cadereta interior (internal positive in the swelling box), Trompeteria (horizontal tongue battery)) over non-return valves are turned on. The stub pedal is attached or had only completely few registers in 16 ' - and 8 ' - situation, isolated alsoin 32 ' - situation. Smaller instruments do without a partitioning into several works.
Of the baroque organ the transparency of the sound is the center. Therefore high registers as well as aliquot registers were far common as solo registers. With the aliquots was however with the large third(Fifth foot measure) conclusion. In the sound ideal the individual whistles should not adapt themselves, which positively affected itself particularly with polyphoner music.
Baroque organs differ regionally very strongly. The most important regions with independent organ types, also organ landscapes mentioned, are Northern Germany/the Netherlands/Denmark, South Germany/Austria, France,Italy and the iberische peninsula.
after the organ in the time of the early classical period increasingly in attention lost (well-known composers of the classical period, like Mozart and Beethoven, have extremely few for organ composed) developed in 19.Century with the romantic organ a new, perfectly different one, orchestrales sound ideal. Contrary to the baroque organ the 8 ' - situation, in the pedal work also the 16 ' - situation, several times occupied with different, is here orchestral instruments copying voices, the higher situations withdraws for it. Partial already is with 2 the ' conclusion. The ideal „of the mixture was not the center of attention “- which should sound to organ like an orchestra, it should breaks in the sound be more recognizable. Therefore over-blowing flutes emerge frequently up strike ago in romantic organs and. Strike ago voices are mensurierte very closely whistles, in whose overtone spectrum the second partial clay/tone (the Oktave) prevails. Strike ago it can also a beating form, Vox coelestis („himmlische voice “) mentioned with which consciously two whistle rows are detuned easily against each other, whereby a floating clay/tone develops. Over-blowing flutesare open flue pipes mensurierte far, which are twice as long like normal open whistles the same pitch. Their sound is particularly füllig. In larger romantic organs the anglo-saxon culture area particularly finds one also often so-called high pressure registers like z. B. Tuba mirabilis, Stentorgambe or - flute or Royal Trumpet.
In addition all larger romantic organs have numerous play assistance and technical characteristics. The swelling work in such a way specified is typical: A part of the whistles is within the organ in oneBox with shutter-like swelling doors, which can be opened or closed by means of a kick at the play table. This makes for the first time stepless dynamics of the volume possible. Many romantic organs have besides a Crescendowalze, which makes it possible, by means of one with thatTo connect foot roller which can be served or a balancing ride gradually all registers of the organ, without having to serve the appropriate register buttons individually by hand. Many romantic organ works and composer set a Crescendowalze ahead (max of active). In addition ordersthe romantic organ frequently over Sub and Superoktavkoppeln. These cause that when fastening a clay/tone and with switched Suboktavkoppel the same clay/tone a Oktave more deeply and/or. along-sounds higher.
Among the largest masters of the romantic building of organs rank the Frenchman Aristide Cavaillé Coll, his GermanBelgian competitor Merklin&Schütze as well as Eberhard Friedrich Walcker and Friedrich load guest.
numerous one technical innovations (electrical connection, pneumatics, new building materials) made it possible to build ever larger instruments. Are as examples the Steinmeyer/Eisenbarth organ of the cathedral to Passau (today 233 registers), the famous Wannamaker organ in Philadelphia (lord & Taylor department net curtain, 357 registers) or the largest organ of the world in the Atlantic town center Convention resound here with 337Registers called with 449 whistle rows (ranks) and approximately 32,000 whistles.
In the romance the first changes of organs in the larger style took place. Often baroque organs, which were felt as too „schreiig “, were romantisiert, in painting or others thereromantic registers in place of high aliquots one inserted and one changed the Intonation. Also valuable baroque organs were electropneumatically converted still into the 1930er years „pneumatisiert “or (z. B. Naumburg Wenzelskirche).
the organ movement
in the context of the organ movement (initiates among other things by Albert Schweitzer) came it into Germany into the 1930er years to a general back meditation to the baroque ideal. It devalued the organs of romantic Klangcharakters as „factory organs “, ensured howeverat the same time for an occupation with the baroque organ sound ideals come into oblivion and - building principles and the development prepared too „neo baroque for “aligned organs.
Into the 1930er to 1950er years were partially exaggerated far the Mensuren, however were again baroque registersin the arrangements. The Intonation corresponded still to that the romance, which was not return to the mechanical sharpening drawer yet carried out.
In the 1950er and 1960er years (Neobarock) many romantic organs new instruments with steep arrangement had to yield; there in additiongone in the war many instruments lost or useless were as well as the two large denominations increase church new buildings undertook, begin in West Germany a proper „organ boom “, partial series production “industrial in one „from organs using inferior materials (Windladen from plywood,Spieltrakturen from aluminum or plastics) flows. Many romantic, also latebaroque works, whose arrangement did not appear baroque enough, were barockisiert in this time increasingly „“, in which the arrangement was going by changed that z. B. the verpönten strike ago by high aliquotswere replaced, often with doubtful methods and success. (A typical example is „sawing off “Violoncello 8 ' to the Choralbass 4 ' in the pedal.) in parts were used in this time also high Aliqouten (seventh, None), which was missing in original baroque arrangements.Also the Mensuren were clear, if not even exaggerated closely in relation to the models. The Intonationsart was complete again and had in common with the baroque Intonationsweise no longer much.
These organs draw contrary to the baroque by often intolerable Spitzigkeit,a weak bass foundation and missing Kraft in the central position out. The organ movement is so from today's viewpoint shot beyond their goal, however the historical processing of organ history substantially affected and partly only initiated. In the meantime does not become any longer in such a waythoughtlessly gone around with old instruments, the receipt of old organ built volumes becomes ever more important also in the context of the monument protection.
simultaneous with so-called multiplex organs was tried to save costs and place with the building of organs. We find this principle with that Cinema organs of the 1920er and 1930er years. Since from a whistle row in the transmission and Extensionsverfahren different registers from a whistle row were produced here, the concept could not in music convince, because the self-characteristic of the individual registers was no longer given. The Extensionsverfahrenis today still used with very deep pedal registers (64 ', 32 ', 21 1/3 ') from place and cost reasons. There in such cases identically constructed, a Oktave more highly sounding register anyway available are, must only the 12 whistles for thosedeepest Oktave of the register in addition to be added, the remainder of the register uses the existing whistles a Oktave of the more highly sounding register.
the universal organ
for the 1980er years increased with a kind„Universal organ “experiments, which for all kinds and styles is to be suitable by organ literature. With larger organs (starting from three manuals and approx. 40 registers) one comes rightfully conclusive musical results, by one a neutral Hauptwerk for example with a baroqueRückpositiv and a French-romantic swelling work connect. With smaller organs the mixture of the different epochs mostly does not come up convincingly; here one builds tendentious again purely style-genuinly after historical models, even if here quite occasionally single registers are used from other epochs.
Since the end 20. Century value and authorization of romantic organs and their specific music came again more strongly into consciousness. In most recent time the trend goes by also again, with general overhauls of „barockisierten “organs these into the original state to lead back,whereby again very beautiful instruments could be recovered from the romance and the late baroque. Also the number of new buildings is for the end 20. Century again risen, since many over-hurries built or bad postwar instruments be slowly replaced must.
considerable one technical progress gives it only within the range of the play assistance. Electronics made larger typesetter plants, was partly midifiziert already for church organs possible . In small organs (to approximately 10 registers) increases the change loop begun, thoseit makes possible to distribute the registers of a work on two play manuals. Further one researches, how a kind „notice dynamics “on the organ to realize itself and how the interactive behavior a mechanical Traktur can be copied mechatronisch.
a further variant, which captured with progress digital technique increasingly their place, is the digital organ (or digital concert and Sakral organ). She is to be found particularly as exercise instrument in private houses as well as in small churches and chapels.The sounding and reproduction quality convincing meanwhile also increasing makes digital Sakralorgeln a serious alternative for larger churches and concert halls. Attempts to combine „genuine “organs with digital organs (combination organ), do not have themselves up to now due to obvious problems (tendency, mixture ability)to intersperse can. Particularly in the USA however quite often expensive bass registers in the pedal are digitally implemented.
unfortunately historical organs only very few instruments, which were delivered in their orginalen substance. All organs always became largeagain converted, renews and the respective time taste (arrangement, Intonation, tendency, technology) adapted. Thus there is z. B. only very few romantic organs with received cone and/or. Bag shop or baroque organs in historical, unequal-floating tendencies. In particular also the absence becomes onemitteltönig deplores tuned large organ. Received usually are the folder as well as a part of the whistle work. So it is to be understood that with some older instrument today again one tries the Orginalzustand to reconstruct. The intention, in the rebuilt woman church in Dresden a orginalgetreuen reproduction of the originally inserted silver man organ in historical tendency to provide, after violent controversy failed. The oldest still playable organ of the world is in the church Basilique de Valère in Sion in Swiss canton whale-reads. Also it is not received in the Orginal: It was extended by a change in the baroque time.
one differentiates organ music, as general with respect to the music science, after epochs. As the oldest organ music the music is considered outthe Robertsbridge Codex (around 1320). Some few sources originate from lategothical time, so the Codex Faenza (around 1420), the pieces of organ from the lecture collection from Winsen (1431) and the Tabulatur Adam of the Ileborgh from Stendal (1448). From the time of the musicalPaging from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance at that time the Buxheimer organ book (1460/1470), very extensive for conditions, comes. In 16. Century already numerous pieces of organ, so-called Tabulaturen appeared. The organ music experienced its first bloom time. In the time of the baroque the organ music experienced theirsecond high point. With the end of the baroque time in the middle 18. Century diminished the interest in the organ strongly. After a longer break the organ music experienced its third high point in the time of the romance. A second distinction criterion is those Organ landscape, since organ music, often bound to their developing place, was inspired of completely determined instruments or instrument types. Also can be differentiated lay and religious organ music.
improvisation and liturgical organ play
the improvisation are in particular in the religious organ musicimportantly and in each church-musical training a firm component of the teachings. It is likewise in the form of Choralvorspielen and Intonationen a component of the liturgical organ play.
at the artistically most important is the solistische organ play. For the baroque are itsmost important forms:Präludium, Toccata, Fantasie, Voluntary, Tiento, Chaconne, Passacaglia, Ricercar, joint, variations, Sonate, Triosonate and organ info. never; furthermore compositions over liturgical topics: Gregorian singing and/or Protestant and catholic Church songs. A frequent form of the treatment of organs of a usually Protestant church song is the Choralvorspiel.
Famous composers solistischer organ music are:
- January Pieterszoon Sweelinck (1562-1621)
- Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583-1643)
- Dietrich Buxtehude (1637-1707)
- Juan Bautista José Cabanilles (1644-1712)
- Johann Pachelbel (1653-1706)
- Nicolaus Bruhns (1665-1697)
- Johann Sebastian brook (1685-1750)
- Johann Ludwig cancer (1713-1780)
- Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy (1809-1847)
- Franz Liszt (1811-1886)
- César Franck (1822-1890)
- Johannes Brahms (1833-1897)
- Alexandre Guilmant (1837 - 1911)
- Josef Rheinberger (1839-1901)
- Charles Marie Widor (1844-1937)
- Marco Enrico Bossi (1861-1925)
- Charles Tournemire (1870-1939)
- Louis Vierne (1870-1937)
- max of active (1873-1916)
- Franz Schmidt (1874-1939)
- Sigfrid meager Elert (1877-1933)
- Marcel Dupré (1886-1971)
- Johann Nepomuk David (1895-1977)
- Maurice Duruflé (1902-1986)
- Jean Langlais (1907-1991)
- Olivier Messiaen (1908-1992)
- Jehan Alain (1911-1940)
chamber music and orchestra
the organ inthe form described here plays in the chamber music no large role. Smaller organs are particularly than Basso Continuo - instrument for the baroque spreads. Orchestra music with organ came along first in the baroque particularly in the organ concerts George Friedrich of trade as well as thenlarge organ isolates in the romance up, in order to give the then usual giant orchestras still more tone quality varieties and to extend the Tonraum into the Subkontraoktave (32 ' - registers of the organ).
increasingly becomes on the church organ also jazzeasily, even if this is connected with special difficulties because of the often halligen acoustics in church rooms.Barbara Dennerlein, an established Jazzorganistin, is at present the most well-known example. In addition, „classical “church musicians use elements with their compositions or improvisations increasinglythe jazz.
contrary to many other instruments one cannot learn the organ play usually at schools of music. Beside the conservatoires or colleges of music primarily full-time church musicians inform. Since also a exercise instrument needsbecomes, is, if no special practicing instrument (for instance in a university) is available, mostly a close co-operation with a local church municipality necessary. As return this demands frequently assistance at the musical service organization. Often beginning organists plays already sufficiently piano, howthe substantial differences in the play technology not to be underestimated may. A study at the piano can not replace the organ, not only because of the missing pedal.
Systematic school works are only since center 19. Century delivers. Among the most well-known works rank„the organ schools “of Karl Straube, Ernst Kaller, Marcel Dupré or Rolf Swiss, who concerns itself however nearly only with the literature play. Within the range of the improvisation there is only little established literature, so that improvisation as far as possible in instructionand fan-spreading within the ranges clay/tone set, composition as well as music theory are passed on.
|Rheinberger - Tema variato||registration||remark||file size|
|? / License||34||tubing flute without pedal||848 KB|
|? / License||2, 9, 11-13, 21, 22,34||l. H. Topic; r. H. on SW; at the end briefly with pedal ouple (+7)||819 KB|
|? / License||1-3, 8, 9, 12, 13, 19, 21, 22, 24, 34||rather romantically||589 KB|
|? / License||2, 3, 11-13, 15||rather romantically||705 KB|
|? / License||1, 3, 4, 7, 11, 12, 15, 16||now without strike ago||851 KB|
|? / License||1, 3, 4, 7, 11, 12, 14, 16, 17, 20,21, 34||Prinzipalplenum with mixture, conclusion l. H. on SW and without 7||,742 KB|
|? / License||1-4, 7, 11-16, 20, 21, 22, 34||echo on II then +5, +6 (tongues in the pedal) and +10||1.28 MT|
The data to registration refer to the instrument in pc. Maria Königin, Kerpen Sindorf, Rheinland:
|Pedal||I||II (swelling work)||III|
|1. Pincipalbass 16 '||10. Bourdon 16 '||21. Wood flute 8 '||34. Tubing flute 8 '|
|2. Subbass 16 '||11. Principal8 '||22. Gambe 8 '||35. Flûte 4 '|
|3. Flûte 8 '||12. Flûte Harm. 8 '||23. Voix céleste 8 '||36. Cornet III|
|4. Flûte 4 '||13. Salicional 8 '||24. Flûte octav. 4 '||37. Trumpet 8 '|
|5. Bombarde 16 '||14. Octave 4 '||25. Joining era 4 '||38. Clairon 4 '|
|6. Trumpet 8 '||15. Gemshorn 4 '||26. Nazard 2 2/3 '|
|16. Superoctave 2 '||27. Octavin 2 '|
|17. Mixture IV||28. Tierce 1 3/5 '|
|29. Fourniture V|
|30. TrompetteHarm. 8 '|
|31. Hautbois 8 '|
|7. I/P||18. III/I||32. Voix Humaine 8 '|
|8. II/P||19. II/I|
|9. III/P||20. III/II||33. Tremulant|
on that CD Passacaglia BWV 582 (ASIA: B000024BOT) are several versions of the famous Passacaglia of Johann Sebastian brook, among other things in each case a bringing in on a baroque and romantic instrument. There itaround the same piece, is the differences in the sound ideal as well as the technical conversion acts directly to be compared.
- The organ Portälchen of the Wikipedia
- Organist, list of organists
- building of organs, list the organ farmer
- organ register, listfrom organ registers
variants and used instruments:
- Positively, Portativ, shelf
- Drehorgel, cinema organ, water organ, steam organ
- electronic organ, Hammond organ, photographic sound recording organ, Synthesizer
building of organs
- Wolfgang ennobling: Introduction to the building of organs.Broad head & Härtel, Wiesbaden 1991, ISBN 3-7651-0279-2
- Hans's block: The book of the organ. Bear rider, Kassel 2000, ISBN 3-7618-0826-7
- Alfreds Reichling (Hrsg.): Organ. Bear rider, Kassel among other things 2001 (MGG prism), ISBN 3-7618-1622-7
- Bernhard Ader: Organ customer made of music in God-serves (Hrsg.:Hans Musch) volume II S. 256ff, ConBrio, Regensburg 1994, ISBN 3-930079-22-4
- Winfried Ellerhorst: Manual the organ customer. Publishing house Benzinger & cost, a settling 1936
- Rudolf Faber, Philip Hartmann Metzler: Manual organ music. April 2002
- Victor Lukas: Reclams organ music leader.
Web on the left of
|Commons: Organs - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
- society of the organ friends (GdO) (and. A. with information to organ museums)
- the 500 largest organs of the world with photos and arrangements
- physical considerations to the organ
- gallery with organ pictures
- encyclopedia of the organ registers(also with sound examples) (English)
|This article was taken up to the list of the articles worth reading.|