Orient (v. lat.: oriens = coming up, i.e. Stairway of the sun) also morning country mentioned, is the counterpart to the Okzident (evening country), the European world (in the Greek one one calls the Orient Anatole and in the Italian Levante).
InRun of history experienced the meaning spectrum of this term a transformation. During in former times the entire asiatic world, D. h. the Arab countries, Iran, India and the today's People's Republic of China as Orient applied, later then only the countries of Anterior Asia also One counted, tends Egypt and most Islamic cultures in addition today in the linguistic usage to it, the term on the Near East and those Arab - Islamic world - including Turkey, Iran and North Africa, but without the Islamic states Southeast Asia - to limit.
Orient is usually used less in a political or a geographical, but rather in a religious-cultural sense. The world of the Orients inspired many poets and writers, e.g. sees. Goethe „westeastern Diwan “or Hesses novel „morning land travel “.
Since years the concept of a separation from Orient and Okzident violent criticism experienced the 1970er (Orientalismusdebatte). On the basis of to today influential theses the Edward Saids one stated, the western picture of the Orients was full unconscious prejudices andDistortions, which did not become fair the reality. The concept of evening country and morning country is less old than stated, on the contrary it is only in 18. Developed for century.
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The Arab peninsula, small Asia (today's Turkey), North Africa and Anterior Asia (Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan) are ranked mostly among the culture area of the Orients. Since more jeher the two-current country was a fruitful area. The area today's Afghanistan was always of different powers contests. In the Orient were many early advanced cultures, like for example the Sumerer in the two-current country and the antique Perserreich. Alexander the large one pulled on its conquest courses by Anterior Asia and created Greek cities. Later stoodthe Imperium Romanum and the Persian realm in the martial contrast. Mission acres and monks spread the Christianity. After death Mohammeds spread Arab armies and dealer the Islam, which should affect the there society strongly. The Osmani realm coveredSmall Asia, parts of the Balkans, widens areas of the Arab peninsula and Anterior Asia. In the First World War the Iraq and Iran were occupied by British and American troops. At the congress of Verona 1922 the European great powers looked for the so-called eastern questionto solve. 1923 were replaced the Osmani realm from new states. By numerous oil finds some states became the richest countries in the world, for example Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Bahrein.
in the free bricklaying designates Orientthe place, from which the light proceeds. It designates both the location of the Loge and the place in the met Loge, in which the master of the chair has his seat.
|Wiktionary: orient - word origin,Synonymous one and translations|
|Wikiquote: Orient - quotations|
- Orientalistik, age Orient
- the Near East, the middle east, furthermore the east
- German Orient society, Orientalismus