the orientation run (short OIL) is a kind of run haven, which, as the name already says, of two components consists: orienting and running. The mutual relationship requires läuferische condition, but also a good with this kind of sport not onlyConcentration ability when orienting, why only a good combination from both leads to success. Orientation run is independent, of age and Fitness, a kind of sport for humans, who move gladly in free nature.
Table of contents
with the orientation run inspection points in the area in given order are started, which are drawn in on a map. Itmust be started in as short a time on a self-chosen, arbitrary route as possible. The inspection points are called posts. It concerns thereby red-white prismenförmige screens, at which a mechanical or electronic marking device (pliers, SI station or EMIT station) is installed.
The challengethis kind of sport is independent planning and finding of the fastest route to the individual posts. No run resembles the other one, why a large alternation is given. Due to this alternation also point orientation runners create usually no error free run.
Orientation run finds mainly in Forests instead of, therefore this form of the run haven in its country of origin Sweden also Skogssport (“forest haven”) is called. Meanwhile however also forms developed, with which in park plants, cities or other open surfaces one runs.
orientation running hasits origin in Scandinavia, where it in the middle 19. Century as military training one accomplished. To 31. October 1897 was organized in Norway the first oil match in north marks, in close proximity to Oslo. 8 runners went on one10.5 km long distance with three set posts. The yardstick of the map amounted to 1:30000 and the winner put the distance in the time of 1:45: 07 back. The kind of sport became with the development of more exact compasses in the 30's beforeall in Scandinavia ever more popular.
1928 were created in Sweden with the sports club Gothia the first official orientation run club. 1931 were likewise accomplished in Sweden the first national championshipand in the same year the first international competition between Sweden and Norway took place in Oslo. Five years after (1936) one created the first national oil federation in Sweden with the SOFT (Svenska Orienteringsförbundet). one followed 1945 in Norwayand Finland the Swedish example and created the NOF (Norges Orienteringsforbund) and/or. the SSL (Suomen Suunnistusliitto). In the same year one brought the first oil technical periodical out in Finland named Suunnistaja. 1946, one year after establishment of the individual federations, closedthe 3 federations (SOFT, NOF, SSL) and Denmark to the NORTH (Nordisk Orienteringsrat), the nordischen orientation run federation, together.
one began to draw first maps for 1948 particularly for the orientation run. The first map in special colors (1: 20000) Knut Valstad became by the Norwegianin the year 1950 (), it became completed to 30. April 1950 for one of it organized match in Norway uses.
1961 were brought the international orientation run federation (IOF - international Orienteering Federation) into being. 1962 one organized firstOil European championship (EOC) in Norway.1966 took place the first oil world championships (WOC) in Finland.
1978 was introduced uniform IOF symbols for descriptions of post and used for the first time to Norway with the WOC. 1990 one organized junior world championships (JWOC) in Sweden for the first time. 1994 were provided by the IOF an electronic Eventkalender and used in the same year in the Worldcup for the first time an electronic control system. 1995 found the first park World route (PWT) instead of (SWE, NOR, FIN, CZE). 1998 became in Novy boron(CZE) the first senior world championships (WMOC) accomplished.
Today are registered over 60 nations with the IOF. The dominating nations are still the Scandinavian countries, in addition, Switzerland, France and Great Britain have to register already large successes. Outside ofEurope is the orientation run haven particularly in Australia and New Zealand popular.
the orientation route card
the map is the probably most important aid of an orientation runner. It is special one for the orientation run drawn mapand differs from moving maps on a scale (usually 1:15.000 and/or. 1:10.000) and a much detail-more exact representation of objects and obstacles in the area. Vegetation such as forest (white), Dickicht (the more darkly the green, the more badly amountable) are represented to meadow (yellow), culture borders andArea formations such as slope hollows, ridges and ditch systems. These formations become by elevator layer lines (see in addition:Isohypse) represented. Which differentiates the orientation route card now from a normal moving map, the indications of details are such as stones, rock, cliffs, stands, fodder cribs, boundary stones and even root sticks.
An oil course consists of a start, which is drawn in on the map with a triangle, a series of control post (simple circles) and the goal (drawn in with a double circle).
each runner is itpermitted as an additional assistance a compass to begin, this is (after the map) the secondarymost important assistance. There are two kinds of compasses: the disk compass and the thumb compass. Since with the thumb compass a constant contact exists to the map, many runners prefer theseVariant. The compass is needed generally for the a north of the map. On the map blue auxiliary lines (north lines) are, the direction the north show. By putting the compass on the map and turning until the compass needle parallelto the north lines, one points the map eingenordet. Thus one has the exact direction of travel and finds on direct way the looked for objects.
description of post
each runner receives a description of post, a small piece paper before the start alsoblack print. Here it concerns a specification of all post locations in the forest. Assumed the post location is a rock, then one indicates, on which side the post is and how highly the rock is. Indicated are also thoserespective inspection numbers of the posts, the length of the course (in km) and the elevator meters which can be put back.
Advanced runners receive the description of post in form of a table with symbols according to the IOF standard, which applies in the whole world. For beginners there is also publicizedCopies.
There are own mounting plates of description of post, which one fastens to the arm, to be able to examine in order to lose during running without the map contact, the description of post.
original one used conventional inspection cards from water and tear-firm paper, with thoseone at each post marked and by the different samples of each control pliers could in the goal be controlled exactly whether the respective runner its correct course had also really run.
This form is today to a large extent by the invention of the electronic control systemreplaced. Only with small, regional meetings or with trainings the old system is used, since it is more economical.
There are two forms of the electronic control system: the SportIdent chip (short SI, see: ) and the EMIT map (see EMIT CEPT). In Germany, Austria and Switzerland, in addition, in Scandinavia prefers the SportIdent system used.
of professional orientation runners special oil suit are used, which are manufactured from thorn-rejecting material (manufacturers e.g. are. Trimtex, Kämpéla, Noname and Silva). There are also special oil area run shoes with or without Dobb spikes to soles (of Jalas, VJ and Silva). For the better protection at the Schienbein socks strengthened by some runners lower jaws or are used.
Relay orientation run beside
are special forms [ work on] also still relay OIL, with which a relay runs off each other, usually from 3-5 runners different after distances. The special attraction hieran is the mass start of the first runners of oneRelay, which all start at the same time. With an classical period OIL the starting distances of the runners of same classes are about 2-7 minutes, so that a runner cannot hang itself to another runner to run after it without even to thus orient. This is howevera mass start of a relay oil possible, becomes however by some easily different so-called. Fork post makes more difficult.
crew orientation run
of the moreover one gives it also still the crew OIL, where a crew starts, usually from 3-4 runners together, however directly divides itself,in order to start a certain number of free posts. Important it is only that the crew started altogether all posts and each runner needed approximately the same time for its distance, because the time those the last runner for itsDistance used is interesting for the valuation. Apart from the free posts there is also a number of obligation post, which must start each runner. The challenge of this discipline is fair it, as a captain of a crew the posts on the runnersto distribute and to consider the strengths and the weaknesses of each runner.
further one special match forms are that night OIL, with which Stirnlampen are usually used, as well as that Score OIL, with in a given time if possiblemany posts in arbitrary order to become “collected” to have. An extreme form with times of up to 24 hours is the Rogaining originating from Australia.
To the classical orientation run orienting with the Mountainbike is closely related or the Langlaufski (see in addition: Ski OIL and/or. Mountainbike Orienteering). The special form for disabled athletes is called Trail Orienteering. There are still innumerable further variants like e.g. Orientation dipping or orientation riding.
orientation run international
the orientation run is in the Scandinavian countries inPeople sport. To emphasize the 5-Tage run O-rings is in Sweden and the world-famous relay matches Tiomila in Sweden and Jukola in Finland, all three has annually more than 10,000 runner inside at the start. In somewhat smaller measure the orientation run is also into regard Switzerland as people sport.
The most important match in the oil year is the world championship (short WOC). Since 1966 the WOC was delivered every two years, since 2003 takes place the Orientierungslauf WM annually. With world championships it gives since 2001 three route distances (Sprint,Central distance, long), before it became only per a world champion with the gentlemen and/or. Ladies gekürt. The traditional relay run is regarded of many nations (above all the Scandinavian countries) as the most important match of the WM.
Orientation run is not (still) an olympic kind of sport, becamebut taken up to the program of the World Games. Over the whole year also the oil Worldcup takes place, whose final valuation builds itself up at the year end by the results of the individual World Ranking Events. Popular is also the park World route (short PWT).
Ein 2003 del regelmässig del weil del bekannter del viel di OL-Sport del der del wurde del dado WM di Durch Bericht nel wurde del gezeigt del oder im Fernseh di Zeitung del der.
OIL in Switzerland
particularly since the world champion titles of Simone Niggli Luder and the world championship 2003in Rapperswil/Jona (CH) the orientation run in Switzerland becomes ever more popular. For some years together with the main sponsor of the Swiss orientation run federation (SOLV) the sCOOL project is accomplished, with which thousands of pupils receive the opportunity, on the school area simple OILto deny. In Switzerland it gives approx. 90 groups of oils, which are divided on 9 regions. Several dozen regional runs find each year instead of (usually on Sunday), which in each case 200-1000 participants register. Besides it gives approx. 8 national runs alsoin each case 1000-2000 participants. Finally take place each year Swiss a Sprint, a central distance and a long-distance championship. The foot oil season begins nowadays already in January with individual city oil and starts then in March correctly. In July and August that becomes the protectionNature of fewer runs delivered, but frequently an Mehrtage OIL takes place. The last orientation run matches take place in November.
OIL in Germany
the situation in Germany is regionally very different. The traditional center of the orientation run is above allin Saxonia.
Organizational the section orientation run belongs German Turnerbund . 1976 changed the West German orientation runners from the ski federation to German Turnerbund (DTB). The East German DOLV (German orientation run federation) joined 1990 the DTB. To 1989 the East German were orientation runnersin the German federation for moving, mountain pastes and orientation run (DWBO) organizes. The activities of the orientation run on federal level are regulated by the technical committee, on the regional levels give it similar committees.
The most important match forms foot OIL are single, relay and crew runs. Single runs becomeover the Sprint, central, long and Ultralangdistanz delivered, usually by day, to special matches in addition, at the night. Around points and titles with federation and national rank list runs as well as with Germans and national championships one runs. Altogether become in the entire federal territory approximately250 large and smaller matches per year organizes. The largest regular meeting also over 1000 fighters is the German championship over the long distance in October. With the youth and junior land comparison fight the best new generation runners of the individual countries measure their forces. Special high pointsfor achievement and fun are again and again multi-day runs or also the Thüringer 24-Stunden-OL.
OIL in Austria
in Austria has the orientation run, similarly as still in Germany, no large value. Centers are above all the Steiermark (Graz, prince field), Vienna, Salzburg (Henndorf), castle country (Pinkafeld) and Lower Austria (Viennese new city). The largest multi-day run of Austria is the hot spring land open, which was accomplished in the last years in co-operation with Hungary and Slovenia. In the Austrian mediathis kind of sport is however hardly mentioned. Orientation runners with considerable international successes are with the Mr. Thomas Krejci (TV prince field) and Gernot Kerschbaumer (HSV Pinkafeld), latter reached at the WM 2005 in Aichi (Japan) the 9. Place over thoseCentral distance and holds thus the best placement of an Austrian with world championships. With the ladies the most successful Läuferin Lucie Böhm ( ASKÖ Henndorf) is, it became at the WM 1997 in Grimstad (Norway) world champion over the short distance and struck thusthe Skandinavier on their home terrain. At the WM 1999 in Inverness (Great Britain) it reached 2 with that. Place over the short distance the second landing placement for Austria.
In Austria annually 10-11 rank list runs are accomplished. From the results of these runsthe Austrian total rank list results. The season begins mostly in May with the Austrian Marathonmeisterschaft, which however 2006 from the program were painted. 2006 takes place 10 rank list runs and for the elite four championships: Sprint, means, long, night. Besides givesit still regenerating and/or. Senior championships, crew and relay championships. Once per year also a so-called Land of the Federal Republic relay is delivered, at which the Lands of the Federal Republic in 5er-Staffeln (all age groups) begin against each other. 2005 Salzburg before Vienna and the Steiermark got itself this title. Besides finds2006 in Viennese new city the senior world championship instead of.
famous orientation runners
- Simone Niggli Luder the most successful Oil-Läuferin of the world is momentary. It is among other things repeated European and world champion in addition, Weltcupsiegerinin various oil forms. At the WM 2003 in its homeland it won in all disciplines gold. It was 2003 and 2005 Sportlerin of the yearly in Switzerland. Like already 2003 played the trump card Niggli at the WM 2005 in Aichi (Japan) up and likewise gold in all disciplines won. Simone Niggli Luder won thereby already 10 WM-Goldmedaillen.
- Vroni king Salmi
- Lea Mueller
- Annichen Kringstad
- Marita Skogum
- Jenny Johansson
- Karolina A. Höjsgaard
- Gunilla Svärd
- Emma edge of confining
- Hanne Staff
- Anne Margrethe Hausken
- Minna Kauppi
- heli coil Jukkola
- Heather Monroe
- Thierry Gueorgiou
- Daniel stroke man
- Thomas Bührer
- Fabian Hertner
- Jörgen Mårtensson
- Emil Wingstedt
- Mattias Karlsson
- Johan Ivarsson
- Mats Troeng
- Valentin Novikov
- Björnar Valstad
- Jörgen Rostrup
- Øystein Kvaal Østerbø
- Pasi icons
- Jani Lakanen
|Year||central place/country||world champion Mr.||Weltmeister ladies||relay world champion|
|1966||Fiskars||Age Hadler||Ulla Lindkvist||Sweden (men & ladies)|
|1968||Linköping||Karl Johansson||Ulla Lindkvist||Sweden (men), Norway (ladies)|
|1970||iron oh||stairs of mountains||Ingrid Hadler||To Norway (men), Sweden (ladies)|
|1972||Jicin||Age Hadler||Sarolta Monspart||Sweden (men), Finland (ladies)|
|1974||Silke-borrow||Bernt Frilen||Mona Norgaard||Sweden (men & ladies)|
|1976||Aviemore||Egil Johansen||Liisa Veijalainen||Sweden (men & ladies)|
|1978||Kongsberg||Egil Johansen||Anne advisedOath||Norway (men), Finland (ladies)|
|1979||Tampere||Öyvin Thon||Outi borrow-flow||Sweden (men), Finland (ladies)|
|1981||Thun||Öyvin Thon||Annichen Kringstad||Norway (men), Sweden (ladies)|
|1983||Zalaegerszeg||Morten Berglia||Annichen Kringstad||Norway (men), Sweden (ladies)|
|1985||Bendigo||Kari Sallinen||Annichen Kringstad||Norway (men), Sweden (ladies)|
|1987||Gérardmer||Kent Olsson||Arja Hannus||Norway (men & ladies)|
|1989||Skaraborg||Petter Thoresen||Marita Skogum||Norway (men), Sweden (ladies)|
|1991||Marianske Lazne||Jörgen Mårtensson (long), Petr Kazak (short)||Jana Cieslarova (short), Katalin Olah (Long)||Switzerland (men), Sweden (ladies)|
|1993||west POINT||Allan Mogensen (long), Petter Thoresen (short)||Anna Bogren (short), Marita Skogum (long)||Switzerland (men), Sweden (ladies)|
|1995||Detmold||Jörgen Mårtensson (long), Juri Omeltschenko (short)||Marie Luce Romanens (short), Katalin Olah (long)||Switzerland(Men), Finland (ladies)|
|1997||Grimstad||Petter Thoresen (long), Janne Salmi (short)||Lucie Böhm (short), Hanne Staff (long)||Denmark (men), Sweden (ladies)|
|1999||Inverness||Bjørnar Valstad (long), Jörgen Rostrup (short)||Yvette Baker (short), Kirsi Bostrom (long)||Norway (men & ladies)|
|2001||Tampere||Jimmy Birklin (Sprint), Pasi icons (short), Jörgen Rostrup (long)||Vroni king Salmi (Sprint), Hanne Staff (short), Simone Niggli Luder (long)||Finland (men & ladies)|
|2003||Rapperswil/Jona||Jamie Stevenson (Sprint), Thierry Gueorgiou (means), Thomas Bührer (long)||Simone Niggli Luder (3)||Sweden(Gentlemen), Switzerland (ladies)|
|2004||Västerås||NIC-read Jonasson (Sprint), Thierry Gueorgiou (means), Bjørnar Valstad (long)||Simone Niggli Luder (Sprint), Hanne Staff (means), Karolina A. Höjsgaard (long)||Norway (gentlemen), Sweden (ladies)|
|2005||Aichi||Emil Wingsted (Sprint), Thierry Gueorgiou (means), Andrey Khramov (long)||SimoneNiggli Luder (3)||Norway (gentlemen), Switzerland (ladies)|
Web on the left of
|Commons: Orientation run - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
of oil federations
- international oil federation (IOF)
- German orientation run portal
- Austrian professional association for orientation run
- Swiss oil federation
- Swedish oil federation
- oil encyclopedia
- OIL with sport Komplett.de (WM-statistics)
- oil import and compass use
- comprehensive web page about “virtual OILS”
- oil import materials for instructors at schools
(alphabetical after land contraction)
- hot spring country open (AUT, HUN, SLO)
- Bohemia 5 days(CZE)
- Jukola (FIN)
- Saxonia Rogaine 2006 (GER)
- Thüringer 24-Stunden-OL (GER)
- Baltic Sea OIL (GER)
- Int. 3-Tage OIL in Bavaria (GER)
- Int. 3-Tage OIL in Dresden (GER)
- Hungária Kupa (HUN)
- Meeting Orientamento Venezia (ITA)
- Lipica open (SLO)
- Swiss O Week (SUI)
- 10Mila (SWE)
- O-rings 5Days (SWE)
Bratt, Ian: Orientation run, publishing house Pietsch, 2004, ISBN: 3613504472