Orthodox churches

of these articles acts of the Byzantine-orthodox churches (also: orthodox east churches). For further Christian orthodox churches, see orthodox church. For the catholic east churches see university Universities of churches (catholic). For further meanings of orthodox see to Orthodoxie

orthodox churches (of old Greek ορθός - correctly or straight-lined, and δόξα - believe, in Slawi “pravoslavnaja cerkov'", Serbian: “pravoslavna crkva” teachings or admiration - thus correct theory or correct admiration of God) - call themselves the Christian churches of the Byzantine rite, which developed in the Greek culture area or were based from there.

Table of contents


the church traditions and theories of the orthodox churchestheir beginning in the Byzantine realm with its center Byzanz took and/or. Konstantinopel. Therefore one speaks also of the Greek church contrary to latin church and/or. Roman church. The term east churches is likewise common, closes however exactly takenalso different in eastern Mediterranean area resident churches, which differ either theologically and/or liturgically from the Orthodoxie Byzantine tradition - catholic university ores the churches, which calls oldeastern churches, in the west also „monophysitische “churches, and those Assyri church of the east. The latter churches call themselves occasionally also as orthodox.

With the orthodox churches acts around a group of churches, which agree large in church understanding, teachings and cult and a strong Zusammengehörigkeitsgefühl have. They regarditself not in each case as part of only one church, but as direct expression of the church (see paragraph under it). Bible and Liturgiesprache is as for instance oldGreek the respective national language or an older form the same or Kirchenslawisch, an old slawische language form.Meaning except the Greek tradition above all the slawische is with the orthodox churches of the Byzantine rite, there slawische areas in the early Middle Ages the Christianity from Byzanz particularly took over themselves and also later rather on Konstantinopel than on Romereferred. A further important group of cultures in the Orthodoxie form the Arab Christians.

The orthodox churches are world-wide seen after the catholic church the second largest Christian church. The designation denomination is rather strange to them. The group of the orthodox churches is aboutthree times more largely than the largest individual Evangelist denominations. Terms like Greek-orthodox or Russian-orthodox should not be used according to opinion of some authors for the denomination, one say also not rheinisch Evangelist, nordelbisch Evangelist or GermanEvangelist. This argumentation misjudges however thatas the differences between the individual orthodox local churches both organizational and in the rite are substantially larger between the Evangelist regional churches in Germany. On the other hand orthodox Christians do not understand themselves actually than „Russian-orthodox “or „Bulgarian-orthodox “, also not than „part thatChurch “(Jesus Christ also not the sum of individual parts is, but an indivisible unit there), but as direct expression „of the whole church “. That does not prevent it however from it, in each case by place, national affiliation language and tradition e.g.to be bound to the Russian orthodox church or the Bulgarian orthodox church.


in the orthodox churches different designations are used, which express the orthodox identity: Orthodox church, orthodox one catholic church, eastern-orthodox church, East church, or Greek-orthodox church (the latter refers in this case not to Greece but to the Greek culture area, in which the church developed) or also Greek-eastern church. The actual, comprehensive designation from view of the orthodox churchare the one, holy one, catholic and Apostoli church, as it is called in the Glaubensbekenntnis.

to organization

of examples of the individual organization types see list of the orthodox churches. This article is a list with (after possibility) all orthodoxChurches, which have usually also own articles, which are linked there.

canonical churches

the orthodox churches differentiate between canonical and non-canonical churches. Canonical churches are autokephale and autonomous churches, those in full coming union with the ökumenischen Patriarchatfrom Konstantinopel stand. Non--canonical churches separated sometime for theological or political reasons of the coming union with the ökumenischen Patriarchat or a canonical church.

For the canonical orthodox churches only the canonical orthodox churches stand in the full apostolischen follow-up and therefore only their Sakramente is in the fullest sense effective. Theological statements about other churches and the welfare or mischief status of their members are as far as possible avoided in the Orthdoxie.

Autokephale and autonomous churches

inthe orthodox church distinctive between autokephalen churches, those legally and religiously completely independent are and their own head to select and often still for further churches are responsible and autonomous churches, those concerning internal affairs up to a certain degreeare independent, but depend in certain respects on a autokephalen church.

A autokephale church can carry, depending upon size and historical meaning, the title Patriarchat , ore diocese or Metropolie and by a Patriarchen , an archbishop or a Metropoliten is led accordingly.At the point of an autonomous church an archbishop stands.

The numerous orthodox churches in the German linguistic area are z. Z. in each case subordinates the native autokephalen church or the ökumenischen Patriarchat. This actually contradicts the orthodox church right, after in each areaonly an orthodox church to exist is, becomes however because of the unusual situation 20. and 21. Century (large numbers at Migranten with need of nut-linguistic Seelsorge) temporarily endures. A second argument for this is that one in one since age agocatholic area parallel church fully valid in law to establish, there (like further down one explains) such would not like to reject the orthodox ones in reverse also in their own countries.

In the orthodox church all bishops are legally and religiously on an equal footing - a Patriarch, Metropolit orArchbishop does not have higher authority and no jurisdiction in the area of another bishop opposite a bishop, manages the bishops of his area however than „primus inter of pares “(first under same) and represents the church outward. For a whole churchbinding resolutions can be met however only by the community of the bishops at a council or a Synode. Within his area each bishop has religious jurisdiction.

church understanding

the orthodox church understands itself as the original ChristianChurch, of all remaining churches abgespalten themselves and/or. to have removed are (so also the Roman-catholic church). From therefore it the orthodox church sees itself also as religious homeland of all Christians in their area and sees with appearing strange on thosenumerous Evangelist denominations, in particular, if these open parallel churches in the own area. Recently also for the establishment of Pope-faithful parallel churches (university Universities of churches) and of (latin) catholic dioceses in orthodox countries little understanding prevails. Above all the Russian-orthodox churchdefends their canonical territory and accuses to the Roman-catholic church Proselytismus .

Nearly everything of them is to the orthodox churches for this reason the ökumenischen advice of the churches followed and to lead a ökumenischen dialogue because of the unit of the Christianity,for approximation particularly with the catholic, the anglikanischen, and the other eastern churches. They are not ready however to be able to be forced upon by majority decision non-traditional values and practices (for example of a Priesterin led community service, common Eucharistie, inclusive languagein Liturgie, release theology).

consecration and office

the Sakrament of the consecration are divided in three stages. The first stage is the Diakonat, second the Priestertum and third those of the bishop. The consecration knowonly receive men. Only the bishops, who are usually (nearly always) also monks at the same time, are obligated to the Zölibat. However also the bishops are often not original from the unmarried Klerus, because frequently verwitwete priests are geweiht to the bishop. Priestand deacons may be married, not marry however after the Subdiakonweihe. If they separate widows or from their wife, they must remain unmarried. Beside the Weihesakrament the orthodox churches know also the so-called low consecrations to the Lektorat and Subdiakonat (Hypodiakon).

The offices are merged into a church hierarchy: At the point stand the Patriarch, archbishop or Metropolit as primus inter of pares under the bishops, then come bishop (griech. επίσκοπος episkopos, actually custodians or foremen), priests (griech. πρεσβύτερος presbyteros, eigentl. Oldest one), and deacon (griech. διάκονος diakonos, eigentl. Aid or table servant).

Subdiakon, Vorleser, singers and door guardians are further offices without sakramentale consecration and without altar service, which have their origin in the earlyChristian Liturgie,today however partially different functions have than the names to suggest. Likewise into the group of the offices without consecration belongs the Diakonissen, which was mainly for the preparation and Assistenz with the baptism of women responsible - it appliedas improper, if a male priest affected a woman with the baptism in the water. The office for deacon eating became however insignificant with the reduction of the adult baptism ever, so that it finally disappeared after the end of the Byzantine realm completely; in some orthodoxChurches one discusses today the re-establishment, so far however without concrete results. The Diakonissen never carried altar service out and was thus none „female deacons “.

Contrary to western churches most theologians are traditional, in their hand in the orthodox churchalso a large part of the teachings does not lie, and turned around laymen and not priests the majority of the priests theologians; the priest training is usually short and practice-oriented, it takes place not at universities. Social services are considered likewise as task above all to thatA layman, in by the majority orthodox countries also as task of the state - not as task of the church hierarchy, whose task is above all the execution of services. Also the monks are priest, most are only rarely laymen.Medal in the westernThere are not senses in the Orthodoxie, but each individual monastery is as it were its own medal. However there is often an informal co-operation between monasteries with similar religious orientation and common establishment tradition.

There is no women surgery and no altar servicefor women. The wife of the priest has a privileged position in the municipality and a special title, Arab Khouria and Greek πρεσβυτέρα, Presbytera (oldest one), or Russian Matuschka (mummy). Apart from the altar service women can exercise all functions in the municipality in principle, toExample church advice, choir lead, lector service, instruction give (also for adults), icons paint - depending upon local culture the participation of the women in the municipality life is however different.



the theology of the orthodox churches resemblesin many respects those the Roman-catholic church, in the detail there are however various small differences.

An important difference in the mentality results from the fact that in the west nearly everything of the few, for it however outstanding and coining/shaping early church fathers andTheologians attorneys and/or civil servants of the Roman realm were vocational, and which was deeply embodied legal thinking in the Roman society. Thus western theology thinks often in categories of the right, as for example punishment and grace. In the eastern church was this so not the case; it had a larger number of early „fathers of “quite different ethnical, social and vocational origin, who were coining/shaping ever individually regarded however clearly less remarkable and than the western. Eastern theology is inclined to it, into think medical categories, as for example illness and healing.

A further main difference is supposed that the orthodox ones have altogether a less positive view of heidnischen Greek philosophy - above all the high estimation of the Aristoteles very common in the catholicism is missing -and thus also their way of thinking less as a suitable vehicle of Christian theology see than the catholics. In contrast to this the inheritance of Israel and the direct mirror-image-ritual experience are more strongly stressed. From it it results that many ranges of theology consciously in the vague one are left; for example one becomes change “of the elements admits with the Eucharistie, which is term of the Transsubstantiation however rejected, and also the Marienlehre in the Orthodoxie in the Liturgie clearly available, but dogmatisiert hardly formally.

The griechischstämmige AmericanBaptist James J. Stamoolis summarized the substantial theological differences between east and west in the year 1986 in its book “Eastern orthodox mission Theology Today” in such a way: the orthodox church does not divide the people picture of the Augustinus of Hippo, still thoseRelease teachings of the Anselm of Canterbury, still the methodology Thomas's von Aquin.

The Bibles used by the orthodox churches contain a more extensive writing canon in the old will. Beside also the late writings of the old person of will recognized by the Roman-catholic churchbecomes generally also the 3. Book Esra (1 Esdras), the 3. Book of the Makkabäer and the 151. Psalm as fully canonical regards; 4. Book of the Makkabäer appears often as appendix, 4. Book Esra (2 Esdras, Esra Apokalypse) onlypartly in the slawischen churches.


the orthodox churches know seven Sakramente or correct Mysterien: Baptism, Myronsalbung (after the baptism follows directly, but corresponds in the rest of the western Firmung), Eucharistie (first becomes timelikewise already immediately after the baptism receive), penalty, consecration, marriage and Krankensalbung. The filter number was only taken over around the reformation time by the catholic church, in order to distinguish itself from protestantisierenden tendencies, and is not dogmatisch fixed; a clearDemarcation between Sakramenten and Sakramentalien (as for example funeral and Wasserweihe) does not give it contrary to the catholic church.

Since Salbung and first Eucharistie will already receive from infants, the orthodox church has contrary to most religions thatWorld no general ritual, which celebrates the transition from the child to the adult; it notifies however many local traditions of this kind, in parts of Greece, Serbia and Bulgaria for instance dipping and bringing a cross up from a ice-cold riverYoung person on the day of the baptism Christi, the Theophaniefest to 6. January.

Byzantine Liturgie

the center of the orthodox Spiritualität stands the rich, mainly sung Liturgie of full symbolism, whose today's form of majority decreases/goes back in the fourth century, intheir essential structure probably even in the first and second century. The form of the first part of the Liturgie, the Liturgie in such a way specified of the Katechumenen with prayers and Bible readings, decreases/goes back to the Jewish synagog service, like it at present Jesu usuallywas, while the second part, which is Liturgie of the Gläubigen with the you air low eggs, essentially Christian origin, even if some see loans here with the Jewish temple service. The names refer to the fact that in former times all faith candidates not baptized yet afterthe first part the church abandoned had.

The original Liturgie took five hours, the Basilius - Liturgie lasts about two and a half, the Chrysostomos - Liturgie starting from that 11. Century about one and a half hours. On most Sundays the Chrysostomos Liturgie is celebrated, at high holidaysthe Basilius Liturgie. Besides there is still „the Liturgie of the vorgeweihten gifts “, which is celebrated at the working-days of the chamfering time, and which Jakobus - Liturgie, which is celebrated only in the Patriarchat Jerusalem once in the year at the name day of the Jakobus.

All orthodox Liturgienneed deacon for the full celebration beside the priest (or bishop) still another. This assists to the priest, and the structure of alternating mutual responding serves both as memory aid. If necessary the Liturgien can in addition, in a simplified form without deacon celebratedbecome.

With Orthros (it corresponds to the third and Sext of the catholics) and further prayers the service is plentifully three hours long also on normal Sundays - whereby not all from beginning to end thereby are, later appearance and earlier leaving of theService are relatively normal. The frequent call Kyrie is typical eleison (Κύριε ἐλέησον, gentleman, pities you).

The singing has special value in Russian-orthodox Liturgie. They will be supposed as prayers understood and therefore only about human voices „“to become produced. The useby instruments is not therefore in Russian-orthodox churches permitted, because instruments cannot pray. Also in other orthodox churches instrument valley music is uncommon. Another theory for this dislike against instrument valley music decreases/goes back on orchestras usual with the Roman circus plays;the Christians regarded the circus plays, in which they were partial the victims, as Götzenkult. However these opinions varied historically. Those world-wide first organ in the today's sense was installed for example in the late Middle Ages in the Hagia Sophia of Konstantinopel;with the case of the city it was destroyed.

In the orthodox Liturgie bekreuzigt oneself one each mark, if the tri rivet RK is mentioned, if the cross or an icon is admired, with the benediction, and at innumerable further opportunities, however not exactlyare regulated and by differently Gläubigen to be handled quite different. One bekreuzigt oneself with good reason unloading movement and from right to left (forehead, chest, right shoulder, left shoulder), turned around as in the catholic church. With the Bekreuzigen thumbs become, index fingers andMiddle finger held together (three fingers - tri rivet RK), while Ringfinger and small finger at the palm are (two fingers - two nature Christi, into the palm - come down to the earth). In some orthodox churches the Bekreuzigung in principle still one followsBow.

Gebetet is mostly confessed in principle standing, also in the services; many churches have only Bestuhlung along the walls for old persons and weak ones. Knees is not usual in the sun-daily Liturgie and is considered even as inadequately, there Sundayof the Auferstehung to remind is; at other weekdays there are thrashing (Metanie) in some churches similarly as in the Islam, which supposed took over this prayer attitude from the east churches.

Visitors in Russian-orthodox churches should not the hands upthe back put. That was the usual attitude of the KGB agents, who supervised the service, and applies until today as hurting.

celebrations and calendar

the main celebration of the Orthodoxie is Easter (usual after Jewish model pasha or Passahcalled), which has just as central position in the orthodox culture as Christmas in the west. Easter is computed in all orthodox churches (with exception of the Finnish church) after the Julian calendar and can therefore one, four, or five weeksafter the western Easter its.

The church year of the Orthodoxie begins at the 1. September; on this day also the new Indiktion in the Byzantine realm , which corresponds about to the today's fiscal year , began.

In second place after the east he and/or Passahfeststand the among themselves of equal standing „twelve celebrations so mentioned “:

during the mobile celebrations (as for example Easter and Whitsuntide)in all orthodox churches after the Julian calendar introduced by Julius Caesar to be celebrated, has a part of the churches in the 20's of the 20sten of century for the being fixed celebrations (like for example Christmas and baptism Christi) in such a way specified Neo Julian calendar imported, which will correspond to the western Gregorian calendar up to the year 2800. Other churches hold however also for these celebrations to the Julian calendar, so that for example Christmas in Greece to 25. December, in Russia however only onour 7. January („old “25. December is celebrated). This calendar reform, which was decided rather spontaneously and without large discussion - and also without reasonable tuning of the orthodox churches among themselves - from above down, was in 20. Century strongly contestsand led to the splitting off of the Altkalendarier.

canonical churches today

the following churches belong

to list

of the orthodox churches [ work on], in order of their historical rank to the canonical orthodox church family:

  • the four (of five) remaining old-church Patriarchate
    • the Ökumeni Patriarchat of Konstantinopel (seat Istanbul), whose own church in Turkey today is only very small, is however world-wide responsible for local of dioceses and ore dioceses, which are not subordinate to other Patriarchat, as well as for the easternmost part of Greecearound Thessaloniki and the Greek islands; Liturgie usually in old-Greek language; the Patriarch is none „orthodox Pope “and its power over the entire Orthodoxie is limited, it however as honour head of the orthodox church is everywhere recognized very much.
    • the Patriarchat ofAlexandria and completely Africa, today's seat is Cairo, Liturgie mainly oldGreek, however also some African languages;
    • the Patriarchat of Antiochia and the whole east, today's seat is Damascus, the churches is main in Syria, Liturgie in modern Arab;
    • that Patriarchat of Jerusalem, responsibly for Israel, the Palestinian areas, and Jordanian one, Liturgie usually oldGreek;
  • the Patriarchate of the after-imperial time
  • further autokephale churches (their head and its bishops themselves determine)
    • the autokephale orthodoxOre diocese of Cyprus, Liturgie oldGreek;
    • the autokephale orthodox ore diocese of Greece (responsible for the majority of the Greek mainland), Liturgie oldGreek;
    • the autokephale orthodox ore diocese of Poland
    • the autokephale orthodox church of Albania, Liturgie in modern Albanian;
    • the autokephale orthodoxOre diocese of the Czech countries and the Slowakei
    • the orthodox church in America, whose Autokephalie was granted by the Russian-orthodox church, which is recognized however of the remaining Autokephalen churches only as autonomous. Liturgie in English or after origin.
  • autonomousChurches (another church has say with the determination of the head)

all other canonical orthodox churches do not stand under the religious line of a autokephalen church.

„Nichtkanoni “Churches and special communities

of their own self understanding after canonical orthodox (large or main) churches have themselves different times churches and groups abgespalten. These regard themselves as authentic continuation gutters of certain tradition lines. In addition belong:

  • Most catholic university ores of the churches
  • thoseitself since that 17. Century in Russia developing Raskolniken (old ritualists, Altgläubige), which against the adjustment of the Russian Liturgie to the Greek turned, and which today by two church families with bischöflich priesterlicher structure (Popovtsi), as well as many communities and municipalities„priest lots in such a way specified “(Bezpopovtsi) are represented. The latters believe that a valid Priestertum in the world does not exist any longer, and celebrate therefore also no more Eucharistie .
  • The group of the exile or foreign churches, itself in 20. Century of thatLarge churches of the former socialist countries loose-said. Them the Katakomben or underground churches in such a way specified („ true orthodox ones “) was intimate, which survived as illegal small's groups in the socialist Eastern Europe. The largest of these churches is the Russian-orthodox foreign church. It gives at present.Efforts for reunification with the nut/mother churches, which however condemnations mutual by a long tradition are made more difficult.
  • Of the remaining churches (national) churches did not recognize. Of importance here the autokephalen churches are like the Ukrainian one, the Macedonian and those(rather in America spread) Belarussi autokephale church. 1942-1945 existed also Croatian one autokephale church.
    Numerous Gläubige in Eastern Europe feels connected with the Ukrainian orthodox church Kiewer of Patriarchats (it is from the autokephalen church specified above to to differentiate).
    Onein the last two decades the orthodox Gegenkirchen in South-east Europe, developed, represents special group.
  • Finally are still traditionalistische groupings, as the Altkalendarier mainly active in Greece, which turn against the Neo Julian calendar, and modernistic currents like thoseTo call per Bolschewisti „living church “in the Soviet Russia of the 1920er years.
  • There is a small number of approximately 250,000 of Turkish orthodox Christian, who belongs to the türkmenischen and gagausischen trunks. These groups of peoples form two own churches. The orthodox Karamaner becameby the Turks driven out and to Greece obligation-resettles.


with the efforts toward the unit of the Christian churches, very important for the orthodox churches, one must between the relations with the Roman-catholic and that one with the churches thatReformation differentiate between. While the dialogue with Rome encounters particularly within the rather political range of the church self understanding differences, there is in relation to the reformatorischen churches above all theological discrepancies, approximately around the understanding of the Sakramente.

In relation to the Roman church givesit at first sight many thing in common: Orthodox ones and Roman-catholic have the same apostolischen Glaubensbekenntnisse, the same Sakramente and the same geweihten offices.

There were cultural and theological differences between east church and west church practically from the outset, but starting from the center of thefirst millenium led a ever smaller theological and cultural exchange to a separate development. The church teachings, beginning with the Filioque and the papal Primat, introduced to catholic theology since the Middle Ages, became of the Orthodoxie as one-sidedInnovations outstandingly, which led to a break of the coming union, when the Roman-catholic church required that these were introduced also to the orthodox churches. In particular also the dogmas 19. and 20. Century - Unbefleckte receipt-sneeze, physical admission Mariens inthe sky, and infallibility of the Pope in accordance with Vatikanum I - the gap still increased, whereas itself the Roman church with the resolutions II. Vatikanums of the orthodox church approximated again. Pope Johannes Paul II.the catholic-orthodox Ökumene hasoften priority opposite the catholic-Protestant granted and much contributed to a climatic improvement, on the other hand however the catholic dogmas always clearly defends.

Second large splitting was the morgenländische Schisma of 1054, from that the Roman-catholic church and the eastern-orthodox churchesunder the Ehrenprimat of the Patriarchen of Konstantinopel came out. Union attempts, last 1439 in view of threatening conquest Konstantinopels by the Turks, failed particularly because of the resistance of the orthodox Gläubigen, for after the conquest of Konstantinopel in the fourth crusade the church community with thatRoman-catholic church was no longer conceivable. The mutual condemnations as Häretiker are considered today as waived. 1964 lifted Pope Paul VI. and the Patriarch of Konstantinopel, Athenagoras, the mutual church spell of 1054 up. 1967 came it into Jerusalem to the first meetinga Pope and a Patriarchen after the beginning of the church splitting. The Schisma remained existing however.

At the 4.Mai Johannes Paul II. explained 2001. opposite Greek-orthodox Christians: „For the past and present causes, with those sons and daughters of the catholic church throughActs or omissions against their orthodox brothers and sisters gesündigt, may grant the Mr. us assigning. “ 2004, to 800. Anniversary of conquest Konstantinopels by the cross drivers 1204, renewed Pope Johannes Paul II. this plea of guilty.

Memories of the plundering Konstantinopelsin the fourth crusade (1204) and yet by „the uniatische question “, i.e. the existence of catholic east churches, as well as the establishment of catholic dioceses and/or Apostoli Administraturen healed and do not become the Polish rule in Russia uporthodox area again and again turned up. The orthodox ones see therein a wrong Ekklesiologie (from their view there can be a Christian church in an area only), an attempt on the part of Rome to win more power and an ignoring of their own churches; thosecatholic side feels turned around the university Universities of churches in relation to to loyalty obligated. Even if their mechanism is seen in the meantime also of some catholic negotiators as historical errors, then one can do it in catholic opinion nevertheless now not simply their fateleft, or from which exclude church, or to of them not intended combination with the orthodox ones to force.

Contacts on same level are helpful, as the meetings between the ökumenischen Patriarchen Athenagoras and Papst Paul VI.into the 1960er years, orin the year 2004 taken place the return with the plundering of Konstantinopel robbed of the Reliquien of Gregor of Nazianz and Johannes Chrysostomos from Rome to Konstantinopel.

Remains unclear, how the differences in the church self understanding to be overcome to be able, as well as many points of issue, wherethe Roman church committed itself to philosophical explanations of theological questions, which are rejected by the orthodox churches.

The approximation between the orthodox churches, the Anglikani coming union and the oldcatholic churches, it continued to progress became in the last decadeshowever loads by the Priesterweihe of women in these western churches and other protestantisierende tendencies, while the orthodox ones hold to the tradition of the Priesterweihe only for men.

The orthodox churches belong to the Ökumeni advice of the churches (ÖRK) with few exceptionson; in (relative) the relaxation phases of the cold war one saw therein a possibility for stronger east-west change on non-governmental level, why the socialist states endorsed this membership. In this framework exists the possibility for the change with the churches of the reformationand their splitting off. The Roman church belongs to the advice due to its self understanding not, but takes an observer role. Meanwhile those felt relatively few orthodox churches pushed in relation to the numerous Protestant churches in this committee often to the edgeand therefore after the end of communism a better tuning and a more uniform occurrence in the advice decided. Only the Georgian church withdrew from protest against the substantial Protestant mission in Georgien completely from the advice.

Although itself thoseorthodox churches as only Bewahrer of the complete apostolischen teachings regard, can them expressly to the fact profess itself that the unit of the world-wide Christian church covers the variety of independent churches - which the straight central conflict in relation to the dialogue with Romerepresents. Nevertheless the orthodox churches take a privileged position within the ÖRK, which finds also in a special work area within the ÖRK expression.


current introduction with special weighton the churches in Germany. However the book contains some material errors.
very good and exact introduction in English language.
  • Oeldemann, Johannes the churches of the Christian east, 2006, ISBN 3786785775
Overview over all orthodox, eastern and with Rome university Universities of east churches - with historical and current data (inclusively left) would background to each individual church.
  • Bryner, Erich: The east churches of 18. up to 20. Century. Leipzig 1996.
(Church history)
  • Jaroslav pelican: TheMirror-image-guessed/advised OF Eastern Christian cathedral, 1974, University OF Chicago press, ISBN 0226653730
historical development of the orthodox churches

see also

Web on the left of


  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)