Eastern Bloc

Eastern Bloc, often also second world or socialist block and/or. socialist camp mentioned, was the name for an socialist-authoritarian group of states under the guidance (dictation) of the USSR from 1947 to 1989.

Yugoslavia, Albania, Mongolia, China, North Korea, North Vietnam, Laos, Kambodscha and Südjemen are more brightly represented, since they only originally ranked among the Eastern Bloc. Cuba, VR the Congo, Angola and Ethiopia did not rank among the second world are however “in the east”

the term Eastern Bloc becamein the west (Western powers) coined/shaped. It reflects the understanding again, which one during the cold war of the group of states (see. Satellite state) under the guidance of the Soviet Union had. This appeared as uniform block, the one within all crucial rangesuniform policy, which justified itself on the guide roller of the respective communist or labour party, pursued.

With the term Eastern Bloc the following states were summarized: USSR, Poland, GDR, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria and partly and/or. occasional Romania. Originally also still the following states were to it-counted:Yugoslavia, Albania, Mongolia, China, North Korea, North Vietnam, Laos, Kambodscha, Cuba and South Yemen. Also some African countries like the VR the Congo, Angola and Ethiopia ranked occasionally among since also from the USSR had developed supported regime here. Later one recognized in the west that the policy of these socialist states was either no longer directly dependent on the Soviet Union or also openly of the SovietCourse deviated.

To table of contents

emergence

at the end of the Second World War penetrated the Soviet army (the Red Army) with its advance to the west ina set of states, which lay to the west of the Soviet Union. With military and propagandistic assistance on the part of the Soviet Union here socialist states were established, so-called Volksdemokratien. This state belt became for the Soviet Union a buffer zone opposite the westernMilitary alliance and the western free-market economy, which were called of the communists capitalistic economic system. The British prime minister Churchill spoke 1945 of the fact that now an iron curtain Europe separates.

co-operation

the Eastern Bloc was welded together on three levels: Uppolitical-ideological level the alliance of the communist parties, the communist information office (Kominform, based 1947); on economical level by the advice for mutual economic aid (RGW, 1949); militarily by Warsaw Treaty (1955). The first arguments and different viewsto the Soviet guide roller 1947 between the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia under guidance of Tito already took place . 1961 broke then finally also Albania with the USSR and oriented themselves from now on to the VR China. On all levels the Soviet Union hadand/or. concretely the Secretary-General of the CPSU (until 1953: Stalin) absolute instruction right. This instruction right was formally not so fixed, became however obvious whenever a state of the Eastern Bloc tried or their citizen to go its own way. 1953 in the GDR, 1956 in Hungary and 1968 in the ČSSR struck down the Red Army these alternative movements by force. In other places, like e.g. for 1981 in Poland, threats from Moscow , around governments of the Eastern Bloc were sufficient againto bring on Soviet course. It again and again also the possibility for individual states in subranges a special way gave nevertheless to go (e.g. consumeroriented economic policy of Poland to 1970 or Romania under Nicolae Ceauşescu). Therefore this group of states can in the reviewin each regard as uniform block not to be regarded, but nevertheless as satellite states of the Soviet Union.

tried counter measures

of the west the west under the guidance of the USA, from the outset the expansion of the Eastern Bloc to dam (Truman doctrine: Containment politics). On economical level by the Mars resounding plan reconstruction assistance was offered to the European countries. NATO represented a western military alliance against Warsaw Treaty, although it was created before its eastern opponent. On political level became into thatEastern Bloc countries opposition movements supports. Parallel to it one tried at first rather by confrontation to later break also by policy of detente the Eastern Bloc open.

at the end of

of 1985 became Mikhail Gorbatschow Secretary-General of the CPSU and changed the course of the Gängelung and suppression of the Soviet Satellite states. The new foreign policy opposite the so-called. socialist brother states, the these its own way to socialism , was part of the program of the Perestrojka. While some states separated now until 1989 increasingly from the Eastern Bloc, those triedGovernment of the GDR to hold this together unsuccessfully. In the autumn and winter 1989 the governments in all Eastern Bloc countries (except the Soviet Union ) lost their rule monopoly, so that the Eastern Bloc stopped existing in practice.

see also

 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)