At Easter the Christians celebrate the Auferstehung Jesu Christi of death at the cross, how them are testified and announced in the new will. This happened after urchristlicher faith conviction „on the third day “after itsDeath, whereby the day of death counted as a first day: thus at the Karfreitag the following Ostersonntag.
Easter is the most important celebration of the Christians, which the joy over the final victory of the son of God over death and eternal condemn-sneeze expresses. After the understandingsome Protestanten is however Karfreitag the highest Christian holiday, since straight death Jesu Christi, not only its Auferstehung, which released mankind of the hereditary sin. For most Protestanten however as for all remaining denominations of the Ostersonntag that is highest holiday.
More than with other celebrations of Christian origin are many of the customs practiced at Easter and used symbols of heidnischen or popular origin. Examples of it are Osterhase, Osterei or Osterfeuer. The popular traditions have higher in many familiesMeaning as the urchristliche background.
Table of contents
the österliche fixed circle begins in the western churches since the year 1091 with the ashtray Wednesday, which a 40-tägige chamfering time follows (see also Fastnacht). This reminds of the 40 years of the people Israel in the desertas well as to the 40 days, which fastete Jesus in the desert. Since Sundays chamfered since 1091 of are excluded, ashtray Wednesday lies actually 46 days before Karsamstag (Ostersonnabend). The österliche bus time, colloquially also “chamfering time” mentioned, ends with the Karsamstag(Ostersonnabend), exactly taken the previous evening to the Ostersonntag, since after Jewish-Christian excessive quantity the day begins with the previous evening (the Easter eight-celebration is part of the Ostersonntags). There is therefore exactly 40 days. After Easter one followed likewise 40-tägige fixed time, the actual “Osterzeit”,up to the celebration the Christi Ascension Day lasted. The fixed circle was extended later by the following 10 days, which cover the 9 days before the Pfingstfest (“Pfingstnovene “) and Whitsuntide, so that the Osterzeit now 50 days after Easter onWhitsuntide (griech.pentekosté, “the fünfzigste (day)”) ends.
The last week before Easter is called Karwoche. It begins with the Palmsonntag, at which the Christians celebrate the introduction Jesu of Nazaret in Jerusalem. At the Green Thursday (the “green” does not comefrom the color, but from the old-German word greinen, which as much as cry is called) celebrates the Christianity the last communion, the last Pessah celebration (also: Pessach or Pascha celebration) Jesu with June gladly and the installation of the Eucharistie /of the Communion. On the next day, the Karfreitag, death Jesu is thought at the cross, at the Karsamstag is grave peace, and on the third day (Ostersonntag) the Auferstehungsfeier is, there Jesus - after the Bible - up-arose.
|2000||23. April||30. April|
|2002||31. March||5. May|
|2003||20. April||27. April|
|2005||27. March||1. May|
|2006||16. April||23. April|
|2008||23. March||27. April|
|2009||12. April||19. April|
|2012||8. April||15. April|
|2013||31. March||5. May|
|2015||5. April||12. April|
|2016||27. March||1. May|
|2018||1. April||8. April|
|2019||21. April||28. April|
|2020||12. April||19. April|
|2021||4. April||2. May|
|2022||17. April||24. April|
|2023||9. April||16. April|
|2024||31. March||5. May|
|2026||5. April||12. April|
|2027||28. March||2. May|
|2029||1. April||8. April|
|2030||21. April||28. April|
Easter belongs to the mobile celebrations, whose date is each year different.All mobile Christian holidays are computed from the Ostersonntag. The Ostersonntag is first Sunday after the first full moon in spring. The full moon rule guarantees that there can never be a solar eclipse at the Karfreitag more.
The Osterdatum became probably archbishop Athanasius following fixed on the council by Nizäa in the year 325 on the first Sunday, which follows the first full moon in spring (the so-called Ostergrenze). The exact wording of the resolution is not received to however no more. In the year 525 that becamekalendarische spring beginning of Dionysius Exiguus uniformly on the 21. March fixed.
Therefore the computation of the Osterdatums is attached directly to the determination of the full moons. In addition not the astronomical full moon accurately assignable after today's knowledge conditions, but traditionally the moon calendar is consulted.Basis of the moon calendar is the synodische month, i.e. the time of a Neumond to the next. It corresponds approx. 29,53 days. There 19 (tropical) years nearly exactly 235 synodischen months correspond, repeat themselves the Mondphasen thus every 19 years - thatis the so-called Metoni cycle. Within a complete moon cycle the Neumonde can be indicated completely in principle. Their exact computation is based on the golden number (the serial-number of a yearly in the moon cycle) as well as the Epakte („the age “of the moonat the 1. January in days). Full moon is then according to definition of the moon calendar always 14 days later. Despite the sun calendars used in the Christianity moon calendars in the background were carried always parallel to it. In at present the Julian calendar Easter knew valid moon calendarat the latest on the 25. April fall - the earliest Osterdatum is the 22. March. With the Gregorian calendar reform in the year 1582 not only the sun calendar, but also the moon calendar, there also the Metoni cycle were adapted itself just like thatCycle of the leap years as had not accurately proven and a full moon date resulted in that at that time already some days far away from the genuine full moon lay. Therefore the Metoni cycle is if necessary adapted since then every 100 years. After the valid moon calendar would beafter the calendar reform in addition, the 26. April as Osterdatum infrage come. In order to be able to consider to the old customs from Julian time further, two additional rules had to be added to mentioned above the principle for the determination of the Osterdatums:
- Those fallsOstergrenze on the 19. April, becomes it on the 18. April sets back.
- The Ostergrenze on the 18 falls. April and is larger the golden number of the yearly than 11, becomes the Ostergrenze on the 17. April sets back.
With secondRule was guaranteed that as with the Julian moon calendar the Ostergrenze does not repeat itself within a moon cycle.
In all other respects 21 results from the uniform definition of kalendarischen beginning of spring to. March as well as the difference between astronomical and moon calendar full moon indeednow and then so-called Osterparadoxien, i.e. Years, in which an astronomically computed Osterdatum would fall on another day.
In all orthodox churches with the computation of the Osterdatums to the Julian calendar one holds. After thisfinds the 21. March (in 20. and 21. Century) 13 days later instead of than in the Gregorian calendar and continues to itself remove ever from astronomical beginning of spring. (By the way folding up “liturgical” with “astronomical” beginning of spring the one of the principal reasons for those was Introduction of the Gregorian calendar). Therefore orthodox Easter takes place sometimes a Mondphase later. In addition the orthodox church computes the Osterdatum after one already in the antique one specified calculation specification, evenly the Metoni cycle described above. The length of the 19-jährigen moon cyclebecame at that time over approx. 2 hours too long accepted, what added itself in the course of 17 centuries to some days. This is a further effect, which can lead to the fact that orthodox Easter one week or in extreme cases, ifit with the above effect adds itself (z. B. 2005), five weeks later take place than latin. By this latter effect by the way also the Jewish calendar is concerned. With the computation of orthodox Easter there is the moreover one the rule,that it is shifted one week, if it coincides with the Jewish Pessachfest (as for example in the year 2006).
Easter and Pessach
the celebration of the Auferstehung Jesu Christi leads itself ofthe Jewish Pessachfest off and falls therefore temporally into the proximity to the Jewish Pessach or passport ah celebration. It contains therefore also today still elements of the Jewish Pessach, with that the Jewish municipalities the release of the Israeliten ( the excerpt outEgypt) from the Egyptian shank commit. The Pessachfest begins (theoretically) in the evening of the first spring full moon and takes one week; see Jewish calendar for closer details.
Etymologie of the word Easter
in most languages comes the designationEaster of the Jewish Pessach: On Italian Easter is called pasqua, on Spanish pascua, on French pâques, on Greek Πάσχα (= Pas'cha), on Russian paskha, on Esperanto pasko, on Swedish påskdagen, on Netherlands pasen and on Icelandic páskar. In most slawischen languages Easter is called large night (nights ) or large day or Auferstehung.
To the German Easter the English Easter is related. The two words might have same origin, butin both languages the Etymologie is not clarified. Thus there are several theories for the origin of Easter.
- Since in the Middle Ages the österliche baptism was given at present to morning redness, the appropriate word in the Germanic language area was used. Honorius Augustodunensis (12.Jh.) derives Easter from the east , the direction of the sunrise as symbol of the Auferstehung. Thus lead yourself Easter of latin alba, in albis (in the sense of with sunrise, old-high-German to ostarun) off probably upthe background of (Mk 16.2 European Union).
- After Knobloch the word Easter stands in connection with the Christian designation of the Osterwoche as albae paschales (österlich white dresses of the newbaptized). The short form albae becomes as Plural of alba - “morning redness”- translates understood and with the old-high-German word eostarum.
- After the name researcher Jürgen Udolph know the northGermanic languages a word family, which fits Easter: indeed ausa - pour water, and austr - Begiessen. A heidnischer water rite became as vatni ausa - with water begiessen designation. The word Easter refers thus rather to the baptism, which is the central event of the Easter eight.
- After theory the Easter from old-high-German east era (the east), Eostre or Eoastrae be derived, thatto anglo-saxon name of the teutonischen goddess of morning redness, spring and the fertility, the bride of the young May count (Freyr - Freyja), goes on Beda Venerabilis (de temporum ratione 15) (8. Jh.) back and was taken over to a large extent by Jacob Grimmand encourages. It is however disputed until today whether a goddess of this name actually occurred in the Germanic mythology. Etymologisch point the litauische goddess Aušrine, the lettische Auseklis, the Roman Aurora, the Greek Eos and the hinduistische Usha on a indogermanische goddess of the dawn with similar name.
Easter as heidnisches spring celebration
in many not-Christian religions is admired the sun as Lichtspenderin and göttliche source of fertility and celebrated with spring celebrations.
Some easthereditarysmoketherefore to the Germanic respectively celtic sun cult are attributed. In addition belong spring and Osterfeuer, in addition, the Osterräder, which are probably over two thousand years old. Even a connection between the nordischen sun God Baldur and Christ is sometimes made.
The new heaths celebrate Easter under the name east era celebration after a old-Germanic goddess east era, whose symbols the modern myth are to be after hare and egg. Ostereier and Osterhasen (often therefore called heidnische fertility symbols) are in the German linguistic area only sincethat 17. Century occupies. In the range of the orthodox Christianity of Egypt over Greece to Russia this tradition is occupied already longer. With the hare the rich excessive quantity of Christian hare symbolism speaks since late ancient times in the literature as also in the arrangingArt also not for (vacant) a derivative of a goddess Esotre/Ostara; even if it vouchers for a connection of hare symbolism and Auferstehungsthema gives (so e.g. in the Baptisterium to Pisa and in pc. Andreas to Pisoia in 13. Century) is thatTransition to the popular Osterhasenlegende yet does not occupy. It is remarkable that the German-language sources for the Osterhasen attribute all as Eierbringer (beside regionally occupied other Eierbringern) to Protestant origins.
easthereditarysmoke and symbols
- Ostereiertit (egg hardnesses)
- Easter eight
- east pouring
|Wikisource: Easter - source texts|
- portal: Easter
- of dates of the mobile holidays in Germany
- Auferstehung Jesu Christi
- Gauss Osterformel
- GiuseppeVisonà, Harald Schroeter, Peter Maser: Kind.Easter/Easter/Osterpredigt I. History, theology and Liturgie II. Osterpredigt III. Iconography. In: Theological material encyclopedia 25 (1995), S. 517-537 (comprehensive overview with further Lit.)
- Jens Herzer: Easter, Ascension Day, Whitsuntide, Christmas. Which we know about thoseOrigins of the Christianity? Focus: The Bible 4. Evang. Head Bibelges. and of Canstein Bibelanst., Berlin 2000 ISBN 3-7461-0144-1 (generally comprehensibly and wiss. founded)
Web on the left of
|Wiktionary: Easter - word origin, synonyms and translations|
- of east amusing services: Service of the Evangelist and catholic church
- Easterfrom the catholic church in Germany explains
- Osterquiz with would background as the celebration - from Evangelist perspective
- Ostereier, Osterhase… and many further easthereditarysmoke
- like the three-hare picture the Osterhasen became
- Osterkalender from ashtray Wednesday to Ostermontag
- Easter and Karfreitag from non-Christian view,inclusive Word meaning