East Frisia

East Frisia (Ostfriesi flat German: Oostfreesland) is a region between that 53. and 54. Degree of latitude in the northwest of the country Lower Saxony and local-politically a landscape federation.

Coat of arms of East Frisia
flag of East Frisia
city hall Emden

table of contents

Web on the left of [to work on

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Karte Ostfriesland
area map
Marschgebiet
East Frisia

march area East Frisia in landläufiger opinion the area of the ostfriesischen peninsula between Ems- and Jademündung with the pre-aged islands of Wilhelmshaven in the east, the North Sea in the north up to the Netherlands in the west. This does not correspond however to the political and the cultural-historical East Frisia. Politically East Frisia designates the area without the oldenburgische Friesland (district Friesland with center Jever), the East part of the peninsula including the island Wangerooge and the Wilhelmshaven , but the districts Aurich, developed by Prussia , empty and joke mouth, as well as the circle-free city Emden. The delimitationto the south the old citizen as well as the strongly catholic coined/shaped cloppenburgisch emsländische area (former Niederstift Münster) form. A special role plays the Saterland. It belonged culture-historically and languagehistorically to East Frisia, came however due to its isolated situation already early under thatInfluence of the diocese Münster, while East Frisia was subordinated to the diocese Bremen. This separation from the time of the late Middle Ages affects itself into the present inside. Owing to the isolation Saterfriesi could as only Varietät of the ostfriesischen language totoday survive, while in the remainder ostfriesische dialects of the language of Lower Saxony are spoken (Ostfriesi flat). Ostfriesen feel as part of the friesischen culture, when Friesen, which inhabit between the national states of the Netherlands, Germany and Denmark the North Sea Coast.

A characteristic of this region is among other things that it is not coined/shaped by a larger city (than culture and economic center), but that its attraction is appropriate for variety of the numerous smaller places and villages rather in that.

The centuries continuing isolation throughthe North Sea in the north and moorlands in the south caused a very independent development of East Frisia. Therefore there is this very day a latent slope to the separatism, however particularly in cultural interests shows up and politically as an effort overthe receipt of historically grown structures and/or. the avoidance of the fusion with ausserostfriesischen institutions or administrative units steps out.

we

Inselhafen
find
Wallheckenlandschaft
artificially
Dünenlandschaft
more promoted

to landscape island port eternal sea barrier hedge landscape dune landscape on the islands by Sanddünen, their partialVegetation - main beach grass - moving, i.e. the erosion with following reemergence in other place and/or. the misalignment to prevent is.

Between the islands and the mainland is the Wattenmeer, a singular biotope, that its emergence tidesowed by falling to a large extent at ebb-tide drying, being with tide against it completely under water. The Wattenmeer is pulled through from Prielen, over which the water off or zuströmt.

In many places the Watt salt meadows , those follow onlyoccasionally with particularly high water level to be totally or partly flooded. Also these form a completely own habitat, which is coined/shaped by its own Pflanzengesellschaft particularly, whose pioneer plant of the Queller is.

Before approximately 1000 years humans began themselves, by dykesto protect from the North Sea floods. It came again and again nevertheless in the course of large tide disasters too partial substantial land losses. In response however already soon humans began to win new ground from the sea. So-called Polder developed.

The coastal area of theMainland is march country, which continues to change landinward into Niedermoore , Geest and Hochmoore.

At Hochmooren to call in particular the area is around the eternal sea with the locality Eversmeer. Numerous further surfaces, the remainders of the formerly large Hochmoorerepresent, and therein convenient smaller seas such as z. B. the Lengener sea today likewise are protected areas. In recent time by re wet measures the original character was often recovered approximately, after these surfaces over long time because of its island situation in the midst of of culture countrystrongly drained and afterwards verbuscht were.

The old morainic landscape of the Geest is characterised by predominantly sandiges Geschiebematerial of the Saale ice age and is today to a large extent cultivated as land or (to small extent) forest-economical surface.

After dissolution that common land developed owing to that thatFarmers imposed upon obligation to define their plots and to prevent a breaking out of the Weideviehs, the typical barrier hedge landscape with small pasturelands, which are surrounded by shrub and tree-covered earth barriers, to their entrance openings with the just as typical roughly gezimmerten wood gates (flat: hek) to be locked.

Nowadays one finds in East Frisia also forest and/or. Forstgebiete. In earlier time against it larger closed forest stands were there to a large extent unknown.

One finds in East Frisia also a larger number more naturally (Niedermoor) to lakes, their the largest “large sea “with Bedekaspel, Municipality Südbrookmerland, is.

settlement

Wallheckenlandschaft
barrier hedge landscape

earliest settlement proofs are for jungpaläolithische annuitant hunters that to Hamburg culture. Proof follows mesolithischer settlement and late neolithischer settlements of the bell cup culture, the Megalithkultur and the Schnurkeramiker. Forlater time is proven the settlement of Germanic trunks from the major unit of the Ingwäonen. That were Chauken and Friesen. While originally Chauken inhabited the area between Ems and Weser, approximately Friesen began to penetrate into this area around the turn of an era. ThoseChauken were partly displaced by these, up-sucked partly in their master federation. Since the second after-Christian century the Chauken is not any longer mentioned. From the land side meanwhile Saxonian trunks pushed into the Geestgebiete forwards. The later Ostfriesen went out of thatMixture of these subpopulations out.

In the early Middle Ages a settling was only in Geestgebieten lain more highly and on Warften so mentioned (earth hill; [with secondary - t] more correctly: Threw; see. the many place names up -, z threw. B. Other-threw, Möhlenwarf, Tichelwarf) in regular offor the North Sea flooded march country possible. Only the dyke construction (off approx. 1000 n.Chr.) made possible to settle it the Friesen the entire march (“God created the sea, the Friese the dykes”).

history

after

early history onlythe early history of East Frisia is opened prehistory which can be illuminated archaeologically partly over the archaeology, partly over stranger e.g. Roman sources. The reports from Plinius, Tacitus and Strabon are, although their statements about number, distribution and form of the settlements quite more generallyNature it are in as much important as they give once of the fact customer that the German North Sea Coast was inhabited already in the time around Christi birth. Plinius reports of the Chauken, which lived under primitive conditions in the Watt area between Unterelbe and Unterems.Into this area the Friesen probably penetrated the Saxonia and took the coastal region in continuing possession during the people migration of the east and of the west.

one sees

Frühkarolingi time of clear only starting from the frühkarolingischen time. At that time existeda friesisches large realm, which widens parts of the today's Westfriesland, East Frisia and areas up to the Weser umschloss and of kings was controlled, whose name is partly delivered. The most well-known of the Grossfriesi kings is probably Radbod, around itself manyostfriesische legends and narrations climb. At many places it e.g. becomes. by street names honoured.

subjecting by Karl the large

Grossfriesi realm was however only from relatively short existence and fell then with subjecting the eastern Friesland by Karl the large one in the year 785 to Franconias.

Under Karl D. Gr. East Frisia was divided into two counties. At this time also the Christianisierung began by the mission acres Liudger and Willehad. East Frisia became thenPart the diocese Bremen, on the other hand the diocese Münster slammed shut.

With the purge of the Karolingerreiches East Frisia from the earlier connections and it separated developed a group more independently, districts even administered, those annually in each case than its representatives so mentioned“Redjeven” (right speaker, advice men) selected, which exercised both the jurisdiction and regulated the administration and organization of their districts. Thus the Feudalismus spread in the Middle Ages in Europe remained in East Frisia unknown. Rather the Friesen did not understand itself as free humans,Were committed to authority.

Annually 12 met during this time of the Friesi liberty in such a way specified, of. to in 14. Century lasted, envoys of the 7 to friesischen sea-country at the Upstalsboom close Aurich to speak around there right and politicalTo meet decisions from supraregional meaning to.

the Ostfriesi chieftains

in the process 14. Century disintegrated the Redjeven condition appreciably and further events like e.g. the outbreak of the plague and large storm tide disasters provided for further destabilization of conditions. ThisSituation then some influential families made themselves too use and created a rule system as them as “chieftains “(hovedlinge) power over more or less far areas actually tore. They established however further no Feudalsystem like itin the rest of Europe to find was, but rather a Gefolgschaftssystem, which resembled older rule forms of Germanic cultures in the north as the inhabitants of the respective spheres of influence in a subordinate position to the chieftain stood, were occasionally committed their liberty to this, in the rest of howeverkept and also otherwise to establish itself could.

A time, coined/shaped from the constant controversy of the chieftain kinships over spheres of influence, followed influence and supremacy, which ended only after around 1430 Edzard Cirksena as a leader of a federation of the liberty had become generally accepted. Ulrich Cirksena, a member one of the last influential chieftain sexes, became of emperor Friedrich III. raised into the realm count conditions and with East Frisia as realm county one belehnt. It belonged to the Niederrheinisch Westfäli realm circle.

Under the rule later into the prince conditionsraised house Cirksena developed East Frisia socially and economically favourably. The largest expansion reached the county under Edzard the large one, which most important Cirksena ruler, under whose rule also the propagation of the reformation in East Frisia began and which Ostfriesi Landrecht conceivesbecame. In this time (1547 - 1625) also Ubbo Emmius, the important ostfriesische human , historian and establishment rector of the University of Groningen lived.

During the dreissigjährigen war East Frisia suffered large emergency under afflicting by thoseTroops of the count von Mansfeld. The only exception formed Emden, since briefly before the Emder finished placed barrier protected the city against the income by stranger troops.

after the dreissigjährigen war

after the order again, came it was manufactured to an incomparable display of power of the ostfriesischen conditions, which made themselves to a large extent independent thereby of the respective national gentleman. This led to many controversies however the attempt to re-establish nationalwonderful power failed. From the agency at that time of the ostfriesischenConditions came out later the Ostfriesi landscape , which leads this very day their coats of arms, in the meantime however from a political institution to a mechanism of the culture care changed itself.

1726/27 came it to the appeal war so mentioned, which itself in a renewedConflict between the prince George Albrecht and a part of the conditions expressed, which split up into obedient and renitente conditions. The prince came out as a winner from this conflict. Even the city Emden standing at the point of the renitenten conditionssubmitted. By the bad negotiation fate of the chancellor von Georg Albrecht, Enno Rudolph Brenneysen, it came in the consequence however not to a peaceful agreement of the parties taken part in the conflict. Although chancellors and prince a strict punishment thatRenitenten demanded, this 1732 by the emperor were amnestied. As a prince George Albrecht at the 11. June 1734 died, transferred Carl Edzard in the age of 18 years the office business as a last still living descendant of George Albrecht. Also it knew the conflictsdo not solve with the conditions however.

To this time the development of the seizure of power of Prussia was initiated in East Frisia. An important position here took the city Emden, which was after the appeal war politically isolated and economically strongly weakened. A goalit had to now be to return to Emden the position as “ständische capital” and commercial metropolis. Starting from 1740 the opinion became generally accepted in Emden that this goal with Prussian assistance could be achieved. In addition a treaty system should be created, that the PrussianClaim in East Frisia recognized. The economic position Emdens should by contractually specified preventive measures and promotions be supported and the existing privileges of the city be confirmed. The Direktorialrat in the niederrheinisch westfälischen realm circle, Sebastian Anton Homfeld, that led the negotiations on Prussian sideto 8. November 1740 a first draft over the procedure when occurring the succession submitted. Homfeld was considered as one of the prominent representatives of the renitenten conditions. To initial difficulties it came on it constructing to 14. March 1744 to the conclusion of twoContracts. On the one hand this was the royal Special Declarations and insurance document, to others the agitation and convention document, in which primarily economic regulations were made. The moreover Prussia supports itself by from emperor Leopold I. 1694 issued Expektanz, that the righton Belehnung of the principality guaranteed East Frisia for the case of missing male inheriting. Despite the resistance of the Kingdom of Hanover Prussia in the effort around East Frisia should become generally accepted. After the death of the last ruler Karl Edzard from the house Cirksena Friedrich took overthe large one 1744 the county East Frisia.

East Frisia under Prussian rule

Ostfriesland auf einer älteren Ansichtskarte
East Frisia on an older picture postcard

the following time of Prussian rule brought for East Frisia a substantial economic upswing, strengthened opening outward and to various innovations. Into theseTime falls also the beginning of the moorland colonizing and the establishment of the Fehnsiedlungen.

After the battle with Jena and Auerstedt East Frisia was integrated into the Kingdom of Holland and thus into the French sphere of influence. 1810 came it as section “Ems Oriental“(“east rems”) directly to the French empire. To the defeat Napoleon and the collapse of its rule, it came again in the years 1813 to 1815 to introduction Prussia into East Frisia. Ostfriesi soldiers took during this time at the battles of Ligny and bark Alliance (Waterloo) part. Hopes of East Frisia to remain Prussian, were disappointed however with the Viennese congress 1814/ 15. After the transfer Napoleon a new territorial order of Europe should be justified in Vienna. Prussia became a part of the Grand Duchy Warsaw, i.e. floats, awarded. In addition Prussia received Vorpommern, Westphalia and the Rhine province, had to East Frisia however to the Kingdom of Hanover transfer. Responsible here was England, which wanted to prevent the appointment of Prussia at the North Sea Coast. In addition is calledit in article 27 of the final act of the Viennese of congress: “The king of Prussia steps the Principality of East Frisia to the king of Great Britain and Hanover off under the conditions, those in the article 5 over Ems shipping and the trade in the EmdenerPort are mutually fixed. The conditions of the principality will keep their rights and privileges. “The then following time was coined/shaped by stop and partial backward step. Therefore the Ostfriesen was gladly, as their country with the Annexion of the kingdom Hanover throughPrussia 1866 became again Prussian and from it actually immediately a development thrust arose.

East Frisia in the German Reich

with the establishment of realm of Germany to 18. January 1871 by the proclamation William I. the German emperor, East Frisia became howthe other provinces and countries into the realm merged and stood thus no longer only under Prussian influence. The realm was a prince federation - after the condition a constitutional monarchy - from 22 member states and three free cities.

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To national socialism

see in addition the major item East Frisia in the third realm .

Over the time of the national socialism in East Frisia are extensive representations, which light up the special problem and the partially very different reactions and behaviors in the region. Itthe framework would blow up to want to implement here further.

contemporary history

after end of the Second World War, in which particularly the city Emden and the Prussian Wilhelmshaven under violent bombardment suffered, turned out for East Frisia underBritish crew. In the Netherlands there were considerations to annektieren some areas of Germany. Also East Frisia was considered. In particular on the Dollart, the Ems delta and Borkum the Netherlands had refrained it, in order to cut Emden off from the maritime trade. ThisPlans failed because of the resistance of the westallied.

Since 1946 East Frisia is part of the again-created country Lower Saxony. 1978 were summarized the governmental district Aurich, which covered East Frisia, with the districts Osnabrück and Oldenburg in the governmental district Weser Ems. In the year 2004 became in the coursean administrative reform all governmental districts and concomitantly the district Weser Ems dissolved. For cultural interests in East Frisia the Ostfriesi landscape is responsible.

politics

East Frisia are not independent administrative unit. The today's districts empty, Aurich and joke mouth as well as the circle-freeThe administrative units of the original governmental district East Frisia form city Emden (until 1978).

East Frisia is with elections a traditional SPD center. Thus the SPD reached 25 (Emden Aurich) 61.4 per cent of the secondary voices (CDU with the elections to the Bundestag 2002 in the electoral district: 25.2%, Bündnis90/Die the Green: 7.1%, FDP:4.7%, Party of Democratic Socialism: 1,4%). Also in the constituency Unterems reaches the SPD in the ostfriesischen part (district empty) particularly high portions, contrary to the Ems country.

In the year 2005 a discussion began over a possible union to a “district in the ostfriesischen KreistagenEast Frisia ".

coat of arms and flag

the coat of arms of East Frisia unite the coats of arms of the most important ostfriesischen chieftain families in itself. It shows (from left to right down above):

  • the coat of arms of the Cirksena from Greetsiel, the golden, crowned virgin eagle (thoseTail landing gears are to be the Norder Stadtwappen taken and become as reference to the origin of the oldest provable ancestors rated)
  • the coat of arms tom of the Brok from the Brokmerland, a golden, on head and wings crowned eagle
  • the coat of arms one-convenient from that bent horn, a silver field, in it a red bar, which is occupied with five alternating golden and silver lozenges. Over the bar two blue and under it a blue Sichelmond.
  • The coat of arms of the Ukena from empty and Moormerland, a right-put up silver lion on blue reason with a fallen golden crown around the neck
  • the coat of arms of the Attena from Esens, which had the rule joke mouth, the right-put up, red reinforced black bar with golden collar upgolden reason
  • the coat of arms of the chieftain Hero Omken from the Harlingerland, two golden diagonally-crossed zweisträngige scourges in the blue field

the three crowned handle helmets over the ostfriesischen coat of arms are components of the coats of arms of the Cirksena (middle helmet, which as as Helmziera golden lily before six golden straussenfedern carries) and the Harlingerlandes (right helmet with two diagonally-crossed scourges and a lily) as well as the Tom Brok (with red-golden helmet cover)

was introduced the sechsschildrige ostfriesische coat of arms of count Rudolf Christian, of 1625 to 1628 governed.

The ostfriesische flag consists of the colors black, red and blue, which explain themselves from the colors of the chieftain families, i.e. black (Cirksena), red (tom Brok), blue (Harlingerland). The flag became by emperors Leopold I.togetherwith the coat of arms to 24. January 1678 officially lent.

culture

language

of 15. up to 18. Century was replaced to a large extent the original language Friesisch by (ostfriesische) the flat German, that in East Frisia this very day ofmore than half of the population is spoken actively and of the remaining dialects of the language of Lower Saxony essentially stands out clearly, in the vocabulary: Because of its isolated situation the ostfriesische Níederdeutsch retains some old down-German words as fuul“dirtily”, Penn “(writing) feather/spring”, quaad “badly”; in addition it contains still another number of friesischer words such as Gulf “barn section”, Heff “Wattenmeer”, Jier “liquid manure” etc., and finally (particularly in the western part) it took up a number of Netherlands words (Bahntje “employment, post”, Patries “Rebhuhn”, clock“Hour” of etc.). The Ostfriesi language, those in two variants - existed to an Ems and a weserfriesischen form - survived somewhat longer on the islands, e.g. on Wangerooge (Wangerooger Friesisch), and is until today received in not tooEast Frisia belonging Saterland, which served Ostfriesen than refuge, moved away, in earlier time, where the language could keep as Saterfriesisch (Seeltersk) because of the remoteness of the region into the present and today one of the smallest language islands of Europe forms. InSaterland gives it since the year of 2000 bilingual (German/saterfriesisch) place name signs. Since 2004 may do also some municipalities in East Frisia bilingual describes (German/flat-German) to set up, i.e. the city Aurich (Auerk) and the municipality large heath (Grootheid). In far areas however the flat Germans have themselvesPlace names also receive (examples: Moorhusen, Rechtsupweg), so that no bilingual describe are necessary.

meal and drinking

Eine Tasse Tee
a cup of dte

one of the most remarkable characteristics of East Frisia is the high dte consumption, with approx. 2.5 kg per head andYear is about ten times higher than in remaining Germany. Already in 17. Century came the first dte particularly by the Dutchmen and the British to East Frisia. Only 100 years later already was the dte in East Frisia in all social classesfar common and it had also ensured that the before large beer consumption was reduced clearly. Already in the year 1806 the today still existing dte commercial firm Bünting (part of the Bünting group ) in empty (East Frisia) was based and mixed the genuine Ostfriesentee.

Thus formed a completely own Ostfriesi dte culture, which one with the Ostfriesen at home or e.g. in the dte museum of the city the north to experience can.

A further beverage is the Kruiden. A 32%-iger herb-bitterly with particularly bekömmlichen taste,that already nearly as medicine is acted. Particularly is the Folts Fruiden, of the company Folts and Speulda, admits whom there is since 1879.

Another speciality of East Frisia are exclusively to Silvester baked the New Year crescents (flat German: Rullekes/Nijaahrskook). It actsitself here around, a hard Waffel formed to the crescent.

Also exclusively to Silvester baked, the so-called bacon thicknesses become. A special pastry, which is roasted in the pan.

customs

in East Frisia developed independent kinds of sport how Bosseln, Klootschiessen and desk stick jumping, these three kinds of sport appear also in the so-called Ostfriesenabitur. In severer winters, if the seas and channels zufrieren, also the ice skate running (“Schöfeln”) is a kind of sport liked traditionally. In former times the typical ostfriesischen ice skates becamein the place Breinermoor manufactured and are called therefore Breinermoorkes.

There are also special holiday customs like e.g. setting up the May tree the eve of the 1. May (into a large eurasische tradition line, in East Frisia however its own form belongs and), the bride path putting to Ascension Day and the Martinisingen minted own rules. Some special traditions besides on the ostfriesischen islands kept.

The typical form of the ostfriesischen farmhouse is the Gulf house.

denominations

church in Critzum

The ostfriesische population is predominantly Protestant. In that bent horn, the coastal municipality between the north and Emden as well as along the Netherlands border (Rheiderland) prevails the reformed confession forwards. The other ostfriesischen regions are lutherisch coined/shaped.

Evangelist free churches are inEast Frisia likewise above average strongly represent. The history of the Emder Mennonitengemeinde goes back into the reformation time. The Baptistengemeinden (official name today: Evangelist-freechurch municipalities) originated in in the center 19. Century. Starting point were the municipalities in Jever and Westoverledingen -Their. The Evangelist methodistische church, those followed with its ostfriesischen establishments of municipality likewise in 19. Century began. Free Evangelist municipalities began only at the beginning of the 50's 20. Century with their effectiveness. Further the community is that in East FrisiaSiebenten-Tags-Adventisten mit drei Gemeinden, in Aurich, Leer und Norden, vertreten.

The Roman-catholic church remained despite the influx of many catholic refugees in the post-war period a minority church.

The lutherischen church municipalities belong to the Evangelical-Lutheran church Hanover. The reformed Christians are membersthe Evangelist-reformed regional church Northwest Germany. The Evangelist-freechurch municipalities of East Frisia belong to the regional organization Baptisten in the northwest and form here the regional association Ems Jade. The catholic church municipalities belong to the diocese Osnabrück.

The Jewish municipality in East Frisia existed during one period of approx.400 years of their beginnings in 15. Century up to their at the end of of 1942. See in addition the major item history of the Jews in East Frisia.

economics

historical background

again and again in the course of history have themselvesin East Frisia times of relative poverty with phases of relative economic upswing replaced whereby in the coastal area, where a small layer of wealthy owners of yard faced a head-strong rural Proletariat, frequently a substantial social downward gradient to be in particular determined it was.

As reaction to ärmlichen conditions young searchedPeople often as migratory workers e.g. in the Netherlands getting along (so-called. „Hollandgänger “) or left their homeland completely. Many Ostfriesen e.g. moved. into the United States from America, where this very day a strong sense of community is to be found. In particularthe older ones speak there today still Ostfriesi flat.

agriculture

at all times was the main branch of trade the agriculture. At the coast besides still fish and garnet (crabs) catch. Also today the agriculture plays a large role in the economyEast Frisia. Here the dairy farming is to be particularly called. By the large quantity of fruitful pastureland ideal conditions are offered for the dairy cattle husbandry. Also the sheep breed becomes ever more important. At many dykes of East Frisia sheep are to be seen. By their small hoovesprovide they for the firmness of the dykes and make at the same time large grass mA hooking ions redundant. In some pole the areas (e.g. in the Rheiderland at the Dollart) are also grain farmers.

East Frisia brought some independent utilizable animal races out as urgently agriculturally oriented region. To emphasize thereby that is Ostfriesenpferd, the Ostfriesi milk sheep, meanwhile only the Frisian cattle represented in few pure copies and the Emder goose as well as the chicken race “Ostfriesi sea gulls “in different color impacts. The Frisian cattle belonging to the type of the lowland cattle belongsto the threatened old races. It became for a long time through to high speedbreed like the so-called.Holstein Frisian, a hybrid race developed in the USA, displaces.

industry

Enercon wind energy plant

the region is industrialized few. Industrielle centers of some importanceare only in the ports Emden and Wilhelmshaven. The largest industrial complex of the region and thus the most important employer is the Volkswagenwerk in Emden. Many Ostfriesen find besides work with the Meyer threw in the neighbouring Papenburg. The city The second largest shipping company location is in addition empty in Germany to Hamburg.

East Frisia is today a center of the wind power utilization in Germany. By the strong hoist at the coast and thin settling there are many large wind parks in the region. Are plannedalso offshore ones so mentioned - wind parks, which use themselves the by far stronger hoist on lake too make and in the Wattenmeer of Lower Saxony to be established are. The company Enercon, the largest German manufacturer of wind energy plants, has its head office in Aurich.Enercon operates manufacturing plants in Aurich and Emden in East Frisia.

tourism

East Frisia is routistic admits by the ostfriesischen islands Borkum, Juist, Norderney, Baltrum, Langeoog and Spiekeroog. The island Wangerooge belongs to the districtFriesland with seat in Jever, is thus formerly old citizen area. On the islands the tourism already began in 17. Century. From it then also the port places profited, like e.g. North dyke and Bensersiel. Apart of the islands and the direct coastal placesthe tourism in interior played for a long time no large role. Since for instance in the middle of the 1970er years changed this however ever more. And in such a way there are many routistic offers today also in the inland, like e.g. the Timmeler sea and the municipalityJemgum with the fishing village Ditzum. With its numerous cycle tracks East Frisia is interesting also for bicycle drivers.

structure problems

even if that outwardly few in the eye East Frisia falls, belongs today to the structure-weakest regions of Germany with a throughout high unemployment ratioand pronounced tendency for the drift of young, well trained humans. Some municipalities see themselves already confronted with substantial structural problems due to the increasing obsolescence of the resident population.

East Frisia belongs nevertheless to the birth-strongest regions of Germany with individual exception places, so that against thatgeneral trend the total population up-to-date still rises. Also profits by Zuwanderung are to be registered. This adjusts statistically drift losses, reduces however not the problems. For the regenerating generation substantially lack exist in the education and training offer. For fellow citizens of not-German originthere is if necessary small integration promotion. Immigrants are often pensioners, who establish themselves there East Frisia of earlier vacation sojourns and after separating from the active working life, or late repatriates from Eastern Europe.

media

daily papers

magazines

  • East Frisia magazine - monthly magazine for East Frisia
  • he! Norderney - quartalsweise on the island Norderney [
work on] appears

sound broadcasting

television

traffic

motorways

East Frisia was relatively late attached only to the German motorway net. Meanwhile East Frisia is by two motorway distances with the population centres Hamburg (A 28) and Ruhr district(A 31) and connected by a short distance (A 280) with the Netherlands motorway net.

  • The 1988 federal motorway finished placed 28 are an important east west connection of empty over Oldenburg (Oldb.) to Delmenhorst. Until 2008 is A 28 up to A 1 to be extended.
  • In December 2004 completed federal motorway the 31 connects the North Sea port Emden with the industrial city Bottrop lain in the Ruhr district. It is called also Ostfriesenspiess or Ems land motorway. Their building was partly financed by the regional economy.
  • German A 31 with the Netherlands A 7, which leads across Groningen to Zaandam, connect the four kilometers long federal motorway 280.

federal highways

railroad lines

the most important railway lines of East Frisia are the electrified main railroad lines from Emden to Bremen and Münster, which will drive on also from intertown center - courses of the railways AG:

the short distance of Emden Hbf to Emden outer harbour (KBS 396) serves as feeder for the ferry boats after Borkum. The international Schienenverbindung of empty over newdig to Groningen (KBS 397) on German side long time by penalty one served.

The distances Wilhelmshaven - Osnabrück and Esens - Wilhelmshaven are operated by the northwest course GmbH:

the city Aurich is not at present to the Eisenbahnnetz attached, the reactivation is decided however and in June 2006 will presumably take place. However this distance (at least for the time being) becomes exclusively for thatGoods traffic to be used.

Museum railway the thorn around north

water ways

ports gives it in Weener, empty (East Frisia), to Emden, Greetsiel, north dyke, Nessmersiel, Dornumersiel, Bensersiel, Neuharlingersiel, Carolinensiel and Harlesiel, as well as on the Ostfriesi islands.

acquaintance Ostfriesen

theologian

scientist

politician

artist

other

  • Ewald Christophers, journalist, “voice of East Frisia”
  • min never beautiful mountain, nut/mother of the Marx Brothers, from Dornum coming.
  • Max wind Mueller, German of Jewish resistance fighters against the national socialism

See also

literature

  • Onno Klopp, history of East Frisia, 3 Bde.,Hanover 1854-1858.
  • Hajo van Lengen (Hrsg.): The Friesi liberty of the Middle Ages - lives and legend, publishing house Ostfriesi landscape, 2003, ISBN 3-932206-30-4
  • Franz Kurowski: The people at the sea - the dramatic history of the Friesen, piling up he publishing house 1984, ISBN 3-87828-082-9.
  • Karl Cramer, the history of East Frisia. An overview., Isensee - Oldenbg.
  • Hermann Homann, East Frisia - islands, Watts and coastal country, F. Coppenrath publishing house, Münster
  • Manfred Scheuch, historical Atlas Germany, ISBN 3-8289-0358-4
  • Karl seriousness Behre/Hajo van Lengen: East Frisia. Historyand shape of a culture landscape. Aurich 1995, ISBN 3-925365-85-0

East Frisia in barking trichloroethylene tables texts

  • Erskine Childers, the mystery of the sand bank ISBN 3-2572-0211-3
  • S. Wörrishofer, Onnen Visser, the smuggler son of Norderney (in the late Empire of one of the most popular youth books overEast Frisia under French rule)
  • the Komiker Otto Waalkes (see there) made its Ostfriesentum in the Kabarett and in numerous features the topic.

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