Baltic Sea

Ostsee mit Anrainerstaaten & Inseln
Baltic Sea with neighboring states & islands

the Baltic Sea (also Baltic sea called, of lat. Mare Balticum, Rome. /histor. Suevi sea after the trunk at that time of the Sueben in the today's Mecklenburg) is one deep up to 459 meters and 413,000 km ² large Nebenmeer of the Atlantic ocean in Europe and is considered as the largest brackish water sea of the earth.

Table of contents

Geografie

situation

the Baltic Sea separates the Scandinavian peninsula from the connected mainlands from north, northeast and Central Europe. The northwest Ausläufer, the Kattegat, borders with Skagen on the Skagerrak. This strait at the peninsula Jutland placesthe only sea connection to the North Sea and thus to the Atlantic.

emergence

the Baltic Sea developed toward end the last ice age, the Weichsel ice age, before approximately 12,000 years. The education of the today's brackish water sea went thereby over several stages.The coastal organization took place via an interaction from land elevation and sea level rise. Before 12,000 years the northEuropean continent of enormous glacier masses was covered, which partly expanded to over northeast Germany. Due to the climatic reversal at that time the ice masses withdrew themselves toward Scandinavia.When the edge of ice was after melting of the inland ice masses on the height of the today's Åland islands, northeast from Stockholm, the Baltic ice artificial lake formed in its Vorland (before 12.000 to 10,200 years). The next stage becomes as Yoldia sea, forwardsabout 10,200 to 8900 years, designates. The Yoldia sea resulted from strong water level rise, which finally created a connection to the Weltmeer in the proximity of the centralSwedish sea-plate. Now a fresh water from stream and a seawater influx took place. With the time main header itself the Scandinavian mainlandin stronger measure, than the sea water mirror rose. The glaciers withdrew themselves, the pressure to the Scandinavian land mass decreased, so that them began to lift oneself. Thus the sea lane was blocked again and it developed the Ancylus lake forwards about8900 to 7000 years. The large forms of the coasts within the southern range of the Baltic Sea formed themselves by the Litorina Transgression before approximately 7000 to 2500 years. This time the entrance in the proximity of the Darsser opened threshold before the German coast. ThoseMainland bridge between South Sweden and Denmark was flooded and the east of Denmark divided themselves into the today's islands. The glaciers had now completely disappeared nearly. But the mainland of Scandinavia main header itself continuing, so that itself the coastal line further lastinglychanged. As reconciliation the southern range of the Baltic Sea lowered itself. The advancing sea flooded the jungglaziale landscape and transformed it thereby. As result one regains three coastal forms within the southern range: Ford coast (example:Kieler Förde), bay coast (example: Lübecker bay) and the Bodden and/or. Boddenausgleichsküste (example: Darss).

demarcation & arrangement

demarcation: The Baltic Sea is limited by Sweden, Finland, Russia, Estonia, Lettland, Litauen, Poland, Germany and Denmark.

The northernmost point of the Baltic Sea is at the Swedish-Finnish national border at the Bottni sea bosom, their easternmost place with the Russian sank Petersburg. Their southernmost point represents the south end of the Wismarer bay with the Hanseatic city Wismar, the westernmostPlace is because of the west end of the Flensburger Förde with the city Flensburg.

Arrangement: The Baltic Sea, in which numerous sea bays, Förden, chain straits , islands , - groups , - & isles lie, leaves itself rough into the following larger rangespartition:

front Baltic Sea

the front Baltic Sea covers the Kattegat north the straits Öresund, large ones and small Belt between Denmark, Germany and Sweden.

Sea bays & Förden:
Aalborg sorts

  • alphabetically bay
  • Ålbæk bay
  • Århus bay
  • Fakse bay
  • Djernæs bay
  • Fakse bay
  • misery country bay
  • mash cross-beam bay

straits:

Leading into rivers & rivers:
sorts alphabetically

islands, - groups, - to chain & isles:
alphabetically sorts

center Baltic Sea

the center Baltic Sea hands southern Baltic Sea of the German Baltic Sea coast in the west under inclusion western and to for instance to the line Stockholm - Åland - northwest Estonia.

Sea bays & Förden:
Flensburger Förde

Straits:
large Belt

leading into rivers & rivers:
sorts alphabetically

islands, - groups, - to chain & isles:
sorts alphabetically

northeast Baltic Sea

the northeast Baltic Sea covers the Finnish sea bosom between Estonia, Finland and Russia.

Sea bays & Förden:
sorts alphabetically

  • ???:
    • ???

Straits:
sorts alphabetically

  • ???


Leading into rivers & rivers:
sorts alphabetically

islands, - groups, - to chain & isles:
alphabetically sorts

Northern Baltic Sea

the northern Baltic Sea represents the Bottni sea bosoms (of Åland to the north), between Finland and Sweden.

Sea bays & Förden:
sorts alphabetically

  • ???:
    • ???

Straits:
sorts alphabetically

  • ???


Leading into rivers & rivers:
sorts alphabetically

islands, - groups, - to chain & isles:
alphabetically sorts

data

size of

  • expansion: 413,000 square kilometers
  • water volumes: 21,600 Kubikkilometer

sea depth

Salinität

the Salzgehalt (Salinität) of the Baltic Sea varies between over 25 PSU (2.5%) in the Skagerrak and5-3 PSU (0.5% - 0.3%) in the northeast part (Bottenwiek and Finnish sea bosom). The waste is in the Salzgehalt not continuous, but rather precipitous. This can be attributed to the fact that the Bodenprofil of the Baltic Sea by the ice ages is conditionally divided into basins. The largest jump in the Baltic Sea - Salinität takes place at the Darsser threshold north of Rostock , which lies between Belt and Arkona basins. Here the Salinität of about 1.7% to 0,8% sinks. The reasonfor the precipitous Salinitätsunterschiede lies in the different density of salt - and fresh water, which leads to a Schichtbildung. The heavy seawater sinks on the reason of the sea and collects themselves in the basins evenly specified. The thresholds betweenthese basins cannot be overcome by the seawater so easily.

naming and - interpretation

the Baltic Sea, the also Baltic sea and/or. Baltic sea is called and lat. Mare Balticum is called, became after the gothical people of the Balthiin the first millenium as Mare Balt (h) icum designates. Balt means gothical boldly; litauisch knows. A further name of the Baltic Sea is “branch sea” after the people branches, the Baltic Prussen, which lived at Weichsel and Memel. Brancheseast of Tacitus in Germania as at furthest humans living at the Mare Suebicum were described, but they are to have spoken celtic. Suebisch referred to the Germanic collecting trunk of the Sueben, those together with the Goten (among other things that Balthi) at the Baltic Sea coast in the Baltic lived. In 19. Century designated Ferdinand Nesselmann the languages of the Prussen, Litauer, Letten etc. as Baltic languages.

water ways

in the east is the Baltic Sea over the Newaand different water ways connected with the Volga, the white one , black one , Asow and the Kaspi sea.

climate

the south part of the Baltic Sea is in the moderate climate zone, which carries maritime courses with Denmark still expressed,eastward however in the range of the continental climate lies. The northern part, in particular the Bottni sea bosom, is coined/shaped by the cold climate of the borealen coniferous forests. Their northernmost point lies nearby the polar circle. Because the Baltic Sea of the climaticaffecting gulf streamuncoupled and their surface is quite small, due to small evaporation and enriches fresh water supply the Salzgehalt in addition very low lies, can it only very slightly to climatic reconciliation contribute; it does not develop own maritime climate. Therefore it freezes each winter andcaused then even a reinforcement of the continental climate. Ports such as Oulu in Finland count frozen months per year up to six. Ice sheets can reach Mächtigkeiten in cold winters also at the German coast that persons can go walking on it. Onlysome islands such as fount cross-beam profit from an unusually mild Mikroklima.

island world

the Baltic Sea is so rich at islands, Inselgruppen and - it chain as well as inhabited and uninhabited isles that its number cannot be called accurately, because thoseDefinitions go apart, according to which an island and an isle are differentiated.

Larger islands in the Baltic Sea are Gotland and oil and (Swedish), Åland (Finnish), Hiiumaa and Saaremaa (estnisch), Wolin (Polish), Usedom (dt. /pol.), Rügen, Hiddensee and Fehmarn (dt.) as well as innumerable DanishIslands, for example sea-country, Fünen, Lolland, Falster, long country and fount cross-beam.

Åland

between Sweden and Finland lies those politically to Finland belonging, but with autonomy rights equipped schwedischsprachige Inselgruppe Åland, out over 6500 islands exists. 65 of these islands is inhabited and accommodates 26. 530 inhabitants (at the end of of 2004).

Denmark

on the Danish Baltic Sea island sea-country is a metropolitan city: Copenhagen. And in the close Roskilde is on the sameIsland a world cultural heritage: The cathedral church of Roskilde. Sea-country is the largest island of the kingdom and in the meantime by a bridge and a tunnel with Sweden and connected by another bridge with the second largest Danish island Fünen.

A majoritythe Danes lives on Baltic Sea islands, and adds one their surface together, then Denmark possesses the largest island realm there. Most islands lie in the popular sail district of the Danish South Seas. There larger islands are such as Lolland, Falster, Møn, Long country, Ærø and Alsen. East the country with fount cross-beam continues to possess its easternmost outguard.

To the smallest inhabited Danish Baltic Sea islands the ox islands belong in the Flensburger Förde. They are directly because of the GermanDanish border and are a popular trip goal.

See also: Danish islands [

work on] Germany

Germany

would list has three important Baltic Sea islands: Fehmarn and Rügen (dt.), Usedom (dt. /pol.):

Fehmarn is before the peninsula Wagrien because of the Lübecker bay and is with the mainland over those Fehmarnsundbrücke as part of the bird airline connected, and it is considered to provide this island with a further firm Fehmarnbeltquerung than alternative to the Jutland line so that the bridging and tunnel net on the way would be completed to Scandinavia from Central Europe.

Rügen, thoselargest German island, has some pre-aged islands. Most well-known Hiddensee is followed, of the Vilm.

Usedom, whose East part belongs to Poland, possesses like Rügen a rich arrangement in peninsulas, in addition exist there many seas.

See also: List GermanIslands

Estonia

Estonia largest island, and the largest Baltic Sea island of the Baltic Saaremaa ( Ösel ) is simultaneous. Second largest estnische island is Hiiumaa (Dagö). Besides there is still the island Kinhu.

See also: List thatIslands of Estonia

one indicates to Finland the number of the Finnish Baltic Sea islands and isles as approximately 80,000. In it however the many thousands of Åland are just as contained as its crowds. The remainder are mostly crowds, those not tooÅland belong. Since Åland is ranked politically however among Finland, it, so seen, possesses an important island world in the Baltic Sea.

The fortress Suomenlinna lies on the islands before Helsinki. Thus Finland has a insulares world cultural heritage in the Baltic Sea.

Lithuania

Lithuania does not have islands in the open Baltic Sea, but however in the Kuri Haff: Kiaulės Nugara (dt.: “Pig backs”) with Klaipėda as well as Rusnė and some different in the Memeldelta. The litauische part that Kuri Nehrung does not have a land connection with Lithuania themselves. Of Klaipėda one must translate with the ferry. Plans for a bridge stand in the conflict for the status of the promontory as national park and world cultural heritage and therefore were so far rejected. On the Landweg is to reach the Nehrung only from the Russian Oblast Kaliningrad.

Poland

Poland divides Usedom with Germany. This island is the only Baltic Sea island, which belongs to two states. Completely to Poland the neighbour island Wollin belongs.Besides there is a number of smaller islands in the Stettiner Haff.

See also: Polish islands [

work on] Russia

Russia

would list possesses with Kotlin before pc. Petersburg a historically important island. It is better admits under the name crowning city thatcity and fortress of the same name.

Sweden

the largest Baltic Sea island is the Swedish Gotland. Here this very day a its own is spoken of gothical descending language, the Gutamål. Importantly also the second largest Swedish island is oil and. In Sweden lie thousands of small crowds, which are partly inhabited.

The capital of Gotland, Visby, is likewise world cultural heritage like the southern landscape Ölands.

coastal forms

the coastal forms of the Baltic Sea are a result of ice-age glacier movements andpost+ice-age area elevation in northern and - sinking within the southern range of the Baltic Sea, which persist until today. The coasts are affected in addition by the situation in the west wind zone, whereby from the west sediments are washed ashore steadily. Differences become the following manifestations:

fjords are fjord coast also at the Baltic Sea: They occur particularly at the coasts of the Kattegats, i.e. in Denmark and in southwest Sweden. In contrast to the Norwegian fjords they are lessdeeply entrenched, because the ice cover was not so powerful here.

crowd coast

the Swedish-Finnish coast in the centers, northern ones and eastern Baltic Sea is almost exclusively a crowd coast; from time to time one finds still isolated fjords (“fjord crowd coast”). Crowds are the coast pre-aged, small and smallest rocky islands, which exhibit a characteristic crest form in the sanding off effect of the glaciers. Because the Baltic Sea exhibits only small tides, they remained practically unchanged over last thousands of years. The flat dropping area with the melting of the ice tank was flooded and the crests stood out from now on as islands; from the area elevation with the time further, pre-aged crowds resulted.

cliff coast

in some cases, for example on Gotland or fount cross-beam, has themselves Cliff coasts in an educated manner. These protrude as Steilküsten schroff and mark ground failures in the geological underground. Cliff edges are also below the sea level. Also the north coast of Estonia to the Finnish sea bosom is coined/shaped by such a break line. From west to eastthis cliff moves close ever more near to the current coastal line and nevertheless reaches with Sillamäe scarcely 60 m height. A well-known Steilküste is on the island Rügen. One calls the white chalk rock of the king chair on Rügen also deadCliff, since they are not constantly reached by the surf.

Ford coast

in Schleswig-Holstein, approximately from Flensburg to Luebeck, is characterized the coast region by Förden. Förden are the Flensburger Förde, the Schlei, those Eckernförder bay and the Kieler Förde. These are with the emergence of the Baltic Sea by the rise of the sea level filled former glacier valleys. The difference to fjords consists of it that the glaciers moved not from the country to sea, but in reversethe ice tank over the today's ``Baltic Sea'' glacier advanced, which left a gutter, which filled remaining with sea water after the melting. The Schleswig Holsteini Förden is separated from the landscapes fishing rods , Schwansen and Danish Wohld. Between the Kieler Förde andyou pre-aged Kieler bay on the one hand and the Lübecker bay as part of the Mecklenburger bay on the other hand lie the Probstei and the peninsula Wagrien with the island Fehmarn. The Hemmelsdorfer lake with Timmendorfer beach is likewise an old Förde. It is substantially more deeply than, the lying in front of it Lübecker bay cut off by an ice-age land barrier.

Boddenküste

the vorpommersche coast is coined/shaped by Boddenlandschaften. Bodden resulted from the fact that former islands by constant supply of material, mainly sand, by narrow Bridges with one another connected are. Rear waters, the Bodden, were separated to a large extent thereby from the Baltic Sea and connected with it only by gutters.

balance coast

the balance coast determines the coastal line of Poland von Stettin tobriefly before Danzig and the lettische coast. Here the typical richly arranged glazialen coastal forms balanced by the incident flow and the sediment transport from the west are, so that the process is nearly straight. This became possible, because ofthe North Sea flowing Wassermassen on a coastal line meet, which runs from southwest to northeast and thus transportation material deposits.

Haffküste

the Haff - or Nehrungsküste developed in the coast region between Danzig and Klaipėda. In addition the Stettiner Haff becomeslikewise in addition counted. Haffs develop before Flussmündungen as brackish water reservoirs, which by narrow promontories, which Nehrungen, from which remaining Baltic Sea were separated to a large extent. By the constant supply of river water the Nehrungen closes not, but remains as elongated peninsulas existing,the one gutter to the sea leave open.

The most well-known Haffe is Kuri and freshness the Haff. (Incomplete) a Nehrung forms also the peninsula Hel with Zoppot.

supplies

the largest rivers, those into the Baltic Seaflow, are:Or (Germany, Poland), Weichsel (Poland), Memel (Lithuania), Düna (Latvia), Torneälven (Sweden) and Newa (Russia).

ports and traffic

important ports are Copenhagen, Malmö, Stockholm, Helsinki, sank Petersburg, Tallinn, Liepaja, Klaipėda (ehem. Memel), Kaliningrad (ehem. King mountain), Danzig, Stettin, Rostock, Luebeck, Kiel and Flensburg.

In the center of the southern Baltic Sea one of the most important sea-going vessel travel routes runs world-wide, the Kadetrinne in such a way specified. It is closetraveled and was occasional in the past in connection with averages in the headlines.

The many driving connections as well as the large bridges, which span partially larger straits in Scandinavia, play a special role for traffic on the Baltic Sea.

Thoseusually-traveled artificial sea-going vessel travel road of the earth is the northeast ship canal, which connects the Baltic Sea with the North Sea, and so the sea route over Kattegat (Baltic Sea) and Skagerrak (North Sea) shortens. It leads in Schleswig-Holstein von Kiel after Brunsbüttel to the Elbe.

history

antiquity

the Baltic Sea is mentioned before nearly 2000 years in the Germania of the Tacitus as Mare Suebicum, which it regarded as part the earth of surrounding ocean. (see for this naming & - to interpretation).

Already from time at that time trade routes branched out far are occupied, over which the desired arrived amber, which was found frequent at the Baltic Sea coast, into all parts of the Roman realm. Export goods were further skins and furs. Turned around Roman products arrivedlike ceramic(s) goods, wine and oil northward.

Hans time

in the high Middle Ages played the Baltic Sea an immense role as traffic - and trade route in Europe. The cities lying in neighbourhood of the Baltic Sea closed to the federation that Hanse together and brought it thereby to large wealth. Most important Hanseatic cities at the Baltic Sea and in their catchment area were Luebeck, Wismar, Rostock, Stralsund, Greifswald, Stettin, Danzig, Königsberg, Memel, Riga, Reval and Nowgorod.

modern times

in the dreissigjährigen war tried Sweden to carry out over the Baltic Sea away great power plans. Consequently also long later still many belonged south to the Baltic Sea convenient regions (Vorpommern, Wismar) to Sweden. Into that It succeeded to Nordi wars to Russia to get from the east connection to the Baltic Sea. Zar Peter the large one left in the muzzle delta of the Newa the new realm capital sank to Petersburg to build, which represented a “window for the country to Europe”.

In 20. Century was the Baltic Sea during the world wars scene of numerous moving incidents. The Baltic Sea ports were toward end of the First World War places, in which history was written: Those sank Petersburg pre-aged fortress island crowning city was the scene of a sailor rebellion against the RussianRevolutionary government. The revolt was bloodily terminated using warships. In the all-last war days the German naval units in the ports of Kiel and Flensburg did not meuterten against a senseless instruction of the highest army command, the fleet to one militarily no moreto let disengage crucial battle. The sailor rebellion of 1918 expanded to a revolution in completely Germany and led to the fall of the monarchy.

In the Second World War became in the Baltic Sea some fights between German and Soviet quick and Submarine - federations expenditure-fenced. To end of war nearly the entire navigable surface was mined, so that the person navigation was stopped. 1945 were nevertheless tried, those in cure country, East Prussia and Eastern Pomerania enclosed German troops, in addition, the fleeing civilian population, over the Baltic Seato evacuate. Sinking of the former KdF ship William Gustloff, which had almost exclusively civilians on board, was particularly tragic. The ship sank after several hits of Soviet projectiles and tore roughly 7000 humans into death, either drowned orin the ice-cold water soon erfroren. It was - based on human lives - one of the largest ship disasters of all times.

Also the cold war demanded victims in the Baltic Sea: Approximately 5,000 GDR - citizens tried, over the Baltic Sea into the west tooflee. Only about 600 fleeing reached their goal, some even on Surfbrettern. Most failed and ended often enough deadly. The lighthouse in Dahmeshöved (Baltic Sea therapeutic bath Dahme) served many refugees at the Mecklenburgian coast as a realistic goal of onesuccessful escape.

To one the heaviest Schiffsunglücke of European postwar history it came to 28. September 1994, when the Baltic Sea ferry M/S Estonia on their way from Tallinn sank to Stockholm and 852 passengers found death.

economics& tourism

the Baltic Sea area, which coasts and islands of the Baltic Sea are, often from the tourism coined/shaped, which is apart from the shipbuilding industry and the trade the most important sector of the economy: An important range of the tourism is the bath vacation in seaside resorts. It is characterized by a Saisonalität typical-strong for the Baltic Sea range, which has the months July and August as emphasis. Other offer forms, like Wellness, bicycle - or culture tourism develop slowly.

literature

see also

Web on the left of

Commons: Baltic Sea - pictures, videos and/or audio files
Wiktionary: Baltic Sea -Word origin, synonyms and translations


coordinates: 60° 17 ' 0 " N, 21° 31 ' 60 " O

 

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