Ottheinrich (Pfalz)

George Pencz: Haven-guesses/advises the Pfalzgrafen Ottheinrich

Ottheinrich of the Pfalz, and/or. Otto Heinrich, (* 10. April 1502 in new castle at the Danube; † 12. February 1559 in Heidelberg) from the family of the Wittelsbacher was Pfalzgraf of Pfalz Neuburg of1505 to 1559 and cure prince of the Pfalz from 1556 to 1559.

Its parents were Pfalzgraf Ruprecht and Elizabeth von Bayern-Landshut.

1518 it participated to Reichstag in Augsburg . After the death of emperor Maximilian Ottheinrich accompanied its uncle Pfalzgraf Friedrich to Spain,around the newly selected German king Karl V. to bring the choice message. Afterwards it bereiste Kastilien, Aragon, Burgund and Spanish the Netherlands. Briefly after its return to Germany Ottheinrich applied the Near East to a journey into in the praised country, over thoseit diary led. To 5. June 1521 it applied in Venice and reached to 10. July 1521 by the sea route Jaffa. A vierwöchiger stay in Palestine followed. Ottheinrich and its attendants reached to 19. July 1521 Jerusalem, where it that osmanischen governor huldigten. Attendance of the holy places in Betlehem , at Jordan , at the lake Genezareth, at the Kalvarienberg , at the oil mountain followed and in the grave church, where Ottheinrich was struck to the knight. To 6. August 1521 met the travel company again in Jaffato begin around the home journey.

To 2. June 1522 Ottheinrich and its brother Philipp in the knight's hall of the castle Burglengenfeld were explained on the occasion of here held to new citizen of a federal state parliament for “of age”. Ottheinrich took over thereupon with its brother Philipp the government of the 1504 in consequence land guardians of the succession war created Principality of new castle, which was divided however 1535 again among them. It called itself now also Ottheinrich of Pfalz Neuburg and converted in the subsequent years the castle new castle to its Renaissance residence lock - always in the effort, condition prestige lacking in the own country as well as on thatTo compensate parquet of the fürstlichen high aristocracy.

Ottheinrich took part in some war courses, as for instance the Sickingen feud 1523 or the farmer war 1525. 1529 he married Susanna of Bavaria, the widow of the Mark count Kasimir von Brandenburg-Ansbach. The marriage with the daughter of the duke AlbrechtIV. by Bavaria remained childless.

Due to its aufwändigen Lebensführung Ottheinrich threatened already soon the bankruptcy, which he tried to turn away by constantly new raisings of credit. Into its possession also a certificate of indebtedness came from the deduction of its grandmother Hedwig. This certificate of indebtedness over 32,000 guldens,issued of king Kasimir IV. from Poland from cause of the marriage of its daughter Hedwig with George von Wittelsbach, by the Polish king yard one had however never disbursed. Ottheinrich let calculate interest and compound interest and came on the proud sum of 200,000 guldens, it thatPolish king owed. Thus Ottheinrich broke to 27. November 1536 to his large uncle, the Polish king Sigismund I. after Krakow up, where it to 24. December 1536 arrived. During the dreiwöchigen negotiations Ottheinrich could reach paying off the certificate of indebtedness, not however the disbursement thatInterest. The financial crisis Ottheinrichs remained thus unresolved.

Barthel Beham: Haven-guesses/advises the Pfalzgrafen Ottheinrich of 1535

during its Poland journey let Ottheinrich fifty water color opinions of the visited cities make, which are predominant the earliest today received representations of these cities. This long misjudged “travel souvenir” Ottheinrichs brings amazingly newand modern motives for picture into the European history of art and only recently in his culture-historical explosiveness one recognized and one appreciated.

1541 received Ottheinrich from its brother Philipp to its region with its debts back. It led to 22. June 1542, affects Andreas Osiander of the theologian, by decree the Protestant faith in its principality. Its 1543 finished lock chapel in new castle is considered as the first building of churches to the Protestant rite.

To 23. April 1543 died his Mrs. Susanna. In the year 1544 Ottheinrichs debts amount to over 1 million guldens. Over600 creditors appeared on lock new castle. In the following negotiations finally transferred the land conditions the debts Ottheinrichs. They took over in response the Regierungsgewalt and sold to the owing hitting a corner Ottheinrichs possession. In September 1546 new castle was finally occupied by troops of the emperor, there Ottheinrich in (justified)Suspicion stood to support the Protestant movement in the realm. Ottheinrich was gebannt and outlawed. It went first to its uncle to Heidelberg into the exile. Later it resettled to Weinheim in the there Karmeliterkloster . There it arranged a alchemistisches laboratory in to manufacture over gold andthe stone pointing zufinden, which did not succeed both.

To 4. July 1548 died its brother Philipp at the consequences of a Verwundung suffered in former times. Ottheinrich began to collect again for its library, which had been lost in the old existence into new castle for him. Soit created the library of the monastery Lorsch around 1548 on the Heidelberger lock. Also the expensive repurchase of the 1539-1546 in new castle succeeded to it of wall carpets manufactured by Christian de Roy, which essentially should have served the praise of Ottheinrichs rule.

After the death of itsUncle cure prince Friedrich II. of the Pfalz in the year 1556 Ottheinrich could begin finally the rule long aimed at as a cure prince of the Kurpfalz, on which he had requirement due to the succession also. Health that was nearly 200 kg weighing Ottheinrich at this time already heavily fastened.As a cure prince it was now Vikar and Erztruchsess of the holy Roman realm of German nation and as a first lay cure prince deputy of the emperor with Thronvakanz. It introduced 1557 the protest anti-mash to the Kurpfalz and their Kondominien - with exception of the Kröver of realm -, promotedthe science, created the chair for papal theology at the Heidelberger university off and obligated the beginning medical profession to dissecting corpses. Its library, which was considered to Bibliotheca Palatina, as one the most important its time. 26 volumes are today in the national library new castleat the Danube.

After it the well-known, Ottheinrichsbau of the Heidelberger of lock established under its government is designated.

Ottheinrich died already in the third government year at the age of 56 years. Its grave in Heidelberg was geplündert later and destroyed.

Ottheinrich is besides name giver of the Ottheinrich High School in Pointing hole as well as the Ottheinrich medal in its Residenzstadt Burglengenfeld and the VCP - trunk Ottheinrich of the Pfalz in Ingelheim on the Rhine.


  • Suzanne Bäumler/Evamaria Brockhoff/Michael Henker (Hgg.), of emperor Gnaden. 500 years Pfalz Neuburg. Catalog to the Bavarian national exhibition 2005 new castle at the Danube, 3.June to 16. October 2005 (= publications to Bavarian history and culture, 50/2005, Hg. of the house of Bavarian history), Augsburg: Pustet 2005; ISBN: 3-937974-01-6
  • Fritz large one, image of power. The picture behind the pictures with Ottheinrich of the Pfalz (1502-1559), Peter mountain 2003
  • Klaus realm old, thatHimmelsstürmer. Ottheinrich of Pfalz Neuburg, Regensburg (Pustet) 2004

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