Otto bulkhead

Friedrich Otto bulkhead (* 17. December 1851 in jokes; † 27. August 1935 in Jena) was a German chemist and glass technician.

Table of contents


After the study of chemistry at the Rheinisch Westfäli technical university Aachen, the Bavarian Julius Maximilians university peppering castle and the University of Leipzig Otto bulkhead with a glass-chemical topic at the Friedrich Schiller university Jena became the Dr. phil attains a doctorate. Again in the homeland he experimented in his parents' house,where it 1879 with the lithium glass a new glass sort developed. Among other things it sent a sample to Ernst Abbe. These samples had a for the first time reached homogeneity, which it made possible to accomplish spectrometric measurements. From this developed it up to 1884 glasses, which completely new opticalCharacteristics exhibited. At the same time it began to manufacture cover glasses for microscopic preparations at the Tafelglasfabrik in jokes. It broke through thereby the monopoly on this area, held so far by the Englishmen, by manufacturing these cover glasses of approximately 20% more favorably.

A specializedscientific exchange of letters with the physicist Abbe led it finally 1882 to Jena. There it created a glass-technical laboratory, the later Jenaer glass work bulkhead & comrade together with Ernst Abbe as well as Roderich and Carl Zeiss in the year 1884. First limited to the melt by optical Gläsern and thermometer glass, the enterprise widened its product rangeowing to the invention of the heatproof Borosilikatglases 1887 (Jenaer glass) rapidly out. Despite growth the enterprise became only in this year profitable. The massive production of heatproof glasses for lighting purposes (gas glow light cylinders for gas and petroleum lamps) justified the economic success of the company. From this Gläsern became to 1909 more than 30 million pieces sells.

The improvements of optical glasses reached by it, among other things it succeeded to manufacture it glasses of also finely gradated optical constants, made the development possible of efficient microscopes and telescopes. The moreover one developed it new glass sorts. Due to its outstanding achievementshe got 1905 by the technical university at that time Dresden was lent.

1909 had the successful work of 1,090 coworkers and ten years later retired also it its portions of the work to the Carl Zeiss donation . He still worked until 1926 in the work as “Civil servant “of the glass work and member of the management.

The work of bulkhead can be visited in the optical museum.

writings (selection)

scientific publications

  • of contributions for the theory and practice of the glass production, thesis, Jena 1875

exchange of letters

  • of exchanges of letters betweenOtto bulkhead and Ernst Abbe over the optical glass, 1879 - 1881, (bold ore works on) from harsh ore, publications of the Thuringian historical commission, volume 2, Jena 1946


  • walter Hahland: The research Otto of bulkhead and its co-operation with Ernst Abbe up to the establishmentthe Jenaer of glass work bulkhead and gene. in Jena. Bulkhead writings, volume 1. Jenaer glass work bulkhead and comrade, Mainz 1965

Web on the left of

  • {{#if:
| | * Literature of and over Otto bulkhead in the catalog of the DDB



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