Otto von Bismarck

of these articles refers to Otto von Bismarck, the first realm chancellor of the German Reich. Further meanings under Bismarck (term clarifying).

Otto Eduard Leopold of Bismarck beautiful living, called the iron chancellor, (* 1. April 1815 in beautiful living (today Saxonia-Anhalt); † 30. July 1898 in Friedrichsruh with Hamburg), was a German statesman. He was the founder and first chancellors of the new German one of Reich. Vormals was he Federal Chancellor north Germans of the federation.

Otto von Bismarck

itcount was von Bismarck-Schönhausen, since 1871 prince of Bismarck and since 1890 duke to Lauenburg since 1865.It never led the duke title, which he received when his dismissal. It let post office, which was so addressed decrease/go back also. Allegedly Bismarck preferreda schlesische rule and felt by it assigns become was lowered.

Table of contents

lives

Bismarck 1836

Otto von Bismarck jurisprudence at the University of Goettingen, studied after the conclusion of the human Berlini High School to the grey monastery , and was member of the Corps HannoveraGoettingen. Close one of the herd castle was established to it a monument. From the innumerable Bismarck monuments of Germany this was the only one, which showed it as a leave sitting there young man with the Couleurband around the chest and a student basket racquet in the hand.The concept to represent Bismarck as a student in casual attitude produced controversy discussions, was however of it to 27. April 1895 approved. In the GDR this monument 1951/1952 was destroyed by the FDJ. On operation of its Corps Hannovera Goettingenthe monument was reproduced orginalgetreu and finally inaugurated in April 2006.

After the study it was active at courts and authorities. 1838 it left the government service, because the bureaucratic practice did not assure to it, and began its military service as a one year's einjährig-Freiwilliger.

After the death of its civil nut/mother, with whom it lived in a certain area of conflict, and which death of its father (1845) it became farmer and took over those management of the Bismarck possession beautiful living. In the meantime the family had moved to Pommern (starting from 1816).The fact that he could not also find therein alone its life contents showed up in political ambitions, in addition, in pronounced occupation with philosophy, art, religion and literature. He was a masterly speaker and letter writer already at that time.he married 1847 in pure field(District Rummelsburg i. Pommern) Johanna of Puttkamer (1824 - 1894), like it it its true love and Johannas of best friend, Marie of Thadden, before whose death had promised. Come of to this marriage its children Marie (1847-1926), Harsh ore (1849-1904) and William (1852-1901).

This time it became also politically active as a member of the Prussian united federal state parliament. 1849 and 1850 he belonged to the second chamber of the federal state parliament and was Wortführer of the outermost right wing. During that March revolution of 1848/49 he formed himself as consistent defenders of the monarchischen principle. A German national state, how the Frankfurt national assembly proclaimed him , created on people sovereignty, it leaned off Prussia should Prussia remain. Although Bismarck no diplomatic training, he possessed 1851 the Prussian envoy with the Bundestag in Frankfurt was appointed. It kept this mandate until 1859. 1859-1862 he was envoy in pc. Petersburg, at short notice 1862 Ambassadors in Paris.

To 23. September 1862 became Bismarck von KönigWilliam I. in the condition conflict to the Prussian Prime Minister, to 8. October 1862 then still destined as the minister of foreign affairs (the appointment as the minister of foreign affairs had been a substantial demand of Bismarck. It wanted to make foreign policy, how it considered it correct. There the Prussian cabineta collegial condition had, had it in addition also ministers of foreign affairs to be.). Bismarck was as monarchist is admitting and offered as one of the few the warranty to implement unconditionally for the Prussian king against the parliament the necessary military reform.

Bismarck, since its youth the Pommernmuch obliged was, acquired 1867 of it because of the successful German war granted to donation of 400.000 valleys the manor Varzin and let on its corridors the hammer mill and further paper factories establish, which developed soon to the largest enterprise Ostpommernsand thus hammer mill, the today's Polish city Kępice put the foundation-stone for the municipality.


home policy

Bismarck became 1862 by the conflict around the army reform between the Prussian federal state parliament and the Prussian king William I. despite of theviolent resistance of its wife, who queen Augusta, as the Prussian Prime Minister appoint. In order the army reform, which should strengthen Prussia militarily to be able to implement also without the agreement of the parliament it appointed itself to the gap theory in such a way specified, byhe stated, which was not case of the indissoluble disagreement between monarch and parliament in the condition regulated, thus a gap is present, which must be closed by the Prärogative of the king. This condition interpretation is at least strongly open to attack and afterView of many a simple violation of the constitution. After the victory over Austria Bismarck 1866 brought in the by rivet RK collecting main in Reichstag, in order to later legitimize its violation of the constitution. The tuning over this question split the liberal a party (in democratic liberals and national liberals). And Bismarckby its single-handed attempt also the democratic had separated from the national movement. From 1871 to 1878 Bismarck led the culture fight in such a way specified against the catholic church and the catholic central party, since he was afraid, these is „realm enemies “and the Pope moreadded as the German emperor. To the course of this argument rights and powerful position of the church were introduced by realm and Prussian Landesgesetze cut (pulpit paragraph , bread basket law) and also the civil marriage. In this connection Bismarck in a realm tag speech expressed thatadmitted sentence:„You are except concern, after Canossa go we to non neither physically nor mentally. “ Background of the culture fight was among other things also the agreement movement of Italy. By the recent kingdom Italy was guessed/advised the church state in danger and became latereven on the area of the today's Vatikan makes smaller. Since France protected the church state militarily. the war was against France the death sentence for the church state. The center demanded an intervention for the protection of the church state. Bismarck however, in its alliance system Italy stillan important role to play should and that the war against Frankreích as necessary regarded, had no interest in this affair to the side of the center to set and called themselves its members therefore short hand as realm enemies.

Bismarck increasingconservative policy (nationalizations, protectionism, authoritarian home policy) led starting from 1876 to the chancellor crisis: after 1876 his liberal office leader Rudolf from Delbrück under protest had already withdrawn, itself Bismarck could not in March 1877 with the emperor with his demandintersperse to dismiss the Prussian Minister of State Albrecht von Stosch. This was close trusted friends of the Crown Prince at that time Friedrich William and of Bismarck as potential successors was afraid. Annoyed about its failure with the emperor, Bismarck stepped a longer vacation until January 1878on.

it took then the second assassination attempt on emperors Wilhelm I. to 1878. to the cause to initiate the socialist law in Reichstag which remained until 1890 into force. This exceptive law, which missed its purpose in the long run, made it possible, to forbid the socialist agitation,however the political work of the social-democratic party in Wahlmandaten left as for example in Reichstag untouched. It supplemented the “whip” of the socialist law by “sugar bread” of social reforms. Bismarck tried to reconcile the workers with the state by it 1881 - 1889long-range social laws for the ill, accident, pension and insurance against invalidity interspersed. These social security, which represents today the columns of the social safety device, was to date world-wide singular. Bismarck was thus relevant Wegbereiter of the welfare state, even if he the measuresrather due to political calculation met, in order to limit the influence of the SPD in the workers. After the law work had missed the purpose to weaken the social-democracy, Bismarck lost the interest in it; in its thoughts and memories he dedicates to this topicnot one word.

foreign policy

citizen of Berlin congress painted of Anton of Werner
centrically Otto von Bismarck a condition

for Bismarck's successful foreign policy was the “Saturiertheitof the realm in front after the realm agreement of 1871, i.e. thatRenouncement of further expansion and further annexations after the war in view crisis of 1875. So it could receive the European power equilibrium of the “large five” (Pentarchie) by skillful alliance politics, prevent an isolation of Germany and wars of the neighbours against the German Reich,in addition, prevent against each other (citizen of Berlin congress 1878).

See: Alliance politics Otto von Bismarcks

Bismarck, who was a decided opponent of the colonialism (“France is appropriate left, for Russia lies right, in the center lay we. That is my map of Africa. “) left,hinreissen themselves however nevertheless to a trip into the colonial policy. This was however conditioned rather relating to domestic affairs. Bismarck, who feared that well-known the England-friendly Crown Prince Friedrich William would furnish a rather English gesinntes cabinet with its assumption of office, wanted consciously one ratherEngland-hostile tendency in the people create. Therefore it discovered Africa nevertheless as harmless, but for its purposes effective center of conflict with the Empire. Thus based Bismarck colonies in Africa, which lay consciously in such a way that them the English efforts of a connected colonial territoryfrom Cairo to Capetown obviously in the way stood. Bismarck wanted new raw material and sales markets with the colonies above all to open and „for the Germans a new goal to set, for which they can become enthusiastic. “. 1871 leaned Bismarck the offer thatFrenchman off to get Cochinchina - for instance today's Viet Nam - as colony transferred in the context of the reparations: „O! O! Cochinchina! That is however very fat breaking into for us; we are however not yet richly enough, around usto be able to carry out the luxury of colonies. “

„the pilot goes from board “

Bismarck-Mausoleum in Friedrichsruh
to Bismarck mouse oleum into Friedrichsruh

Bismarck fall in the year 1890 is particularly to the failure of an intensified socialist law submitted by him into Reichstag to be due, which heagainst the Social Democrats erstarkten by important choice successes in January to begin wanted. Besides the young emperor Wilhelm II. wished.in the future an own policy, freely of Bismarck's influence to arrange. After his entwürdigenden dismissal (Bismarck: “… which I a Leichenbegängnis of first classwith good reason to call could. “) to 20. March 1890 by William II. a little later an unparalleled Bismarck admiration set (Bismarck monument, Bismarck routes and Bismarck companies). Bismarck died to 30. July 1898 in Friedrichsruh. It became in a Mausoleum on Friedrichsruhbury beside its wife. In addition a Büste was set up to honour citizens of the cities Darmstadt, Munich , Hamburg, Wandsbek, Kassel, Cologne, Moers, Detmold, Zwickau, Rathenow in the Walhalla and it is as well as since 1895 all cities of Baden.

Bismarck became 1891 member of the Kreistages of Stormarn. He stood as a candidate also for Reichstag, was selected, noticed however his mandate never.

A caricature of John Tenniel in the English satire magazine “Punch “of 29.March 1890 with Bismarck the ship leaves, with “Dropping the pilot” was called. A reference to the fact that Bismarck was suggested to lay down its office.

Bismarck's memoirs: Thoughts and memories

Bismarck dictated after his dismissal his memoirs,under the titlethoughts and memorieswere published. The second part of this book, in which it itself very critically with its time as chancellors among emperors Wilhelm II. argued, should appear only after its death. With thatThe collected memoirs went to revolution in Germany 1918 and the exile of the emperor however against the protest of the family Bismarck already 1919 into pressure.

As historical source the work with caution is to be enjoyed, there it Bismarck - like alreadyduring its lifetimes - with the historical truth did not take so exactly. Its principal purpose was the own justification and thus the reduction of emperor Wilhelm II. The work is considered nevertheless as worth reading, there it impressions over Bismarck's feeling world mediated andis masterfully formulated.

the follow-up

in its tendency to remain so long like possible even realm chancellors had not undertaken Bismarck despite its age anything to develop a successor. it considered 1889 briefly being limited to the State Department gavethe thoughts however soon thereafter. It would have been also with difficulty full placable indeed to have a chancellor under the shade of Bismarck in its cabinet. For the same reason also its conception was unreal, its son harsh ore asTo begin minister of foreign affairs or chancellor.

To an earlier suggestion of him the politically inexperienced general Leo of Caprivi was finally appointed.

criticism

“if one says that one agrees a thing in principle, then means it
that one notthe smallest intention has of accomplishing it in practice. “
(Otto von Bismarck)

Bismarck was and is an icon of the conservative ones, but a hate figure that linking. Its power politics prepared to lifetimes numerous enmities, in addition, many Bewunderer already for it. Its importantSuccesses made it however to a large extent indisputable. Critics today often object, Bismarck those power-politics entwinements created, which led to the First World War, by creating the German Reich “not by speeches and majority resolutions, but by iron and blood” (Bismarck inthe budget commission 1862). Bismarck saw special dangers, which proceeded in his opinion from the Balkans: “The bones of a only one pommerschen Musketiers are not worth the trade on the Balkans to me. “Bismarck for “its” social legislation until today is praised, then becomeshe because of pursuit so mentioned “realm enemies” by culture fight and socialist law criticizes. The fact that Bismarck cut the realm condition of 1871 to his person turned out in view of his politically mostly weak successors as fatal. Therefore its successors did not understand it also,to intersperse fundamental (and necessary) reforms of the state structure, for example abolishment of the three-class right to vote in Prussia or the parliament responsibility of the government. The largest point of criticism of many historians nowadays applies for the last agreement war and the following establishment of realm. Both meant a humiliating of France, which of thisTime on on revenge out was. Bismarck recognized the revenge thought and tried to isolate France to make at the same time war in Europe impossible by a system of several alliances. On eternal this plan was however not convertible and finally failed because of thatPolitics of the emperor Wilhelm II., who should intervene starting from 1890 directly in the foreign policy of the German Reich. Quite unanimously historian of Bismarck praises diplomatic fate, which he acquired himself among other things as an envoy in Paris and Petersburg. As skillfully, as itin the diplomacy, acted so awkwardly he acted on the inside, which got him again and again in trouble.

Also personally it had some quite unpleasant courses. He could pursue persons, who wanted to harm him according to its opinion, with inexorable hate. Soruined it for example the life of the count Armin, only because it believed, these could as a realm chancellor be possible. In reality the count did not have ambitions and let itself Bismarck opposite no disloyalty be owed to come. Even in itsMemoirs, for a long time after arm in death, he dedicates a hate-fulfilled chapter to this.

person cult

Bismarck tower at the Starnberger lake

Bismarck became numerous honours assign. Already during lifetimes one established many monuments, usually bronze fixed images, in addition, architectural Monumente one dedicated to him(→ Bismarck monument). The Bismarck tower between all man living and eating living at the Starnberger lake was established between 1896 and 1899. Its student dwelling in Goettingen, which is Bismarck little house, as small museum accessible.

Bismarck-Denkmal in Hamburg
Bismarck monument in Hamburg

in the forming art it becameparticularly of Franz of Lenbach and Christian's William Allers portraitiert.

After its death increasingly also large Monumente were financed usually dedicated to him, by donations of the population. In many places Bismarck towers became and - columns builds, partly conventional observation towers, partly fire columns alsoDevices, which permitted it to ignite a large intending fire. Many of these buildings were arranged after the draft of the architect William circle, which had received the first price with a competition of the “German studentses “1899.

Further Bismarck became thoseSculpture of the eagle in such a way specified zugedacht, one about 18 m high stacking up of behauenen stone right parallelepipeds, which is established at the edge of a prospect platform at the slope of the Hoyerbergs in the quarter of the same name by Lindau (Bodensee). Recognizably this dedication is by training one about1.50 m large Bismarck reliefs in the base.

The largest Bismarck Monument in Germany is that 1906 inaugurated Bismarck monument in Hamburg-sank Pauli (draft: Hugo Lederer), which the former realm chancellor as a monumental Roland - figure represents, with armament and supported by the sword. ThatFlat to build a gigantic Bismarck national monument with Bingerbrück by the outbreak of the First World War one prevented. A battle ship of the Tirpitz class was designated in the Second World War after Bismarck, the battle ship Bismarck.

At its place of birth beautiful living became 1998 with means of theCountry Saxonia-Anhalt a Bismarck museum furnished.

At the 1. November 2004 was opened in Jever a further Bismarck museum. In the Austrian city Linz is designated a road after Bismarck.

The Federal Republic of Germany established in honours 1996 the petrol of Bismarck donation to it as federaldirect donation in Friedrichsruh.

literature

  • Lothar Gall: Bismarck. Ullstein 1997
  • Robert Gerwarth: The Bismarck Myth. Weimar, Germany and the Legacy OF the Iron Chancellor. Oxford University press 2005
  • Sebastian Haffner: From Bismarck to Hitler'.Droemer Knaur 2001
  • Hans walter Hedinger: The Bismarck cult. Outlined, in: Günther Stephenson (Hrsg.): The religion change in our time in the mirror of the religion science. Scientific book company, Darmstadt 1976, p. 201-215
  • Bernd heath realm/franc Lothar Kroll (Hrsg.): Bismarck and the Germans. Berlin science publishing house, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-8305-0939-1
  • Rolf Hennig: Bismarck and nature. Nimrod, Suderburg 1998, ISBN of 3-927848-19-0
  • peoples Ullrich: Otto von Bismarck. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1998
  • Klaus Hildebrand: The past realm - German foreign policy of Bismarckto Hitler. DVA, Stuttgart 1995.

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