Pablo Neruda

Pablo Neruda (actually Ricardo Eliezer Neftalí Reyes Basoalto; * 12. July 1904 in Parral, Chile; † 23. September 1973 in Santiago de Chile) was a Chilean poet and writer, that itself particularly against fascism in itsHomeland and in Spain received the Nobelpreis for literature to 1971.

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Neruda were son of the Lokomotivführers José del Carmen Reyes and the people lady teacher pink Neftalí Basualto. Already during the school time he writes poems. Starting from 1920 it uses the alias Pablo Neruda following the Czech patriotic poet January Neruda, its socialcriticalIt works from Latin American view to the model for the own work takes itself. From 1921 to 1926 it studies French and Pädagogik in Santiago de Chile, 1923 published it its first financed book.

first European stay

1927 went to Neruda to Spain andbecame 1935 consul in Madrid there. It got used to itself with the Spanish writer Federico García Lorca; with it and other editors together they brought the magazine out „green horse “. Up to the year 1936 five expenditures had appeared, sixth, already finished written anddrew up, should to 19. July 1936 appear, in addition it however never came. To 17. July began the Spanish Bürgerkreig by the Putsch of general Francisco Franco. García Lorca was shot and Neruda decided to proceed more actively against the Putschisten. Although it as consul to, closed he was committed to absolute neutrality at the end of of July the Volksmilizen on equipped by the legal government its works got himself political contents and the magazine „the Greens the horse “appeared zuhnemend again, now more a combat sheet a poetic sheet.

As at the beginning of November 1936 thosePutschisten before the gates of Madrid stand, had to flee Neruda to Paris. There its first way led it to the Chilean message, in which it was relieved of its post as consul due to “offence against the neutrality”. Neruda was only quite, there it itself now publicly approximatelythe illegal seizure of power by Francos Putschisten to dedicate could. At this time Neruda wrote its poem cycle España EN el corazón.

He was with a group of Spanish politicians, artists and journalists together, among them among other things Pablo Picasso and Nancy Cunard. They worked together on it,to carry injustice in their homeland to the public. Together with Cunard it brought a Lyrikband with the title „the poets to the world defends the Spanish people “out. Due to shortage of money and printed Neruda set the poems themselves. However it lacked it thereby fate,it set „p for the letters “usually in reverse, so that in a verse the word became „dad DOS “(papacy) regularly too dadapo. Still later Nancy Cunard it is to have addressed years in letters with „my dear Dadapo “.

return to Chile

1938 turnedNeruda to Chile back and found an employment as an editor with the magazine „to Aurora de Chile “. Many its article dedicated he to the fatal development of world-wide fascism. It organized a book donation to the national library in the form of over 500 titles of German writers howHeinrich Heine, Thomas's man and Bertolt break, whose works had been publicly burned partially in Germany by the Hitler regime . The national museum rejected the donation first, but Neruda remained persistent and asked unangekündigt during a state flank the minister of foreign affairs of Chile, Don Miguel Cruchaga Tocarnalto accept, the book donation, what also actually happened then.

When 1939 the labour party came to the government, Neruda was entrusted to travel to Paris and Spanish emigrants, who had to flee before Franco to inspire for the entry to Chile. It remained several months inParis and returned various Spanish refugees with the Passagierdampfer „to Winnipeg “. Again in Chile the government made possible the more or less free choice, which diplomatic task it wanted to take over for it. It decided for the post as a Consul General of Mexico. After three years askedNeruda around its dismissal from the diplomatic service; he wanted to dedicate himself again back to Chile and to the letter and the policy of his own country.1943 it returned to Santiago de Chile.

It occurred 1943 the communist party of Chile and left themselvesCandidate for the senate set up. Many its former acquaintance turned therefore from it, them away called it a transverse head and link cranks as well as Sektierer. Neruda could not be confused of it, won its choice with overwhelming majority and pulled 1945 under president Gabriel González Videlaas a senator in the parliament.

criticism at the regime and exile in Europe

as Videla after its choice its political positions changed, offered increasingly resistance for Neruda. As a senator it enjoyed parliamentary immunity - nobody could place or arrest it before court, so long ita selected representative of the people was. Neruda used this situation and its speeches against Videla became ever attack-merrier, at the end of criticized Neruda it in a public speech on the sharpest:„You have the people, by whose voice you became president, deceived and betrogen. Instead of the poverty toofight, as you promised it, strengthen only power few realms, which exhaust the people like Vampire “.

Videla was not bent to permit a second such appearance Nerudas; the Merheit of the representative government main header when desired the president the immunity Nerudas up and immediatelya warrant of arrest was issued. As in Madrid Neruda escaped in last minute from the city. Years long Neruda changed the next one and a half nearly daily its dwelling. Although the police always searched for it, it found always a Unterschlupf - the population, above all those simplePeople, loved their poet, who had said the truth to the president in the parliament so courageously. During this time Neruda wrote substantial parts of its most important work „to Canto general “(the large singing) - 15,000 verses, in which he natures and history of the American continent ofthe Vorzeit up to the present interpreted.

In concern around Nerudas of health condition aufrgrund its friend brought Ricardo Fonseca Neruda as well as Galo Gonzáles, the party leader the communist forbidden in the meantime, who lived also in the underground to the constant escape. Gonzáles organized the escape Nerudas over oneunguarded border section to Argentina. In Buenos Aires met Neruda his friend, the writer Miguel fishing rod Asturias, which handed its passport to him out possible and made so the emigration to Europe without complications.

Neruda visited Paris to third time, here became it from its oldFriends inspires taken up. By switching of Pablo Picasso it received a French passport. In the following years it arises everywhere in Europe, in addition, in the Soviet Union, India and China to congresses of peace and political debates. The Chilean government however still pursued Nerudaand had strong pressure for the French government to draw in his passport. Neruda threatened the distribution to Chile, why he had to leave France.

renewed return to Chile

1952 was selected in Chile and Videla lost the office for presidency to Carlo Ibáñez del Campo, which already into the 1920er - years president been and a social reform work was at that time justified and which finances of the state had reorganized. On diplomatic channels the government Neruda let know that it was again welcome in Chile. Together with his Mrs. Mathilde, who it in the exilehad become acquainted with and had married, returned he to Chile and published 1953Canto general “. The next five years he dedicated exclusively to his dichterischen work, afterwards traveled themselves he the world and tratt to conferences and debates up.

Demonstration for all end

of 1969Neruda is nominated of the communist party as Präsidentschaftskanditat, it done without however in favor of the socialist and Nerudas friend Salvador all end favored by the Wahlbündnis Unidad popular. 1970 win all end the presidency elections and persuade Neruda to become Ambassadors in Paris. Despite his health angegeriffenen meanwhile consentedit, but had to undergo after few months of an operation. Still during its recovery it 1971 became the Nobelpreis for literature „for a poetry, which makes fate and dreams of a continent alive with the effect of a natural force “lent. Neruda turned a little later afterChile back; its state of health constantly worsens.

To 23. September 1973 succumbs to Neruda a cancer suffering. After its death Nerudas house of the military is geplündert and destroyed.

Nerudas funeral, which camera teams foreign in this form probably only because of the presence was possible, becomes the first largepublic protest against the military junta. To 25. Septembers 1973 are carried in Santiago de Chile Nerudas mortal remnants between two rows from armed soldiers to grave. A “Vorrufer” calls loud into the quantity” ¡ Camarada Pablo Neruda! “, the quantity answers also” ¡ Presente! “, then again” ¡ CamaradaPablo Neruda! “-” ¡ Presente! “and finally” ¡ Camarada Pablo Neruda! “-” ¡ Presente, ahora y siempre! “, thus “comrade Pablo Neruda!” - “Present! ”, “comrade Pablo Neruda!” - “Present! ”, “comrade Pablo Neruda!” - “Present, now and always!”. The same play repeats itself with “¡ Camarada Salvador all end! “and” ¡ Compañero Victor Jara! “. At its grave the international one is sung. The authoress Isabel all end describes the spirit house in her novel logically the funeral as “symbolic funeral of the liberty”.

Because of the expressly political (communist) aspects in its work Neruda became, that as a poet of thePeople designated, in many circles of the FRG into the 1960er years ignored. In contrast to it there is already a first publication of poems (“insulted country”) in the GDR 1949. The tendency changes only in the course of the large, world-wide sympathy for Chile after thatMilitärputsch 1973. Up to then there is no complete expenditure of the poems Nerudas in the FRG.

Its life among other things in Antonio Skármetas semi biographischem novel “with burning patience “one thought, which by Massimo Troisi with Philippe Noiret one filmed last (“the post office man”).

Work on []

Works (selection)

  • 1923 Crepusculario // dawn
  • 1924 Veinte poemas de amor y una canción desesperada // of twenty dear poems and a song of the despair
  • 1933 Residencia EN la tierra // stay on earth
  • 1937 España EN el corazón // Spain in the heart
  • 1948 Obras poéticas // poetic work
  • 1950 Canto general // the large singing (literal: the general singing)
  • 1953 lot Versos del Capitán // the verses of the captain
  • 1953 Poesía política // political poetry
  • 1954 read Úvas y el Viento // the grapes/clusters andthe wind
  • 1960 Poesías: Piedras de Chile // poetries read: The stones of Chile
  • 1964 Memorial de Isla Negra // Memorial of Isla Negra
  • 1970 piedras del cielo // the stones of the sky read
  • 1973 // the Satrapen
  • 1973 Confieso que he vivido // I admits,I lived (autobiography) ISBN 3630620418


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