Islāmī Jamhūriyah i Pakistan (Urdu)
Islamic Republic of OF Pakistan (English)
Islamic Republic of Pakistan< /font>
Flagge Pakistans
(Detail) (detail)
office language Urdu, English
capital Islamabad
system of government Präsidiale Federal Republic of
president Pervez Musharraf
Prime Minister Shoukat Aziz
surface 803,940 km ² (35.)
Number of inhabitants 162.419.946 (conditions 2005) (6.)
Population density of 198 inhabitants per km ² (38.)
Currency Rupie of Pakistan
time belt UTC+5
national anthem Pak sarzamin harm bath
Kfz characteristic PC
Internet TLD .pk
preselection +92
Lage Pakistans auf der Welt
Karte von Pakistan

Pakistan (Urdu: پاکستان ) a state is in south Asia. Pakistan Afghanistan, China, as well as on the Indian Federal States Jammu and Kashmir , borders Punjab, Rajasthan and Gujarat on Iran , (in the clockwise direction). Pakistan is because of the Arab sea, which part of the Indian ocean is.

The origins of theNamed „Pakistan “are disputed. On Urdu it means „country of the pure ones “(pak: purely in the spirit; stan: Country). However Choudhary Rahmat Ali gave „Pakistan to the name “to 28. January 1933 in Cambridge another interpretation. It should onefrom three moslemischen „Homelands “call - acronym for P unjab, A fghanistan (the northwest border), K aschmir, S indh, and Belutschis tan.

Table of contents


Pakistan is with a surface of 803.940 km ² the ninth-largest state of Asia. The north south expansion of the country amounts to about 1500 kilometers. It borders on four countries: Iran in the southwest, Afghanistan inThe west and the north, China in the northeast and India in the east. In the south it has one approximately 1050 kilometers long coast at the Arab sea.

In the north of Pakistan meet with the Karakorum, the Hindukusch and the Pamir some the highestMountain courses of the earth together and shield the country from central Asia . Coming from southeast direction, the Indus in a close high valley crosses the Karakorum, in order to then flow in mostly southern direction to the Arab sea.

The Industiefland, itself southto the high mountain region, takes more than one third of the national surface attaches. To the catchment area of the Indus in Pakistan also the western part „of the five-current country " Punjab with the rivers Jhelum , Chenab , Ravi , Beas and Sutlej belongs. Finallythe Indus close carat ski flows to approximately 8000 km in one ² large delta into the Arab sea.

East the Industiefebene rise the Sulaiman, Brahui and Kirthargebirge, which the western delimitation of the dry, likewise hilly region Belutschistan at the borderform to Iran.

In the west the desert Thar , south the Punjab, limits the Indusstromebene. In the extreme southwest Pakistan has portion of the salt sump ran from Kutch.

The highest collection of Pakistan is the 8611 meters high K2, at the same timesecond highest mountain of the earth, in the Karakorum. The deepest point is on sea level height because of the Arab sea.




Urdu and English are the office languages of Pakistan.Becomes English particularly by the government, when business and education language at the universities use, while Urdu is the traffic language of the majority of the population, although it is spoken as native language only from eight to ten per cent of the inhabitants. The numberthe Urdu native speaker rises however by the social function of the language constantly, above all by the fact that standard Urdu in the predominant majority of the schools (on primary and secondary level) is used as instruction language. Three further important languages of Pakistan are likewise indo arische languages,are related to the Urdu:Punjabi (58%), Sindhi (12%), Siraiki (9.8% - sometimes as Panjabi dialect one regards). Only Sindhi is used to larger extent than writing language. In carat ski Mumbai (Bombay) live coming subpopulations from the area,those still Gujarati speak. The languages Paschtu, (8%) and Belutschi (3%) belong to the Iranian languages, the Brahui spoken in Belutschistan are a dravidische language. In the north of the country there is a multiplicity ofLanguages, which are spoken only of very few humans.Balti is a Tibetan dialect written in Arab writing, Buruschaski an isolated language.

A total summary over the languages of Pakistan and its allocation to individual language families (genetic classification) offer ErnstKausen, the languages of Pakistan.


the Badshahi mosque in Lahore is the second largest mosque of Pakistan.

According to the census of 1998 96.3 per cent of the inhabitants of Pakistan is Muslims. They belong to different currents, over their strength howeveronly presumptions to be employed can, since they are not seized. The predominant part of the Pakistaner (up to 80 per cent) practiced traditionally an orthodox form Islam, particularly in areas with paschtunischer majority is this the rule. Religious minorities, for example Hindus,are still strongly suppressed and to be allowed to do their faith in the public not to show.

In the majority the Muslims are Sunniten. The Sunni Islam does not present itself in Pakistan however as unit. Rather it divides into several thinking schoolsup. The direction with most trailers the Barelwis might be. They represent one by the Sufismus (Islamic Mystik) coined/shaped Islam and are strict trailers of the hanafitischen right school. They dominate particularly in the rural parts of the provinces In addition, Sindh and Punjab, have many trailers in the large cities Lahore, Multan and Rawalpindi. The Deobandis is likewise Hanafiten, it rejects however contrary to the Barelwis grave and holy admiration . The Deobandis is in carat skiand under the Paschtunen of the North west Frontier Province and Belutschistans strongly represent. The smallest of the three Sunni thinking schools are the puritanischen Ahl i Hadîth leaned against Saudi Arabia, which reject the right schools as well as the Sufismus. Their centers are Lahore, Sialkot, Gujranwala and Faisalabad.

Is unclear, how high the portion is the 12 Shiite (Imamiten) at the population of Pakistan. Most estimations proceed from 15 per cent. They are in carat ski, Lahore, Sialkot and Jhang as well as into that Northern AREAs strongly represent. During the Shiite mourning ceremonies in the Muharram it comes into Pakistan frequently to bloody arguments. Besides two ismailitische groupings are represented in Pakistan. The Bohras lives particularly in carat ski, the Nizaris is beside it particularly inthe Northern AREAs (Gilgit and Hunza) as well as Chitral (N.W.F.P.) represent. A Shiite special group in the extreme north are the Nurbakhshis.

The Ahmadis (0.2 per cent of the population), which lives particularly in its center Rabwah as well as around Sialkot,officially no more than Muslims are recognized in Pakistan since 1974; they are exposed to increasing pursuit. In addition there are efforts to explain the grouping of the Zikris spread in Belutschistan as Nichtmuslimen.

In the course of the division of 1947 nearly all left Hindus and Sikhs the Punjab. In Sindh however for instance a third of the Hindus stayed. Highly their population portion is special in the desert Thar. Their portion of the population of Pakistan is with 1,6 per cent. Highly that is about alikePortion of the Christians. They live particularly around Lahore , in Rawalpindi and Islamabad as well as in carat ski. Usually it concerns descendants of untouchable ones, who converted during the British colonial age to the Christianity. Others come however from Goanern off, which were active often at that time as officials of the colonial gentlemen. The Roman-catholic church and the Church OF Pakistan developed from several British Protestant Denominationen are about equivalent strong, in addition come some churches created by US-American missions. InSeveral thousand Parsen trailers mentioned of the Zoroastrismus live in addition carat ski and in the extreme northwest of the country some thousand Kalash, which admire the indogermanischen Pantheon.

Encroachments against Christians and Hindus are pretty often. Altogether is the country of an atmospherethe religious intolerance coined/shaped.


major item: History of Pakistan

developing history

Staatsgründer Ali Jinnah
state State of Ali Jinnah

the State of Pakistan is to 14. Developed for August 1947 from parts of British India. Background of the establishment of Pakistan was the desire of Muslim population parts,to live in an own state, which is not part of the hinduistisch dominated India. As a state founder the Muslim leader Ali Jinnah is regarded. As a leader of the 1906 created universe India Muslim League it mobilized the majority of the Muslims for a its ownState, after into the 1930er years several attempts had failed to find a compromise with the Indian national to Congress. While the western formed central layer, which great land owners, in addition, the Landbevölkerung the demand supported after the establishment of Pakistan, remained a partthe conservative religion scholars on distance. In addition a large part of the Paschtunen for an undivided India or for the integration of the Paschtunengebiete (NWFP and FATA ) occurred at Afghanistan. In the course of the division left over 4 million Muslims thattoday's India, while about 7 million Hindus and Sikhs left the national territory of Pakistan. It is assumed that with acts of violence and by the strains during the escape up to 750.000 humans lost its life.

During the division was disputed, whichthe two states the prince state Kashmir to be slammed shut should. The population of the state of predominantly Muslim faith was refrained from the by the majority hinduistischen area around Jammu and the by the majority buddhistischen Ladakh. The dominant dynasty was however hinduistisch, why itself the prince firstnot to decide wanted and late India attached. Pakistan attained however the rule over the western and northern part of this region. Both states stress completely Kashmir as its territory, a popular vote suggested of the UN were never accomplished. The Kashmir conflict coins/shapessince that time the relationship of both states.

As consequence of the Bangladesh war of 1971 east Pakistan, the today's Bangladesh , separated from Pakistan.

to the wars between India and Pakistan see: War Indian-of Pakistan

further process and current policy

Pervez Musharraf president of Pakistan is since 1999. Since the terrorist attacks of the 11. September 2001 stands the country in the intensified measure in the area of conflict and in the focus of religious-motivated arguments, for Musharraf a close political and military alliance with the USA was received in particular there. Thoseaccording to opinion many policy of the president oriented pro-Western is disputed in the Muslim oriented country. Musharraf stands in the suspicion to play cases of rape down due to self law politically.

Independently of it one continues to take part in the fight against the international terrorism. To 7. March 2004 communicated the government that it was gotten with its search after members of the extremist organization aluminium-Qaida in the west of the country support 2.000 fighters armed by the master princes in the form of.

Beside the conventional weapons Pakistan orders alsoover nuclear weapons, which were developed since 1976 under the direction of Abdul Kadir Khan and 1998 were for the first time tested, as well as for it suitable short and medium-range missiles.

In March 2002 the People's Republic of China began with the building of an enormous oiland container port in Gwadar.

2005 receive Pakistan at the same time with India and Iran the status as an observer with the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO).

See also: List of the prime ministers of Pakistan


the presidentsince the last constitutional amendment of 2002 every 5 years by a Wahlmännerkollegium is selected, a re-election is immediately and in unlimited order possible.

The parliament (Majlis e Shura) consists of the national assembly and the senate. The 342 delegates of the national assembly becomeevery 5 years after the elections on the basis of proportional representation right selected, however are reserved here 60 seats for women and 10 seats for Nichtmuslimi minorities. By the 100 members of the senate 88 becomes every 5 years of the province parliaments, 8 of the master territories and4 sent by the capital district.


the defense budget of Pakistan is to neighbour states with 2.8 billion US Dollar (2003) far under that the India (15.6 billion), China (29.9 billion) and Iran (4.8 billion). The army of Pakistan has 590.000 soldiers as well as513,000 reservists. Altogether the armed forces thereby cover 1.103.000 men.

The army of Pakistan divides itself into the three classical departments army with approximately 520,000 men, Air Force with 45.000 men and navy with a man strength of 25.000.

The ground forces possess approximately2300 main battle tanks of the types T-59 (about 1200 pieces), T-80UD (about 320 pieces) as well as 350 of the type aluminium-Zarar (modified Typ-59) and 300 aluminium-Khalid (modified Typ-90 II). Beside 1199 armored units the army can on approximately further 2000 field guns and Howitzers and 162 combat helicopters (most of the types SA.330, Mi-8/17 and 206) fall back.

The Air Force has Mirage 3 (120 pieces) a rather modest armed force of 430 combat aircraft of the types F-7 ( 210 pieces), Mirage 5 (62 pieces) as well asvarious coaches and transport aircrafts. The moreover one the Air Force of Pakistan possesses 12 Kampfhubschauber of the type Alouette III.

Naval forces of Pakistan are similarly modestly equipped. Only 8 frigates, 15 submarines and 9 helicopters of the types Sea King and Sea Lynx,are to the conventional navy at the disposal. The coastal protection has an armed force of further 8 speedboats, 9 landing boats as well as 3 mine boats.

With this armed force Pakistan its larger neighbour as well as all industrial nations of Europe, Asia and Africa would be underlaid. The actual military strengthowes Pakistan to its nuclear weapons as well as its rocket arsenal.

Pakistan is an actual country possessing atomic weapons and the nuclear weapon check contract did not sign. Since 1998 it possesses nuclear weapons according to own indication. The arsenal becomes estimated on 24 at most up to 75 Sprengköpfe. Official data in addition givesit not. The number of the central and Langstreckenraketen of Pakistan is likewise unclear. Admit are however the types Shaheen I, Shaheen II, Ghauri I-III as well as the Hatf II Abdali. According to own data Pakistan with its Langstreckenraketen and nuclear weapons can each country of the Near East and central Asia (including China and India) reach.



most important industry is the agriculture, in that about 60 per cent of the workers is active and to 26 the per centto the gross domestic product contributes (conditions: 2000). The gross national product per head amounted to 2000 440 US Dollar, which corresponded to a material gross national product of 1,800 PPP dollar.


harvests per year are possible for agriculture in the irrigation cultures of the Indus even. Here find about80 per cent of the agriculturally used surface of Pakistan, the remainder is in the oases Belutschistans and because of the northern border mountains.

Haupterzeugnis is beside rice, wheat and Zuckerrohr above all cotton. Besides one produces corn, barley, millet, Jute, Datteln and bananas.

The productivity of the agriculture is not very high, since the soil salts easily swampy and. In order to avoid this, expensive drainage systems and pumping plants are necessary. Also is not the agriculture because of the small tenant structure practicallymechanized. In the not watered areas in the north of Pakistan extensive pastoral industry is operated, partly in nomadischen federations.

The coast of the Arab sea is extraordinarily fish-rich, so that even drying fish can be exported.


the country has largeSalt deposit and gypsum stores. Also natural gas is won.


largest industries are the textile, metal - and chemical industry.

foreign trade

to be exported above all products of the textile industry, the 2004 goods in the valueof more than 7 billion US Dollar to implement could.

The imported goods essentially consist of machines, oil and oil products, chemicals, vehicle equipment, food oil, iron and steel, fertilizers and dte.

international relations

Pakistan is member of the World Bank, that Asiatic development bank, the International Monetary Fund, the world trade organization (World Trade Organization), the organization for economic co-operation (ECO) as well as the southasiatic combination for regional co-operation (SAARC).


Pakistan is less one from world-wide only twelve countries, thantwo per cent of the gross domestic product in the training system invest.

It gives over 40 universities and 1,600 colleges. 47% of the men and 71% of the women in Pakistan are illiterates.

library natures

over 6.000 libraries are in academic, private-economical and religiousTo find mechanisms. The public library nature is strongly underdeveloped. Those scarcely 300 public libraries are in larger cities. Into the 1980er years on the country over 4.000 “box LIBRARies “were furnished, over whose current condition little admits is.Since 1998 the national education politics demand the mechanism of libraries on the country - so far however without consequences.

According to statement of the PCTL (Pakistan Telecommunication company Limited) Internet entrance should be possible for 95% of the population. A relatively largeNumber of Internet Cafés could confirm this number. A very small number of with international assistance of developed Cyber Community of center makes qualitative Internet information entrances available on the country and offers PC and Internet courses.

At six universities a postgraduales diploma can in LIBRARY and information Science to be acquired.


see: Culture of Pakistan

  • literature of Pakistan

political arrangement

major item: Political arrangement of Pakistan

  1. Province Belutschistan (Balochistan, Baluchistan)
  2. northwest province (North west Frontier Province, NWFP, northwest border province)
  3. province Punjab
  4. province Sindh (are)
  5. Islamabad capital territory
  6. of master areas under federal administration (Federally Administered Tribal AREAs, FATA).
  7. Asad Kashmir (Azad Kashmir)
  8. north areas (Northern AREAs)

See also: List of the cities in Pakistan

to media

in Pakistan over 250 daily papers are presented, the highest sales figures has the Urdu - sheet DAILY Jang, Lahore. Besides there are to 4 television and 92 broadcasting stations.

Work on []


  • Susanne Thiel: Culture shock Pakistan (1997) ISBN 3894164530
  • Ashok Kapur: Pakistan in Crisis (2002).

Web on the left of

Wiktionary: Pakistan - word origin, synonyms and translations

See also: Turkmenistan Afghanistan Pakistan pipeline

coordinates: 24°-37° N, 61°-78° O


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