|of these articles is concerned with the military vehicle tank, further meanings under tank (term clarifying)|
the tank, briefly for tank combat cars, is a motorized, mostly and often military vehicle equipped rolling on tracks with a cannon, which by armoring protected from bombardmentis. There are tanks in very different remarks.
Today the typical battle tank consists tub” of “a chassis mentioned, as well as a swivelling structure (tower). A cannon is installed mostly in the tower as primary weapon. As secondary weapons tanks are often equipped with machine guns (MGs) and nebula/garnet throwers.If these are arranged parallel to the cannon, then one speaks of a coaxial arrangement (although the weapons are not coaxial in the geometrical sense). Armoring consists of steel alloys partially in combination with ceramic(s) and plastic films. Tanks are propelled today completely predominantly with efficient diesel engines, thosemake a outstanding cross-country capability possible in combination with the chain drive assembly. The crew consists usually of 3-4 men. Of it or lies generally the driver sits in the tub and in the tower is the commander, the gunner and - if the tank no automatic loaderfor the cannon has - a loader. The outstanding characteristics of the tank are high mobility in the area, large firepower, the armor protection and an extensive sensor technology for clearing-up.
strictly speaking is with the term tank of the battle tanks as tracked vehicle equipped with a swivelling tower meant, beyond that gives it a multiplicity of constructional variants and special vehicles. Tanks can be categorized on the basis of different criteria,whereby some categories did not continue, like z. B. Assault guns, heavy tanks or infantry tanks. In addition an allocation is sometimes difficult, because tanks were repeated modified or in urprünglich not planned functions successfully were. So one would know the assault gun III of the German armed forces in 2. World warprobably also as tank destroyers categorize, although it was conceived as artillery tank.
armored vehicles were modified for nearly each purpose, so that one is completely hardly possible for list.Frequent uses are and/or. were:
- Battle tank: Optimized for a broad spectrum of use for the support of the infantry as well as the fight of other tanks.
- Tank destroyer: On the fight of other tanks optimized tanks, mostly with low silhouette (without tower) and strong cannon or missile armament.
- Infantriepanzer: slow tankswith an armament designed for ground combat (z. B.Mark of I)
- Armored infantry vehicle: Well protected tank for the transport of an infantry group directly on the battlefield. Mostly just with more easily cannon arms (z. B. Marder)
- artillery tank: Carrier of artillery cannons such as mortars or howitzers.
- Transportation tank: at the most easily armed vehicles with place z. B. for infantrymen, or ammunition and an armoring hurt only against infantry weapons. Today mostly as wheel tanks implemented.
- Command tank: With sensor and communicationses equipped vehicles, mostly on basis of a transportation tank.
- Air defense tank: With air defense cannons (armored AAA vehicle z. B. Gepard) or - missiles (Flarakpanzer z. B. Roland) against deeply flying objects equipped.
- Reconnaissance tank: Fast, small only easily armed vehicles, today mostly as wheel tanks implemented (z. B. Luchs)
- mine-clearing tank: Often re-equipment of outdated battle tanks
- armored recovery vehicles: Mostly unarmed vehicles with cranesand strong hoists for the salvage of damaged tanks from ranges in those on enemy fire to be counted must (z. B.Armored recovery vehicle buffalo).
- Armored bridge-launching vehicle (z. B. Beaver)
- air landing tank: Very light and small vehicles, with according to weak protection and Bewaffung (z. B.Weasel)
in the civilian one Range are used tanks, z. B. as
- armored vehicles to who transport or protection of individuals
- transportation tank to personnel transportation at the police
- delete tank
1911 1911 developed the Austrian first lieutenant Günther Burstyn the plan for an engine cannon, which the characteristics of a modern battle tank, an armoring, which Kettenantrieb and a swivelling turret had. It submitted its plan to the war Ministry of Austria Hungary, but this gradated the engine cannon as completely worthlessFantasy product. In the German Reich one reacted similarly arrogantly to Burstyns draft.
in the autumn 1914, when the First World War developed at the French front to one in festgefahrenen fronts position warfare solidified, on sides of the allied ones considerations were employed for the first time, howone with the help of a powerful motorized weapon the rigid fronts again in motion to set could.Maurice Hankey, the secretary of the British national defence council, submitted the idea of a cannon-strong armoured vehicle, which should be able to leading statesmen in this connection and military, hostileTo break through contactor ditches and to make a renewed transition possible to the movement war. It encountered with this suggestion however with all decision makers - with exception of the British naval Minister at that time vienna clay/tone Churchill, who titulierte this new weapon provisionally as land battle ship - refusal. Churchill used his influence,in order to promote the building of such armored combat cars and their front employment.
the first tanks was used starting from September 1916 in the First World War by British armed forces. They were simply armored vehicles, which possessed 2 MGs at each page. The defense project carriedtanque de Codebezeichnung del irreführende del bewusst del dado. El selbstbewegliche Wasserbehälter, dado von del ursprünglich del bezeichnete del tanque englischen el allem de Truppen vor en das del gegen de Mesopotamien im Kampf del und de Gebieten Palästina de la guarida que el verwendet del Reich de Osmanische wurden. This Tarnbezeichnung kept in the English linguistic area until today.
The first tank attack ledthe British 4. Army to 15. September 1916 in the Somme battle through. Originally the employment was planned by 49 tanks of the type Mark of I. The vehicles were however still very unreliable, so that already on the way to the front failed 17 pieces. With the attack thatthe Germans partly fled remaining tank in panic from their ditches.
to 20. November 1917 attacked the British army with at that time the number of 375 tanks the German positions, enormous for conditions, with Cambrai, but after the first daythe offensive was destroyed or no longer operational nearly half of the tanks. The tanks of the First World War reached at the most 12 km/h (Saint Chamond, Whippet) in the field maximum speeds from mostly just 8 km/h (Renault FT-17 ), and were against flame throwers and Cannons extremely susceptibly. Their use consisted above all of the fact that they could clear a way for the infantry by expanded barbed wire entanglements. Deep garnet funnels and broad ditches could however already represent an insurmountable obstacle for the tanks.
Germany developed this new weapon onlyvery zögerlich, since the industry was not in the conditions, tank to supply and set the generals on improved infantry tactics. Beside some captured copies only 1918 own models were used - up to the end of war however only scarcely 20 tanks were produced of the type A7V.
Between the world wars
between the world wars experiments with multi-tower tanks with the battle tanks , which did not work however in the employment, took place. Finally the this very day usual form of the tank became generally accepted with a weapon tower. Thereby the French FT-17 was pointing the way, with thatfor the first time this design feature was converted. It was exported or copied into many countries. Most tank constructions between the world wars remained up to the outbreak of the Second World War in service and had to prove their functionality for the first time there. The consequence was a rapid development using thenthe weapon technology within this range.
the Second World War
during the rearmament in the time of the national socialism set the German armed forces consistently on the tank and could so in the first years of the Second World War of successes in the so-called blitzkrieg achieve, therethe opponents the tactical and operational abilities of the tank had wrongly estimated. Above all general of the armor branch Heinz William Guderian (late colonel general, tank admiral mentioned) had recognized the impact force of this weapon correctly as a first German officer and had created the conditions for successes of the armor branch. Itin the First World War at the new radio troop had served and was busy during the Weimar Republic with the realm resistance with the new branch of the motorized transportation. Besides he taught military history. Here it “dissected” the tank employment of the Western powers in the First World War in every detail and pulled from thatEmployments, successes and errors of conclusions, which it in its standard work of tank tactics attention tank! stated. Contrary to its French colleague de Gaulle, who had similar conceptions, succeeded it to Guderian its Commander-in-Chief Adolf Hitler of the value of this weapon and of the employment concept in own, closedTo convince armored divisions.
While the allied ones used the tank at the beginning of the war particularly as infantry company, the armed forces with armored divisions inserted combined major units from mobile artillery, mobile infantry and tanks on regiment and division level, a whose goal was it, into the hostile linesto break through only in and then and to lead the fight into the depth. Principal purpose was here in such a way to cut the opponent off of its supply and guidance in the hinterland (encircling). Substantial innovation on German side was thereby the flexible guidance over radio to down on single vehicle level (transmitterand receivers) and the close co-ordination with the Air Force and the new, motorized infantry. Initial successes were reached with rather weak tanks (tanks I, II, III). With the appearance superior opposing tank like the T34 starting from 1941, and that itselfthe operational superiority was lost to changing tactics of the opponents, who had learned from their errors, particularly also through the increasing numerical inferiority of the armed forces more and more.
until today forms the battle tank the offensive backbone of each modernLand armed force, although their tactical value is questioned by modern antitank weapons increasingly. Classical opponents of a tank are combat aircraft, tanks and infantrymen with small, armor-piercing weapons like the Panzerfaust or antitank mines. On the modern battlefield helicopters , artillery with homing ammunition come, armed drones and small, of infantrymen used antitank missiles (MILAN, TOW) in addition.
In particular the spreading of these rockets led to a radical paging in the building of tanks into the 1970er years, which flowed in many new tank models. Thus the types became leopard 2, M1 Abrams, T-72 and other one in view to this new threat situation designs. The most important newer developments with the building of battle tanks are:
- of improved Rundumschutz against guidance rockets, which hit no longer frontally, but for example on the tower top side. Besides those require Guerilla similar war in countries that Third world (Iraq, Chechnya, Afghanistan) less and less heavy armor-piercing weapons, but rather the defense of simple weapons. Whereupon an improved mine protection and an improved Rundumschutz aim instead of strong frontal armor, in order to be able to exist also in the urban area and in areas with partisan activity.
- Active armoring one calls all active systems against attacking projectiles, which do not only consist of passive armoring materials. This are z. B. Systems, which automatically warn the crew before hostile forces, in particular before approaching projectiles. Partially by it also independently counter measures will seize, howto against-close automatically to operate the nebula throw plant all the approaching rockets with seeker the view and electronic counter measures take the tower with its strongly armored front and the tubing weapon to the aggressor against radar-led rockets and against laser-based systems to seize. Besides approaching projectiles can also directlyare attacked, with nondirectional pellet charges from nebula throw cups or with arranged pellet charges from swivelling rocket launchers.
- Reactive armoring approximately hollow charge - projectiles. There normal passive armoring (tank steel) by modern hollows charge easily to pierce are, additionally on the tank surface small explosive charges are attached (reactive armoring elements). These prevent in case ofthe impact of a hollow charge by its detonation the development of the armor-piercing metal jet of the hollow charge.
- reduction of the crew number and increase of the cadence by load mechanism (for instance with the French Leclerc). It is possible, the crew of a battle tank, which amounts to classical way four persons (Commander, driver, loader, gunner), to reduce to three (commander, driver, gunner).
- Increase of the standard caliber from 105 mm to 120/125 mm.
- Sensor technology
- increasing employment of electronic sensor and fire control technology like highly soluble thermal imaging devices, radar device and laser detectors. However the danger exists, susceptibly to combat measures thatto be electronic war guidance, why sometimes a parallel interpretation for manual and electronic enterprise is made.
- Measures against electronic sensors such as IR - reflecting camouflage finishes for the disturbance of hostile night-vision devices (with the T-90).
- C3I (COMMAND, control, Communication and Intelligence) and C4I (COMMAND, control, Communication, computer and Intelligence)
- COMMAND and Control: Improved guidance ability, whereby the vehicle apart from position and condition (e.g. Number of existing cartridges, level of the tank etc.) its enemy situation to announce knows and turned around the superordinately cleared up enemy situation conveyed gets - together with information about the usefulness of roads and bridges.
- Communication: , Coded radio traffic with superordinate employment instances computers, which can be cleared up
- heavily: the employment of efficient computer engineering in the vehicles. This makes for example a map display with drawn in own and strange forces, for mine fields possible, etc.
- Intelligence: Modern software makes it possible to the crew to employ fully automatic and therefore very fast extensive computations,in order to detect and identify the opponents to select the suitable vehicles and weapon systems for the fight of the opponent and in order - with vehicles in the group -. Beyond that the probability of hit can be increased by computation of the most favorable firing time.
arms enterprises in the building of tanks today
The largest tank building belongs to the Russian enterprise Uralwagonsawod (UWS) and produces the battle tank T-72 and T-90 C as well as several modifications. In Europe Krauss Maffei is the prominent armoured vehicle manufacturer (among other things Leopard 1, leopard 2, self-propelled howitzer 2000).
In addition, smaller countries such as Austria with Steyr Daimler Puchand Switzerland have own tank manufacturers.
of tank models of the First World War
major item: Tank models of the First World War
- Mark of I, the first in series built tank at all - British
- cutter, the first French tank
- Saint Chamond - French
- Renault FT-17 (French)
- Mark of IV, marks and Female - British - depending upon armament, womanlike means mg armament to the infantry fight, male cannons to the tank fight
- A7V, the first German tank
- A7V-U - German
- K-cars - German
tank models between the wars
Major item: Tank models between the wars
of tank models of the Second World War
major item: Tank models of the Second World War
- American military vehicles 2. World war
- Australian military vehicles 2. World war
- British military vehicles 2. World war
- German military vehicles 2. World war
- French of military vehicles of the2. World war
- Italian of military vehicles 2. World war
- Japanese military vehicles 2. World war
- Canadian military vehicles 2. World war
- Polish military vehicles 2. World war
- Soviet military vehicles 2. World war
- Hungarian military vehicles 2. World war
of tank models after 1945
major item: Tank models after 1945
the initial days gasoline or petroleum engines works on was used. This drive system came because of the increased fire and danger of explosion, particularly in damage occurrence, except use. The last models with petrol engines were developed in the Second World War.
The advantage of the gas turbine drive opposite lifting cylinder engines is theoretically in the smaller weight per horsepower, i.e. compared with a lifting cylinder engine the gas turbine is clearly easier with same achievement. However a substantially higher air developsand fuel consumption, which limits the range of the vehicle and logistic problems in the driving drinking adjusting caused. A further disadvantage consists to locate in the higher exhaust gas temperature and thus stronger infrared signature, on the basis those the tank more easily is.
The problems of the high fuel consumption and the not existingOne tried to repair current supply without running engine with additional generator sets and hybrid merge drive (Diesel and additional gas turbine) with the S-tank. The better weight per horsepower and/or. Engine total weight plays a subordinated role, the problem of the fuel consumption with round 50-60 tons of total mass (today's battle tank) remains existing.
Electric motors as tank track driveor wheel drive are in the development. Which role it with future tank constructions to play cannot be measured yet. They replace essentially transmissions and cardan shafts, the question of the energy producer remain existing.
Since the world wars are diesel engines in battle tanks. They place that today vorherschendenand at the furthest developed propulsion type, so also for the leopard - tank of the German Federal Armed Forces. High speed diesel engines as V-engine, in Boxeranordnung or as Gegenkolbenmotor are a complex, however also very efficient propulsion variant, which is trained as dual-fuel engine in some cases. Tank diesel engines can partially in few minutesare changed, as military demonstrations show regularly.
model construction and toy
of tank models are available in the trade. On the one hand there are it as simple toy with few details, on the other hand as detailierte mode LBA USA TZE for original-faithful condition models, which play to are unsuitable. Beyond that givesit also radio-remote controlled tank models with drive by electrical or combustion engine, which is also cross-country like their large models.
- Werner Oswald: A force travel witness and tank of the realm resistance, armed forces and German Federal Armed Forces, engine book publishing house Stuttgart, ISBN 3-87943-850-1
- Kenneth Macksey & John Batchelor: Historythe tank combat car, William Heyne publishing house Munich, ISBN 3-453-52081-5
- Wolfgang butcher: German tanks 1935-1945, Podzun Pallas publishing house, ISBN 3-79090-555-0
- Christopher F. Foss: The tanks of the Second World War, the reference book, Podzun Pallas publishing house, ISBN 3-79090-345-0
- David Miller & Christopher F. Foss: Modern engagements weapons. Technology, tactics andEmployment., Engine book publishing house Stuttgart, ISBN 3-61301-925-6
- Roger Ford: Tank - from 1916 to today, Karl Mueller publishing house, ISBN 3-86070-676-4
- C. F. Foss, J. F. Milsom, J. S. Weeks, G. Tillotson, R. M. Ogorkiewicz: Tank and other combat vehicles from 1916 to today, bookand time Verlagsges. Cologne, extra charge
- Eric Grove: II. World war - tank, publishing house resistance & knowledge, Bonn 1976, ISBN 3-80330-250-1
- F.M. of Senger and Etterlin: The German tanks 1926-45, Berne pool of broadcasting corporations & Graefe publishing house, ISBN 3-76375-988-3
- Franz Kurowski: Tank technology 1939 - 1945, Tosa publishing house, ISBN 3-85001-462-2
- roll ago K. Nehring: The history of the German armored force 1916-1945, engine book publishing house Stuttgart, ISBN 3-87943-320-8
- Armin resounds, to Carlo and: Tank - pictorial history of the combat cars, joke publishing house
- Heinz Guderian: Attention - tanks!, Cassell PLC, England
Web on the left of
- information to the tanks of twelve nations in the Second World War
- extensive representation of vehicles since beginning of the development
- industry side to the armoured vehicles today at the market present - English.
- Everything over tanks in the Second World War
|Commons: Tank - pictures,Video and/or audio files|
|Wiktionary: Tank - word origin, synonyms and translations|