Parrots

parrots
Hellroter Ara (Ara macao)
light red era (era macao)
systematics
Unterstamm: Vertebrate animals (Vertebrata)
over class: Kiefermäuler (Gnathostomata)
row: Land vertebrate animals (Tetrapoda)
class: Birds (Aves)
subclass: Neukiefervögel (Neognathae)
order: Parrots
scientific name
Psittaciformes
Wagler, 1830
families:

the parrots correspond to the order of the Psittaciformes ( parrot birds ) in systematics of the birds.

Table of contents

name origin

the designation Psittaciformes are derived of the antique Psittacus/Sittacus, which is again an assumption from the oldIndian. ThoseDesignation reached together with the first imported goods of parrot birds under Alexander large Europe. Further designations such as Kakadu or era represent likewise assumptions from languages of the respective origin areas, or possess geographical purchases (Amazonen). The origin of the wordParrot is not completely clear against it.

systematic classification

like the parrot birds below the order to be divided, is as disputed at many other groups of birds, and/or. several equivalent suggestions exist. The order covers approximately 350 kinds with round850 subspecies. The spreading emphasis of the kinds is in the Tropics and Subtropen whereby on the south continents the south end of the land masses to be reached in each case. In these areas in the Australis and in South America living parrots are accordingly particularly at cold weatheradapted.

Parrots nourish themselves particularly of vegetable food such as fruits, seed, blooms, sheets, crust, roots also depending upon kind different portions of animal Beikost above all insects and insect larvae. The plant poisons contained in the food are apparently problem-free stood. Nearlyall kinds of parrot breed in caves, particularly in tree caves, earth caves in addition, in buildings of termites. A kind puts on community nests in the kind by weber birds .

characteristics

common characteristics of all parrot birds are: a climbing foot, with that two toes afterin front and two toes are to the rear posed, and the parrot bill. The two short toes I and II are oriented for the body center of the parrot, both long toes III and IV outward.

With this foot many kinds of parrot food lead toBill, which occurs only in exceptional cases in other groups of birds. The second important characteristic is the parrot bill, which a multiplicity of tasks (nibble, cracks, stops, cutting, taking up open Nektar…) possesses and very variable one uses. Nektarfressende parrots such as Lories possessoften a brush tongue, which is well suitable for the admission of liquid. The parrot bill is a high-derived bill form!

master history

fossils of parrot birds are particularly well-known from Europe, which less on their spreading in geological times, than upis based to the examined explanations. First admitted parrot-like birds, those of parrot ancestors are already safe originate from the Eozän of the pit Messel. They were wellensittichgrosse animals, which already possessed a parrot foot however instead of the parrot bill a Körnerfresserschnabel. Vouchers forthe first “genuine” parrots originate from the Miozän of France. The exact process of the evolution of the parrots is however still far away unsettled.

social behavior

many kinds of parrot live particularly outside of the breeding time in large swarms. These swarms can,particularly where the natural Habitate of the birds was strongly changed as harvest parasits particularly at fruit, grain or millet to arise. Since parrot birds are usually very social animals, they should in shank at least in the pair, if not in the smallSwarm to be held.

spreading

parrots live in the geological presence on all continents with exception of Europe, arctic and Antarctic. Fossils of parrots from the Miozän, and/or. by parrot-similar birds from the Eozän, parrots originally occupyalso in Europe occurred.

history of the parrot attitude particularly in Europe

since the antique one few kinds of parrot are as for example the grey parrot and the Halsbandsittich in Europe in shank well-known, in the Middle Ages became parrots as luxury animals with yardsheld, with the age of the discoveries arrived ever more animals than domestic animals to Europe, where the parrot attitude developed as status symbol and hobby. Itself first slowly since the end the 19. Jh. itself developing Professionalisierung of the parrot attitude and thoseExpansion of the hobby in larger parts of the population led to the commercial mass breed, to the mass production of feeds, cages and other accessories as well as a large offer at books, magazines in addition, special animal-medical offers. Today live approximately 50 million parrot birds in shank,partially. on attitude conditions those are hardly kind fair. The number of the open land parrots of all kinds becomes likewise estimated on approximately 50 million.

Some kinds of parrot birds due to Habitatverlusten and intercept for the trade already exterminated, with further kinds stands exterminationbriefly before. The attitude and the trade of parrots are subject therefore to protection of species regulations.

Also the trend moving in opposite directions, i.e. the propagation of from shank escaped and/or. there are set free animals. Few kinds are able as Neozoen in one for itfirst strange new environment, usually Innerstädisch, to develop sturdy populations. The two most important kinds of the parrots, those in Europe as Neozoen arise are Halsbandsittiche and Mönchssittiche.

speaking and intelligence

of parrot birds belong beside the Rabenvögeln and the woodpeckersto the birds with the highest intelligence achievements. Parrots are particularly well-known as sprachgelehrige domestic animals in Europe, many parrot experts regard a “speaking” of the parrots however as a behavior disturbance.

Newer research like those the Wissenschaftlerin Irene Pepperberg shows that parrots not“nachplappern”, but also meaning to only speak can. Are most talented thereby the Amazonen, the Aras from South America, Australian Kakadus and the grey parrot.

Their intelligence is compared with by apes or humans, which however remains still doubtful. IrenePepperberg trained its grey parrot Alex first, by pre-sawing for example the words for certain colors, forms and materials of articles, until he controlled her. After certain time the parrot brought the words with the respective articles in connection. The numberthe things could it up to a number of six without difficulty often show. If Alex were asked, which characteristics of different existing articles had together, it answered often correctly, by designating colors and material properties. In photographs some worksas purposeful guessed and not like safe assign. Also the memory achievements this parrots were amazingly, also them corresponded - in opinion of Pepperberg - approximately from Schimpansen.

The language ability of the parrots is based as with humans on movements of the tongue,will thus not formed the sounds in the speech organ, without further to be changed, as before assumed.

Zwei Allfarbloris in der Voliere
Two Allfarbloris in the Voliere

literature

Einführende of works

work on] complete

kind encyclopedias Arndt

  • , T is missing.: Encyclopedia of the parrots. Bretten (also on CD; constantly collection of sheets supplemented - not in the book trade order directly, but with the Arndtverlag)
  • Robiller, F. (1997): Parrots. Stuttgart 3 Bd. Stuttgart.
  • To the particularsGroups of parrots Mueller publishing house, at the Warnau 33, appears 29699 Bomlitz an encyclopedia row, also this is not over the book trade available contrary to these three

works offers numerous facts from the open land on newest conditions (English), attitude also in the refugeonly a subordinated role plays.

  • June by, T. /Parr, M. (1998): Parrots, A Guide ton of Parrots OF the World. Yale University press 1998, ISBN 0300074530

historical

Strunden, H. (1984): Parrots once and now. Refuge Mueller publishing house (at present on thatonly available work over history the parrot customer and attitude; In details not always reliably; a really good book to the topic is missing still)

Web on the left of

Commons: Parrots - pictures, videos and/or audio files
Wiktionary: Parrot - word origin, synonyms andTranslations
Wiktionary: Sittich - word origin, synonyms and translations

to parrot birds exist extensive free Web offers, which are developed for years. Information to the speaking parrot Alex is on the sides of Irene Pepperberg and/or. the Alexfoundation. Grundlegene information to parrot birds,the sides of the working group parrot network offer and Institut to their history in shank as well as numerous information to attitude and breed and special kinds as well as an extensive literature index for parrot research the registered association.. Over Papageienneozoen in Europe likewise an extensive Web offer exists.The Arndt publishing house offers a English-language version of its LEXICON to OF PARROTS for kinds of parrot and subspecies. Also the most important parrot protection organizations like the fund for threatened parrots of the ZGAP, the Loroparque Fundacion and/or. the German-language folder of the English World Parrot Trustare represented in the net.

 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)