Papua New Guinea
|office language||English, Tok Pisin, Hiri Motu|
|system of government||parliamentary monarchy|
|head of state||Elizabeth II.|
|Governor general||Sir Paulias Matane|
|head of the government||Sir Michael Somare|
|number of inhabitants||5.545.268 (conditions July 2005)|
|population density||of 19.9 inhabitants per km ²|
|independence||11. September 1975|
1 fathom = 4 Kina
|time belt||UTC +10|
|national anthem||O arise all you sons OF this country|
|nationality identification symbol||Png|
Papua New Guinea is to Indonesia and Madagascar the third biggest island state of the world. It lies in the Pacific, to the Australian continent is counted and covers the east of the island new Guinea (the western part, west Papua, listens Indonesia) as well as several pre-aged islands.
Table of contents
about 80 per cent of the national surface one takes by the gebirgigen island [new Guinea]. Besides there is a set of Inselgruppen. Papua New Guinea is partthe Pacific region Melanesien, which from new Guinea to Fiji - islands in the east hands. Geographically new Guinea is because of the edge of the deep ocean basin on a strongly deformed, to today volcanically active part of the earth's crust. From the Miozän to the Pleistozänthe earth's surface folded here strong and created the bays, mountains and island chains of the country.
The whole island becomes pulled through of one about 200 km broad, branched out mountains, which are coined/shaped by steep valleys and little accessible levels. This national naturefavours the isolated master formation, as it took place in new Guinea. Highest mountain in Papua New Guinea is scarce the Mount William with 4,509 meters, below the all-season snow border.
The landscapes are extremely various and varied. Into by strong differences in height the markedMountains are pointed dome-shaped mountain tops, broad valleys, glaciers, rain forest, volcanos, grass surfaces, high mountain forest and alpine levels. Between mountains and coastal country are Mangrovensümpfe, savannahs, fruitful washing area of rivers and rain forest. The longest river Papua new Guinea is the Sepik. Before the north coast expanded corral reefs lie.
in the high country can give at night it to frost, while it is at the coasts all year round day and night around the 30 degrees warm. During it in neighbouring north Australia usuallyhotter, but, gives often it is drier at the coasts of new Guinea a tropical high air humidity. At some coastal lines the humidity is extremely high. The trade wind and monsoon hoist led by the mountains bring regularly tropical rainstorms to the whole country.
New Guinea is the second largest island of the earth and is surrounded spaciously by numerous Inselgruppen, which can be divided geographically into four main groups (whereby first two the Bismarck archipelago to form):
major items: Languages in Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea is a country alsoextreme of linguistic varieties. Under that approximately 5.3 million inhabitants according to estimations approximately 770 languages are spoken (depending upon indication between 11 per cent and 25 per cent of the living languages of the world). The number of the by the majority melanesischen ethnical groups is still larger.Before the background the increasing meaning of the Pidginsprache Tok Pisin, which is on good way to an attained full growth Kreolsprache, plays a large role for the national agreement. It is controlled from ever more humans than native language and appliesas important traffic language. A further, language spoken of parts of the population is on the Motu - language which are based Hiri Motu or policy the Motu.
time and “discovery” are called for Europe
see in addition the section history with new Guinea.
the colonial age
the dutchmen took the western part of the island 1828 in possession, during the East part of colonial efforts stillremained unaffected. In order 1860 began to drive the company Johann Cesar Godeffroy & daughter from Berlin at the north coast with Kopra and other Kokosprodukten trade, in order to cover the enormous European need of Kopra. From Valparaíso the company based 1850 a Faktorel on the neighbouring Somalen and covered the South Seas with a network of 78 addresses and agencies.
The German Reich and Great Britain supplied themselves soon a race, who the still free East part of the island first to own possessionwould explain. After German captains and the Ornithologe Otto Finsch at the north coast with the Hissung of flags facts had created, the two states agreed 1885 to divide the East part again in the center. The north became Emperor William country (KWL) baptized and protected area of a large German colonization and administration company for colonies, the Neuguinea Kompagnie.
The Kompagnie made bad business and 1899 took over the German Reich the prestige object as regular colony. The name of the colony was German new Guinea, and it covered except emperor William countrystill the Inselgruppen of the Marianen, the Karolinen, of Palau, Nauru, and Marshall Islands. 1914 occupied Australian troops equal to beginning of the First World War the German area, and after the war became the lost colony of Völkerbund as mandate which can be administered on trust at Australia hand over.
The south became to 6. November 1884 to the protectorate British new Guinea explains and at the 11. September 1888 annektiert. The possession was transferred after independence Australia 1902 to this. Off 1905 were called the south part then Territory OF Papua and the actual rule of the Australian administration began.
The Second World War
in December 1941 conquered Japanese troops the northern part of the island and the civil administration was suspended. The capital haven Moresby became occasional headquarters of the US-American general Douglas MacArthur. The fights between Japanese and allied took three years andran at some places very embittered. Because of many coastal places still sunk warships are from that time.
from Australia administered trust territory
since the year 1949 took place the common Australian administration of the colony Papua and into thatNew Guinea as territory of Papua and new Guinea transferred trust system of the United Nations of territory in haven Moresby.
The country changed frequently its prime ministers - to call would above all be Michael Somare and Julius Chan. Under the government of the latter it came 1989 to a bloody civil war on the island Bougainville,longest and victim-richest south Pacific since that 2. World war, which could be settled 1997. Bougainville has the status of a “autonomous region” since 2005 with special rights.
the country, whose nationality identification symbol png reads, what also ascommon acronym for Papua New Guinea is used, is national Capital District divided into nineteen provinces and the capital district.
Generally coastal provinces, high land provinces and island provinces are differentiated. In addition one knows the provinces, which lie in the former mandated territory of the earlier German colony new Guinea,from those of the Australian Papua separate.
On the area ( from west to east) the high land provinces Enga
- , Western Highlands, Simbu (earlier name are to original German new Guinea: Chimbu), and Eastern Highlands;
- the island provinces Bougainville (in former times: North Solomons), west new one Britain, East new Britain, new Irish country and Manus;
- the north coast provinces Sandaun (in former times: West Sepik), East Sepik, Madang and Morobe.
On the area of the originally Australian Territory OF Papua are (from west to east)
- the high land province Southern Highlands;
- the south coast provinces Fly River (also: Western), Gulf and Central (with that national Capital District around haven Moresby);
- the provinces at the east coast Oro (in former times: Northern) and Milne Bay (with eastern small islands).
See also: List thatProvinces of Papua New Guinea
the gross domestic product 2001 5.466 billion euro amounted to, correspond per inhabitant approximately 1000 euro.
traditional is very strongly pronounced the agricultural informal sector of Papua New Guinea. 73,7% of the population find there, also due to high unemployment, her getting along. A substantial part of the agricultural activity is limited to Subsistenzwirtschaft. The portion of the agriculture of the GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT amounts to therefore also only 26%, while the industry 42% andthe service sector gain 32%.
In the formal sector the primary sector dominates: Mining industry, plan day economy (coffee, Kopra, cocoa and Palmöl) as well as the wood industry. Papua New Guinea has still on far surfaces unexplored forests. The country is large therefore ofwithin the raw material range often strongly varying world prices dependently, since the processing takes place usually abroad.
the foreign trade is very unbalanced: During 2001 for 4,655 billion Euro goods were exported, amounted the imported goods to 2,316 billion Euro.Main export goods are gold (35%), oil (31%), copper (11%) and coffee (5%). Are imported above all machines, transportation equipment and industrial goods.
Since Papua New Guinea is a developing country, the international giver community, here in particular Australia , supports the country. These paymentsconstitute a substantial part of the state household.
for the stabilization of the internal economic circulations, which are increasingly weakened by the globalization pressure, is officially promoted since 2002 the use of the traditional shell money of the Tolai as complementary currency. In February 2002in close proximity to Rabaul on the island Neubritannien those was opened world-wide first shell bank. The “Tolai Exchange bank” changes the shell money into hard currency, for the Kina. The current rate of exchange amounts to four Kina for “fathom” (a chain alsoShells). However on the Gazelle peninsula one estimates a circulation at shell money at a value of eight million Kina.
1992 and 2000 the portion of the public expenditures for the health service
Web on the left of
14 oceanic UN member states:
Australia | Fiji | Kiribati | Marshall Islands | Mikronesien | Nauru | New Zealand | Palau | Papua New Guinea | Salomonen | Samoa | Tonga | Tuvalu | Vanuatu
other undisputed States of/special cases:
Cookinseln | Niue
other disputed states:
Hutt River Province
other areas (z. B. Colonies):
American Samoa | Bakerinsel | Tie-clip by clay/tone island | French Polynesien | Guam | Heard and McDonald islands | Hawaii | Howlandinsel | Jarvisinsel | John clay/tone island | Kingmanriff | Kokosinseln | Midwayinseln | Neukaledonien | Northern Marianen | Norfolkinsel | Osterinsel | Palmyra | Pitcairninseln | Tokelau | Wake | Whale-read and Futuna
Antigua and Barbuda | Australia | The Bahamas | Bangladesh | Barbados | Belize | Botswana | Brunei | Dominica | Fiji | The Gambia | Ghana | Grenada | Guyana | India | Jamaica | Cameroon | Canada | Kenya | Kiribati | Lesotho | Malawi | Malaysia | Maldives | Malta | Mauritius | Mozambique | Namibia | Nauru | New Zealand | Nigeria | Pakistan | Papua New Guinea | Salomonen | Zambia | Samoa | Seychelles | Sierra Leone | Singapore | Sri Lanka | Pc. Cement and Nevis | Pc. Lucia | Pc. Vincent and the Grenadinen | South Africa | Swaziland | Tanzania | Tonga | Trinidad and Tobago | Tuvalu | Uganda | Vanuatu | United kingdom | Cyprus
coordinates: 7 29'S, 75° 3 ' W