shelf with Parfümflakons
perfume Flacons

a perfume or a perfume (franz. perfume, smell out lat.: by = through and lat. fumum = smoke, steam; derived from the use of smoke-openly) is a usually liquid mixture from odoriferous substances. While the often precious smell compositions thatParfümerie other purpose do not serve than the personal well-being and the self-manifestation, odoriferous substances are also used to make for the consumer a multiplicity of products attractive. Parfümiert are practically all products in bath, kitchen, house and garden. Products with an unpleasantly strong self-smell, like e.g.Cleaning agents or hair coloring means, are made pleasant with odoriferous substances of the nose of the buyer. In the foodstuffs industry flavour materials are likewise indispensable, one think of the vanilla, which is used equally in sweet foods and perfumes.

Table of contents

components & origin

of basic elements of a perfume are main in approx. 80% alcohol solved ethereal oils of vegetable or animal origin as well as synthetically manufactured odoriferous substances. Mostthese odoriferous substances can be manufactured today in larger quantities and therefore more favorably synthetically. Altogether today about 2,000 smelling materials are well-known, about 30 to 80 different materials for a perfume composition are mixed. Under these contents materials 26 is dangerously classified as for Allergiker. The declaration takes place since 2005 European Union far after the INCI - system.

, Dependent on the concentration at smell oils, the following dilutions are differentiated:

  • Eau de Cologne (EdC, 2 - 5%)
  • Eau de Toilette (EDT, 4 - 8%) with so-called. Extreme one or Intense variants also more
  • Eau de Parfum (EdP, 8- 15%)
  • Perfume or Extrait (15 - 30%)

the most important smell components


of fruits

of spices

crusts, resins

sheets, grasses, Moose, berries, roots

animal secretions

Gourmand notes

synthetic odoriferous substances

Only some examples. Without enumerating chemical formulas for obvious reasons one does.

  • Aldehydes - for the Parfümerie of paramount importance
  • Cumarin
  • Heliotropin
  • Maltol - intensive sweetly, warmly, fruchtig, caramel-like
  • Moschus Keton and Moschus xylene - replacing the Moschus of animal origin
  • phenol
  • Vanillin
work on []

Web on the left of

smelling off encyclopedia

smell notes

a perfume can accept a great many different smell notes by different portions of the basic elements. It consists of head, heart and basis note .

The head note is to be noticed immediately after laying the perfume on on the skin. Thereit for the first impression and the purchase decision is important, is the head note more intensively than the others and of volatile odoriferous substances is usually coined/shaped. (For this reason one should test already some time before the purchase a perfume on the own skin, over over that- for the carrier more important - smell of the heart note to judge to be able.) the heart note is in the hours after the head note evaporates has to smell. The basis note is the last part of the expiration of smell and contains long-responsible components.

Perfumes can be relatively for a long time stored, tobest in a dark and cool area, thus no light, no humidity and no heat the perfume to fly leaves impaired or the smell. With to long or bad storage it can come however to an unpleasant change of the smell.

A perfume can do Bluem-industrial union-feminine, maskuline, eastern,fruchtige, pudrige, zitrusfrische or classical-elegant smell nuances exhibit.


the perfume as Wohlgeruch is used both of women and of men mainly to underline the own personality and the own taste/style. Each smell note on the skin developsdifferent humans differently. Therefore it is a little meaningful to give away smells after the impression on a Teststreifen or on the own skin. Smells should be up-sprayed on well supplied with blood places, as at the hand pulses and behind the ears. One should it with the privatePerfume cloud also do not exaggerate, since this can affect other humans in particular in the working sphere much disturbing. In the USA there is already a movement for a smell-free work atmosphere, which proceeds against intensive perfume smell clouds as annoyance.

For many well-known mode manufacturers are the licenses for smellsand Kosmetika a very important source of income.

Besides perfumes in many products find a use. Prime data area are products for the hygiene, in addition, life and luxury (e.g. Sweets, cigarettes, teas) can be parfümiert/aromatized, in order to produce a certain of smell taste experience. Meanwhile becomewhole business premises parfümiert, in order to support certain sensory impressions.

As capital of the perfume the French city Grasse in the Département Alpes maritime is considered.

In the novelthe perfume “of Patrick Süskind is impressively described the world of the smells.

In order to increase the sales from perfume toand thus the customers before the purchase with the different smells familiarly to make can become, Testflakons (with approximately 2 ml contents) placed to trying out to the order. Small 5 ml Flakons are offered for collecting tanks, see photo. The large and small Flakons (Dummies) for decoration purposesFacticen are called.


the conversion with lady and gentleman smells of the so-called. Prestige and luxury category (the inexpensive smells not considered) loud ask-climbs Foundation amounted to 2004 in Germany 790 millions EUR (previous year 773 millions EUR). In an inquiry 59% of the women delivered14 years on within the last week a smell water to have used; with men the appropriate portion was only with 35% (however 65% a after Shave used). At present altogether 1,100 smells are in the trade available, each year become approx. 200 new smells imported, of it approx.60-80 luxury smells. 97% of the new publications are reset within three years, since they could not become generally accepted economically at the market.

odoriferous substance producer

perfume producer

Schaufensterwerbung für Parfümsorten von Cartier
shop window advertisement for perfume places of Cartier

important Parfümeurinnen and your

  • Henri Alméras created 1935 for Jean Patou “Joy”,after “Chanel No. , Bois of the Iles created 5
  • " most secondaryfrequently sold perfume Ernest Beaux (“Bo )” (1926), “Cuir de Russie” (1927), “No. for Chanel “. " (1922) and 1921 created 22 also “No. 5 " the most well-known and to today usually sold perfume and first, upsynthetic smell-openly - which aldehydes - is based.
  • Calice Becker (Quest international), Dior “J'adore” (1999), Karan series of “DKNY Energy” (2002), Lauder series of “Beyond of Paradise”, Joop! “What About Adam” (1997), Hilfiger “Tommy Girl”
  • Pierre Bourdon (ask-climb Resources) and. A. David off “cool Water”, David off “Good would run”, Dior “DolceVita " (1995 with Maurice Roger), Saint Laurent “Kouros” (1981), Saint Laurent “live jazz”, The difference company “Poudre iris”
  • Jean Carles, Carven “mA of grasps” (1946), Dior “measure Dior” (1947 with Paul Vacher), Dana “Canoe” (1935), Dana “taboo” (1932), Schiaparelli “Shocking” (1937)
  • Jacques Cavallier (Firmenich) “L'Eau d'Issey”,“Bulgari for men” and. A.
  • Bernard Chant (+ 1987), Serie "Aramis" (1965), Clinique "Aromatics Elixir" Gres "Cabochard"
  • François Coty (1874-1934), begründete 1917 mit "Chypre" den neuen Typ der Chypre-Parfums, die vom Akkord aus Citrus-Frische im Kontrast zu Eichenmoos geprägt sind
  • Ernest Daltroff (1867-1947), Gründer desHouse Caron, created the early, legendary perfumes of the house
  • Jean Claude Ellena, “master of the wasserfarbenen flavours” (CIT. Luca Turin), since 2004 “nose” the Maison Hermès with the “Hermessence series”, among other things Bulgari “The Vert” - series (1992), Van Cleef & Arpels “roofridge” (1976), works also for the elitären niche perfume offerers TheDifference company and Les edition de Parfums
  • Johann Maria Farina (1685-1766), Createur of Eau de Cologne (1714)
  • Tina Farina, created and. A. Smell typology, Tina Farina (1981)
  • Edouard Fléchier, since 2005 “nose” the Maison Guerlain, Dior “Poison” - series (1985), Lacroix “C'est La Vie”
  • Olivia Giacobetti, among other thingsShiseido “IUNX”, Hermès “Hiris”, Lubin “Idole” (2005), numerous perfumes for L'Artisan Parfumeur
  • Sophia Grojsman (IFF internationally Flavours & Fragrances) Boucheron “Jaipur” (1994 with Jean Pierre Mary), small “Eternity” (1988), Lauder “Spellbound”, Kenzo “Kashaya”, camp field “Sun Moon of star”, Lalique “perfume Lalique” (1992), Lancome “safe deposit” (1990), Biagiotti“Sotto Voce”, Saint Laurent Paris (1983)
  • Aimé Guerlain (+ 1910) “Jicky” (1889)
  • Jacques Guerlain (1874-1963) among other things “Apres L' Ondée” (1906), “L' hires Bleue” (1912), “Mitsouko” (1919), “Shalimar” (1925), “Sous Le vent” (1933), “volume de Nuit” (1933)
  • Jean Paul Guerlain, withdrew themselves 2002, among other things “Chamade” (1969), “Chantd'Arômes " (1962), “Jardins de Bagatelle” (1983), “Mahora” (2000), “Nahéma” (1979), “Parure” (1975), “SAM era” (1989)
  • Pierre François Pascal Guerlain (+ 1864), founders of the Maison Guerlain, created the Eaux de Cologne
  • Jean Guichard (Givaudan) in such a way, Cacharel “Eau de Eden”, Cacharel “LouLou” (1987), small “Obsession”, Cartier “Pretty” (1995), Celine“Pour Femme” (2000), Hermes “Concentre d'Orange Vert” (2004), Montana “perfume de Peau” (1986), Ricci “Deci Dela”, Ricci “Les Belles”, Trussardi “Donna”
  • Hugo Janistyn, created and. A. Russian leathers for Farina (1966)
  • Jean Kerléo (“nose” the Maison Jean Patou from 1967 to 1998 and founder thatOsmothèque in Versailles) “1000” (1972), “mA of dear ores” (1987), “Privé”, “Sublime” (1992), “Voyageur”; Lauder “Knowing”
  • Francis Kurkdjian, Acqua di Parma “iris Nobile” (2004 with Françoise Caron), Arden “Green Tea” - series, Armani “Mania for men”, Guerlain “rose bar-cash” (2005), Gaultier “Fragile” (1999), “Gaultier2” (2005), “Le of marks” Joop! “MUSE”(2003), Versace “Jeans Couture Glam”,
  • Sophie Labbé (IFF internationally Flavours & Fragrances) Cacharel “Promesse”, Givenchy “Organza” - series, “G de Gigli”, Ricci “Prime Minister Jour” and “Boss Woman”
  • Christophe Laudamiel, “American Beauty Wonderful” (2005), Clinique “Happy Heart”, Lauder “Youth Dew Amber Nude” (2005), Kors “Iceland” (2005 with locomotiveDong), Lauren “Polo Blue” (with Carlo Benaïm), Hilfiger “True star gold” (2005)
  • Nathalie Lorson, Chopard “wipe”, Dolce & Gabbana “D & G Pour Femme” (with max of Gavarry), Brosseau “Ombre d'Or”, Sander “pure one” - series (2003/2004 with Ilias Ermenidis), Sander “sensation” (2000 with Alain Astori?),
  • Annick Menardo, Bulgari“Black” (1998), Hugo Boss “Boss” (1998), Lancôme “Hypnose” (2005 with Thierry water), “Lolita Lempicka” (1997), Montana “Blu” (2000)
  • Alberto Morillas, Bulgari “Blu” - series (2000), small “One” - series (1994 with Harry Fremont), Cartier “Le meringue you Dragon” (2003), Cartier “Panthère”, Armani “Aqua di Gio”, Lanvin “Oxygene” - series (2000), Hilfiger “Tommy”(1994 with Annie Buzantian)
  • Michel Morsetti for Caron: “Coup de Fouet” (1954), “fern IANA” (1947), “Muguet you Bonheur” “Or et Noir” (1949), “Poivre” (1954), “Pour Une Femme” (1949), “rose” (1949), “tobacco Noir” (1948), “With Pleasure” (1949)
  • Paul Parquet, Houbigant “Chantilly” (1941), Houbigant “Fougere Royale” (1882)
  • JacquesPolge since 1978 the “nose” for the Maison Chanel: “Bois Noir” (1987), “chance” (2002), “Coco” (1984), “Coco Mademoiselle” (2001), “Cristalle” (1993), “Egoïste” (1990); for Ungaro: “Diva” (1984), “Senso” (1987), for Tiffany: “Pure Tiffany” (2003), “Sheer Tiffany” (1999), “Tiffany for Men” (1989)
  • Olivier Polge, Bulgari“Eau Parfumée outer Thé Rouge” (2005), Dior “pure Poison” (2004 with Dominique Ropion & Carlo Benaïm), “Dior Homme” (2005), Ungaro “Apparition for men” (2005), “Armani code for women” (2006 with Dominique Ropion & Carlo Benaim), Guerlain “Cuir Beluga” (2005), La Perla “Blue”, Moschino “Friends Men”(2005), Viktor & Rolf “Flowerbomb” (2005 with Carlo Benaïm and Domitille Michalon)
  • Francois Robert, Lanvin “Vetyver” (2003), several perfumes for perfumes de Rosine
  • Guy Robert, Dior “Dioressence” (1979), Gucci “No. 1 " (1972), Hermès “Caleche” (1961), Hermès “Equipage” (1970), Rochas “madame Rochas” (original version, 1960), Rochas“Monsieur Rochas” (1969)
  • Henri Robert, Chanel “Cristalle” (1974), Chanel “No. 19 " (1970), Chanel “Pour Monsieur” (1955)
  • Dominique Ropion, among other things Dior “pure Poison” (2004 with Carlo Benaïm & Olivier Polge), Malle “Carnal Flowers” (2005), Malle “Une Fleur de Cassie”, Malle “Vetiver Extraordinaire”, Armani “code for women”(2006 with Carlo Benaim & Olivier Polge), Givenchy “Amarige” (1991), Givenchy “Very Irresistible for women” (with Sophie Labbe & Carlo Benaïm), Givenchy “Ysatis” (1984)
  • Vincent Roubert, Coty “A Suma”, Coty “L'Aimant” (1927 with François Coty), Coty “L'Or” (1912), Coty “Vertigo”, Jacques Fath “Green Water” (1947),Jacques Fath “iris Gris” (1947)
  • Maurice Roucel (Quest international), bond No. 9 “Broadway of rivets” (2003), bond No. 9 “new Haarlem” (2003), bond No. 9 “Riverside drive”, Castelbajac “Castelbajac”, Malle “Musc Ravageur”, Strehne “Strenesse”, Gucci “Envy”, Hermès “24 Faubourg”, Krizia “K”, Lalique “Pour Homme”, Lutens “irisSilver muck " (1994)
  • Edmond Roudnitska (1905-1996), for Christian Dior: “Diorama” (1948), “Dior Dior”,” Diorella " (1972), “Diorissimo” (1956), “Eau Fraiche” (1955), “Eau sow-vague” (1966), “measure Dior” (1947); for Hermès: “Eau d'Hermès” (1949), Grande Eau d'Hermès; for Rochas: “Femme” (1944), “La rose”, “Mouche”, “Mousseline”, “Moustache” (1949)
  • Michel Roudnitska (son of Edmond), and. A. for DelRae (San Francisco), Malle “Noir Epices”
  • Ralf Schwieger, Malle “Lipstick rose”, Hermès “Eau of the Merveilles” (2004 with Nathalie Feisthauer)
  • Christopher Sheldrake, the “nose” the Maison Serge Lutens, starting from 2005 for Chanel actively; among other things “A La Nuit” (2000),“Ambre Sultan” (2000), “Arabie” (2000), “Chergui” (2001), “Clair de Musc” (2003), “Cuir Mauresque” (1996), “Daim blond” (2004), “Datura Noir” (2001), “Douce Amère” (2000), “Miel de Bois” (2005), “Muscs Koublai Khan” (1998), “Rahat Loukoum” (1998), “SA Majeste de Rose” (2000), “Santal blank” (2001), “Santal de Mysore”(2001), “tube staggered array Criminelle” (1999)
  • Jean Louis Sieuzac, Dior “dune” (1991), Dior “Fahrenheit”, de la Renta “OSCAR” (1977), Rykiel “Sonia Rykiel”, Saint Laurent “Opium” (1977)
  • Paul Vacher (+ 1975), Dior “measure Dior” (1947, with Jean Carles), Lanvin “Arpège” (1927 with Andre Fraysse)

training andOrganizations

international well-known training centre for perfume your is the ISIPKA (Institut Supérieur international you perfume de la Cosmétique et de l'Aromatique Alimentaire) in Versailles.

The most well-known branch federation is the US-oriented ask-climbs Association, which assigns also annually the “perfume OSCAR FiFi Award in several categories. [1]

Off 2006 this price renamed as “German perfume price” of ask-climb Foundation Germany assigned.[2]

usually it concerns important

perfume and smell water marks here licenses of well-known mode and decoration manufacturers or prominent. The list is arranged alphabetically, into clammy ones stands exemplary for namesof well-known smell lines.

  • Armani (Acqua di Giò, Emporio, Code, City Glam, Armani mania, Sensi)
  • era-badly (900, era-badly Classic, A
  • Balmain (vent Vert, Monsieur Balmain)
  • Hugo Boss (No. 1, Deep talk, in Motion, element, Boss sport, Hugo, Soul, Energise, Baldessarini)
  • Boucheron (Trouble)
  • Bvlgari (Pour Homme, Black)
  • Cartier (pasha, Santos, Must, Déclaration, Le meringue you dragon)
  • Cerruti (1881, CerrutiSi)
  • Chanel (Chanel N°5, No. 19, Coco, Coco Mademoiselle, airs, Pour Monsieur, Antaeus, Egoïste, Egoïste Platinum, chance)
  • David off (cool Water, cool Water Game, Zino, Good would run, Relax, Silver Shadow)
  • Dior (Fahrenheit, J'adore,Pure Poison, measure Dior, dune, Dior Homme)
  • Farina opposite (Eau de Cologne)
  • Gucci (Rush, Envy, Envy ME)
  • Dolce & Gabbana (Light blue, Sicily, Pour Homme, Masculine)
  • Jean Paul Gaultier (Classique, Le of marks, Fragile, Gaultier2)
  • Givenchy (Very Irresistible, Ysatis, Organza, Gentleman, pi, Xeryus Rouge)
  • Guerlain(Shalimar, Chamade, L'Instant, Vetiver, Habit Rouge, volume de Nuit, Mitsouko, L'Heure Bleue)
  • Hermès (Calèche, Equipage, Rocabar, Eau de Merveilles)
  • Tommy Hilfiger (Tommy, Tommy Girl)
  • Gabriela Sabatini (game wind, Dévotion, Magnetic)
  • Jil Sander (No.4, pure one, Sun, sport, sensation)
  • Joop! (Homme, Femme, Le Bain, Jump, Rococo)
  • Kenzo(Pour Homme, Pour Femme, Flower)
  • Calvin small (CC One, CC, Obsession, escape, Eternity, Euphoria)
  • Estée Lauder (Youth Dew, Alliage, White Linen, intuition, Pleasures, Beyond Paradise)
  • Lacoste (Touch OF Pink, Lacoste talk)
  • Lancôme (Trésor, Hypnose)
  • Ralph Lauren (Romance, safari, Polo, Polo of extremes, Polo sport, PoloBlack)
  • Muelhens (Tosca, 4711 genuinly Kölnisch water)
  • Thierry Mugler (fish, Alien)
  • Paco Rabanne (Pour Homme)
  • Rochas (Femme, Eau de Rochas, Rochas one, aquaman)
  • Shiseido (Vocalise,)
  • Valentino (Vendetta, Very, V)
  • Versace (Essence emotional)
  • Yves Saint Laurent (Le paint, Kouros, Opium, Rive Gauche, Paris,Jazz, baby Doll, Pour homme, Cinéma, arranged into love again
) [work on

] important perfume and smell water marks after developing year

1714: Eau de Cologne von Farina (Johann Maria Farina 1685-1766)

1804: 4711 genuinly Kölnisch water of Mülhens

1882: Fougère Royale of Houbigant. First perfume this smell family.

1889: Jicky of Guerlain (Aimé Guerlain). First perfume of the modern type with aldehydes.

1917: Chypre of François Coty. First perfume of this smell family.

1919: Mitsouko of Guerlain (Jacques Guerlain)

1919: Tobacco blond from Caron (Ernest Daltroff)

1921: N°5 von Chanel (Ernest Beaux). Up to now most successful perfume.

1925: Shalimar of Guerlain (Jacques Guerlain). Justifies type of the eastern perfume.

1927: Arpège of Lanvin (André Fraysse)

1929: Soir of Paris by Bourjois (Ernest Beaux)

1930: Joy of Jean Patou (Henri Alméras). After N°5 up to now the second-follow-richest perfume.

1934: Pour Un Homme of Caron(Ernest Daltroff)

1944: Bandit by Robert Piguet (Germaine Cellier)

1945: Femme of Rochas (Edmond Roudnitska)

1948: L'Air you temps of Nina Ricci (Francis Fabron)

1956: Diorissimo of Christian Dior (Edmond Roudnitska)

1959: Monsieur of Givenchy

1959: Cabochard of perfumes Grès (Berne pool of broadcasting corporations Chant); Tobacco original

1965:Era-badly Classic of Aramis/Lauder

1966: Eau sow-vague by Christian Dior (Edmond Roudnitska)

1969: Ô von Lancôme (Robert Gonnon)

1975: Grey Flannel of Geoffrey Beene

1977: Opium of Yves Saint Laurent (Jean Louis Sieuzac)

1978: Azzaro Pour Homme of Azzaro (Gérard Anthony, Martin Heiddenreich, smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Wirtz); Magic Noireof Lancôme (PFP); Ralph Lauren Polo of Lauren

1979: Anaïs Anaïs of Cacharel (Roger Pellegrino)

1981: Nombre Noir of Shiseido (Serge Lutens, Jean Yves Leroy)

1983: Of Paris von Yves Saint Laurent (Sophia Grosjman)

1984: Coco of Chanel (Jacques Polge)

1985: Poison of Christian Dior (Jean Guichard); BossNo. 1 by Boss

1987: Loulou of Cacharel (Jean Guichard)

1988: Cool Water of David off (Pierre Bourdon)

1990: Trésor of Lancôme (Sophia Grosjman); Egoiste by Chanel

1992: Fishing rod of Thierry Mugler (Olvier Cresp and Yves de Chiris)

1993: Jean Paul Gaultier of Jean Paul Gaultier (Jacques Cavallier);Egoiste Platinum of Chanel

1995: CC One of Calvin small (Firmenich)

1995: Dolce Vita of Christian Dior (Pierre Bourdon and Maurice Roger)

1995: Le Mâle of Jean Paul Gaultier (Francis Kurkdjian)

2001: Coco Mademoiselle of Chanel (Jacques Polge)

2001: Nu of Yves Saint Laurent (Jacques Cavallier)


see also

Web on the left of


  > German to English > (Machine translated into English)