parliament (of altfranz.: parlement = conversation; of franz.: more parler =) is the legislative meeting (legislation) of representatives of a larger administrative Gebietseinheit , in particular individual

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structure, tasks and function of parliaments

in a democracy the representatives of a parliament by elections or by lot are determined, in other systems of government findingalso appointments instead of.

In democratic states the parliament exercises the budget right and control of the government except the legislation also . Delegates have the right to information opposite the government and individual Ministers and if necessary to the motion of no confidence. The regulationsfor this are laid down in the condition of the respective state and in the parliamentary agenda.

Most parliaments consist of two houses (parliamentary system of two Houses; the members of the smaller chambers are selected often not directly, but sent by Lands of the Federal Republic). Important organsparliament president (in) and deputies, parliamentary group - chairmen of the parliament parties and the topic-referred committees , are in whom the bills are prepared.

Regarding the function one differentiates so-called. Work and speech parliaments:

  • In a speech parliament (for it the British House of Commons is typical)all political questions in discussions are predominantly discussed and in the plenum,
  • during in a work parliament (e.g. US - Congress) a majority of the work in parliamentary committees takes place,
  • in most states is the parliament a combination of these two types.
  • Independently of theseAlso (often as doubtful outstanding) the Lobbying a role with the parliament work , which (more positively regarded, plays structures) is to be regarded also as co-operation with federations, churches , trade unions or other condition agencies.
  • In many countries is in the locking consultation of a billthe possibility of a halfpublic consultation upstream, where political and other large organizations or federations can bring in their statements and improvement suggestions. In Switzerland this procedure is called notification.

When parliament in the broader sense also delegate conferences become designation of international organizations,z. B. the parliamentary meeting of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Euro. Often also Party Congresses have the function of a “party parliament”, although their delegated ones always not selected, but also appointed or to be nominated to be able.

individual parliaments

European union

that European parliament is the people agency of the citizens of the European union, it has however fewer authority than national parliaments. The member states will represent legislativ by the advice of the European union.


German parliament on federal level is that German Bundestag. Frequently also the Upper House of Parliament is called parliament; state-legally seen it is this however not, although it notices functions of a parliament: It is only that constitutional body, by which the Lands of the Federal Republic in accordance with Basic Law - article 50 at the legislationthe federation are involved. Further German parliaments are the land parliaments. The last people chamber of the GDR of 18. March 1990 was likewise a parliament in the wahrsten sense of the word.


in Austria insists the parliament on nationalEven one from national council as representative government and Upper House of Parliament as agency of the Lands of the Federal Republic.


in Switzerland consists the national parliament of a parliamentary system of two Houses with national council and condition advice as among themselves of equal standing and equal houses of parliament, those together as a united Presidential Election Council the Federal President, the federal advice, the general and the Federal High Court Judges select as well as on pardons decide.


in Poland gives it likewise a parliamentary system of two Houses with Sejm and senate. The Sejm orders the Prime Minister and the Ministerat.The legislation comes to the two chambers.

Lithuania and Lettland

in Lithuania and Lettland is there an a chamber system Seimas. The Seimas orders the Prime Minister, who forms the Minister cabinet. The Seimas comes the legislation zu´.

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Explanations to the international parliaments

  • the lists of the parliaments of the states of the earth are arranged according to parliament, first and second chamber.
  • At states with an a chamber system the name of the parliament stands in selbiger column.
  • At states with a two-chamber systemthe name of the parliament is located likewise in selbiger column. Some states with such a system do not have a generic term as names for the parliament (z. B. Ethiopia), or it is identical to that the first chamber. Here only the names becomethe two chambers indicated.
  • As the first chamber the chambers selected by the people are indicated (z. B. Chamber of deputies).
  • As the second chamber meetings are not from the people selected were indicated (z. B. Senate). Here it concerns different representatives thatSociety (z. B. Aristocracy, Klerus); in föderalistischen states there is usually representatives of member states. Some of these chambers have only an advisory function, other one are involved in the legislation.
  • Actually one designates from history from the peopleselected chamber as „the second chamber “. But in the course of the democratization it became in most cases more important legislations the organ, what knows a designation as „the first chamber “fair-finished. Becomes particularly clear by the example of the Netherlands, where the chambers officiallyfirst and second chamber to be called.
  • In the parliament column the seat of the parliament is likewise indicated. It is identical in most cases to the capital. States in those the seat in parlament from the capital deviates are italically indicated (z.B. Bolivia).

list of the parliaments

major item list of the parliaments


  • legislative function /Legislative function: One of the main functions of parliaments is the resolution of laws, this function is assigned to the parliament by the division of power .
  • Choice function:The parliaments select persons like the parliament president, high judges or in parliamentary systems of government the government head.
  • Control function: The parliaments have often the task to control the executive. In addition they have auditing rights like the right to use a committee of inquiry orabout secret service actions to be informed. The control function is noticed normally particularly by the opposition. Are controlled direction, efficiency and the legal standard of the government action. Around the executive effectively to control to be able the parliament is able, the government headto vote out, for example by a constructional vote of no confidence to accuse or as with the Impeachment.
  • Communication function/Öffentlichkeitsfunktion: It can be divided into representation - or articulation function, the parliament is to express the views existing in the public and will formation - or public function, according to which the parliament is to inform the people.


  • budget right: One of the oldest rights of parliaments is the budget right. The household is discharged as law and can serve also for it, the government toocontrol.
  • Rights to interpellate: In order the control function to notice to be able have parliaments the right to place to cabinet members questions.
  • Self dissolution right: Thus one designates the right of a parliament to dissolve so that it comes to new elections. Not each parliament, so alsothe Bundestag, have the right to self dissolution.

pictures of parliament buildings

to parliament history


in the France of the Ancien Régime with parliament a Court of Justice was designated, which was considered as one of the oldest institutions of the realm. The parliament could the royal iurisdiction confirm or also correct, in that it, particularly in 18.Century, a law to “remontrance” to the king referred back. The different chambers of the parliaments were differentiated according to their jurisdiction ranges (“grande chambre”, “chambre of the enquêtes”, “chambre de requêtes”, “routeal criminelle” and also the “chambre de l'édit” (until 1685, see recalling of theEdict of Nantes)). Particularly in 18. To century the parliaments were considered as a stronghold of the opposition of parts of the aristocracy (“noblesse d'épée “like also the” noblesse de robe “) and of parts of the third conditions approximatelyone as the-poetically felt absolutism, with which the jansenistische opposition associated against the Jesuiten and a ultramontane church. In the Kingdom of France still the parliaments of Toulouse (1303) became, Grenoble (1453), Rouen beside the first and most important parliament of of Paris(1499), Aix (1502), Rennes (1533), Pau (1620), Metz (1633), Douai (1686), Dôle (1676), Besançon (1676) and last Nancy (1775) furnished.

See also: Parlement


the English parliament developed from the noble advisor circle of the normannischen kings, thatso mentioned witan. In it not only personal confidence people of the king were represented, but both high ones and landnoble and high of religious dignitary, who possessed a requirement on the membership due to their power. The consultation of the king by that witan '' not only as obligation of his members, but also as its right one understood. The king was thus obligated to catch up the advice. Under the early Normannenkönigen the parliaments were only in each case as required called up, if important topics were to be advised.To 20. Also low knights and civil representatives from counties and cities were for the first time invited January 1265 to a parliament. Thus the House OF Commons, the House of Commons developed. In 14. Century increased its and power of the parliament,likewise the number of the members. The parliament understood itself not only as consulting, but increasingly as control organ opposite the king. Besides it stressed the function of the highest Court of Justice and above all the right to grant taxes. Also the summoning was no longer alone dependent on the will of the king. The members of parliament could meet increasingly also on own initiative. However the English parliament became thereby increasingly also the scene of arguments between the groups of aristocracy of the country.


the general-PolishParliament - the Sejm walny - developed for end 14. Century. It consisted of representatives the federal state parliament - Sejmiki -, who were selected again by the noble subpopulations. The aristocracy made in the Polish litauischen Rzeczpospolita 10 - 12% of the population out. The Sejm walny met once per year as well as to the king choice. With the privileges of 1454 the role of the Sejm grew walny and it wrung out the king ever more rights in favor of the aristocracy. With thatCondition Nihil Novi - “nothing over us without us” - of 1505 was transferred the legislation to the Sejm walny, the king was allowed to issue no more laws without its express agreement. Into this time also the transformation falls of the Sejm walny in three chambers - “three conditions” - the Sejm (Lower House), the senate (king advice) and the king. A large reform experienced the Sejm walny with the Lubliner union of 1569 and the Warsaw condition of 1572, in particular thoseEqualization of the denominations and the freedom of religion secured. Besides it was specified that the Sejm was to accumulate at least once in two years. End 16. Century the meeting place of the Sejm was shifted walny from Petrikau to Warsaw. Starting from 1673 he met alsoeach third time in Grodno. 1654 were introduced liberum the veto, which prescribed the unanimity of the resolutions. If a delegate was correct against a project, then had to be further-negotiated. The four years old Sejm, which met from 1788 to 1792 in Warsaw king locks,1791 issued the condition of the 3. May, the first enlightened condition of Europe and to the USA second in the world. With the third division of Poland divisions of Poland the Sejm was dissolved walny. In the Grand Duchy of Warsaw (1807-1814) and at the beginningthe Russian kingdom Poland (1815-1832) existed a Polish Sejm in Warsaw. After 1867 in Galizien a federal state parliament in Lemberg was furnished. Only again in the second Polish republic a totalPolish Sejm with two chambers (Sejm and senate) was formed. Inthe People's Republic there was only a Sejm with a chamber. 1989 were again introduced the senate.

see also

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