Parliamentary election

The designation parliamentary election is a over term for all democratic elections into a legislative meeting (legislation or representative government).

The parliaments have very different names in different states; the term is referred generally linguistic usage rather to the national parliaments as on that one the smaller administrative unit -- although particularly in Germany the parliamentarism in the member states developed (federal state parliament = the meeting meeting of the country). Today those are also called federal state parliament of the Lands of the Federal Republic by Germany and Austria “state parliaments”, those the Swiss of cantons also canton - or land advice.

At states with a parliamentary system of two Houses only the delegates of the first chamber are usually selected directly, while those are delegated the second chamber by the partial state or Land of the Federal Republic.

Table of contents

in addition, principles of today's elections and their

development the fundamental rules of today's parliamentary elections decrease/go back to antique models, depend on the general spirit of the time, in one epoch the prevailing world view (see moslemische countries), the general education conditions and the most important occupation conditions . So it is to be accepted that in the Middle Ages only few from the Landbevölkerung into the sense came to wish itself general elections.
However this desire very probably developed in the cities - did not depend thus here on the religion of the majority. This actually well-known fact will ignore the today's world view thereby sometimes with the negative evaluation of earlier centuries and verabsolutiert.

Since the liberty efforts erstarkten in Europe some fundamental rules developed, which are the basis our current systems of government. Regarding the democratic elections (there were parliaments already much in former times) usually 5 to 7 of the following principles applies in modern states:

In the sense of today's legal maxims they can be attributed to international-law principles, to conventions and/or to the European human right convention. Despite clear theory however some restrictions are usual in the practice:

condition rules, right to vote and electoral laws

at states with a parliamentary system of two Houses are usually selected directly only the delegates of the first chamber, while those are delegated the second chamber by the partial state or Land of the Federal Republic.

The procedure of the parliamentary elections and the determination of the mandates in the right to vote one regulates, the details in the electoral law. The condition of democratic states specifies whether the delegates after a Mehrheitswahlrecht or a elections on the basis of proportional representation right is selected, and the principles, according to which the mandate numbers are assigned to the areas.

general and directly, freely, directly and secretly

the principles, which became generally accepted etappenweise since the liberty wars for democratic elections, read:

  • General one - free - resembles and secret choice.
    • Generally: not dependent on the conditions, fortune, income or sex; the woman right to vote is not yet by any means everywhere natural; in the Orient cultural reasons are stated, existed in Switzerland in 20. Century still kantonale differences.
    • Freely and secretly: leave to the personal decision; regarding the question, whether also the liberty of the Nichtwählens exists, it gives it still isolated obligation to vote.
    • Directly: “each voice has same weight” - to however not literally take, because
      • the regional allocation of the mandates in general. from the inhabitants proceeds, i.e. Constituencies with more children have somewhat higher weight,
      • and the conversion of voices on integral mandates of the procedure (e.g. Remainder voices, d'Hondt) detaches.
      • In view of the increased responsibility of parents also repeatedly discussions develop whether a fictitious child right to vote with voice splitting would not be fairer than the nominal equality. In some elections for municipality - agencies such already some decades worked.

variability of parliaments

the word parliament comes of the old French (, conversation parlement). In the today's is called French more parler as much as talk (see also Palaver). And so differently humans talk with one another, so differently can be also parliaments.

consultation, discussion and/or legislation

in the article “parliament “are differentiated regarding the function between work and speech parliaments. Another - in particular for the tradition in developing countries important - distinction is whether the majority is to decide (as with us) or whether the goal of the unanimity and their positive consequences of emotional nature (larger satisfaction etc.) justify the time requirement necessary for it.

One understands a parliament as actual meeting of the council - where some speech parliaments actually tend - then is the difference to up to the unanimity “palavernden” senates with some African trunks small in principle. Large it is however in the selection process: here (e.g. in England) one of violent choice advertisement accompanied argument, there a delegation or a selection by age of the parliament acres.

If one understands the parliament mainly as a legislative meeting (legislation) after Roman or comparable principle, then it represents the public and the population of a larger administrative administrative unit in something other sense of right. Such are in particular:

there is interdependence of parliamentary election

and parliament structure in the everyday life natural connections between rights and obligations of humans and their social or vocational conditions. Similar, but weaker interdependences exist between the power of a parliament and the severity of its Wahlordung. Because will be to a large extent all the same during a powerless representative government to the people, how it comes off.

In a democracy the parliament of authorized agents is determined by free and usually general elections, during in other systems of government also appointments. But also republics know the delegation of delegates - e.g. on the part of the Bundersländer into the second chamber.

If the parliament exercises the budget right and control of the government except the legislation also, it must come under “controlled conditions”. The right to interpellate of the delegates to the Ministers - in favor of national stability everywhere powerfully the actual partly does not correspond the responsibility of the delegate opposite its voters. Here lists are alone already - right to vote and a personality choice large differences between that. Further connections between right to vote and its consequences are at the kinds of the motion of no confidence of excluding from agendas, the choice regulation with the resignation or death from delegates and generally at different constitutions.

the designation of parliaments and parliamentary elections

so differently the cultures, which are world-wide systems of government and the parliaments, so differently are also their names - which mean often also different. One e.g. speaks. in Germany of the Upper House of Parliament, (through different selection process developed) the land chamber is meant. In Switzerland it is however the government, whose composition besides of the parliament is nearly independent.

A parliament “national councilis called (e.g. Austria, Switzerland or Algeria), then speak everyone with the associated choice of the national council choice. Their official designation can deviate however from it and read for example “elections from the national council”.

the names of individual parliaments and - elections (exemplary)

Untenstehens are some names of well-known parliaments, and/or. their first (by general elections determined) chambers aforementioned, the vulgo designation of the appropriate elections however only for German-language countries.

Official name (partly. German) handling-linguistically choice (handling linguistic)
European parliament (EUROPARL) European parliament European choice
chamber of deputies (bad., Brasil…) Parliament
Bundestag (D, Bundestag election to the Bundestag
Camera dei Deputati (Italy) Parlamento parliamentary election (South Tyrol)
Consell general (Andorra) general council
Duma (Russia) Duma
legislation (Ireland) parliament
house of the representatives (Japan) parliament
house of the people (India) parliament
House OF Commons (Great Britain) House of Commons
Majles e-Shura ye-Eslami (Iran) Majlis
national congress of people (China) congress of people
national council (A, CH) Nationarat national council choice
national assembly (France) Assemblée national
national assembly (Armenia. Iraq, Kenya, Cuba etc.)
highest advice (Ukraine) Werchowna Rada
parliament (Bosnia, Georgien, Greece, Croatia, Hungary)
meeting of the council (Afghanistan) Loja Dschirga
Reichstag (Estonia, Finland, Sweden)
house of representatives (the USA, Trinidad, Colombia…)
Sejm (Poland) Sejm
Storting (Norway) Storting
meeting of all (Iceland)
meeting (Israel) Knesset
popular assembly (Bulgaria, Denmark)

see also:


other forms of the policy

politicians, conditions and parties

elections and democracy

special elections

democratic theory and - education


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