|of these articles treats the city Parma in Italy. For further meanings see Parma (term clarifying).|
Parma is an upper-Italian large city with 174.471 inhabitants (region: 402,000 inhabitants) in the southwest Po - level. Parma is in the region Emilia Romagnalain, which borders in the north on the Lombardei and Venetien, in the west and in the south on the mountains of the toskanisch romagnolischen Apennins and in the east on the Adria. Beside Milan, Turin, Genova, Bologna, and Venice Parma is a prominent economic center of north Italy,with emphasis in food industry. Like that Parma is by its Parmesankäse (Parmigiano Reggiano), which Parmaschinken and not least as seat of internationally active enterprises as the noodle manufacturer Barilla or the Parmalat Spa (milk products) well-known. Also successes of the soccer club AC Parma have considerably to the admitting heating degree thatCity contributed (AC Parma: European Cup winner of the Cup winners 1993, UEFA - Cup winners 1995 and 1999).
Parma had a old-venerable University of (the medieval Italian tradition following the Universitas in such a way specified Citramontanorum associated), an international airport (aero postage di Parma Giuseppe Verdi) and is at one of the main motorways of Italy,of Milan over Ancona to Kalabrien extends, expressed traffic-favorably convenient.
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the urban history decreases/goes back up to the Etrusker ; the Romans finally created the city on the right bank of the river Parma in the year 184 v. Chr. In the future Parma was a ball of powers: Of the Langobarden, over Frankish Pfalzgrafen, the church state,Milan, the Frenchman, Bourbonen up to Marie Luise of Austria swung so rather each important regional power the Zepter over Parma.
The earlymodern duchy (Ducato) Parma became 1545 /47 von Papst Paul III. (1534-1549) for its illegitimate son jetty Luigi Farnese (1503-1547) production, itsSuccessor Ottavio Farnese (1524-1586) it succeeded to stabilize the fern SE rule in Parma and to 1556 also at second to expand since that time with Parma connected duchy Piacenza which had already along-controlled jetty Luigi at short notice. The third duke, Alessandro Farnese (1586-1592), was famous as a field gentleman of the habsburgischen emperor house(“IL Gran Capitano”).
In 17. Century decreased the meaning of the duke house, which became extinct 1731 in male line. A princess von Parma, Elisabetta Farnese, was however as a wife Philipps V. of Spain the ancestor lady of the Spanish Bourbonen - kings († 1766). It used the instruments of powertheir realm and allied France, in order in Italy - whose there Spanish habsburgische possessions had completely been lost after the Spanish succession war 1714 of the Spanish crown - the rule of their dynasty to establish. It aimed also at its homeland Parma and Piacenza, it 1731 by international contracts her oldest son Karl I. (the later Karl III. from Spain) to secure knew.
a further French-Spanish success in the Polish succession war 1735 forced Austria to surrender the habsburgische double kingdom Neapel and Sicily to Karl for which howeverParma to the having castle he emperor Karl VI. (1711-1740) and at its daughter Maria Theresia (1740-1780) fell. The Austrian succession war led around their inheritance ended 1748 for Parma however with a further renouncement of the having citizens in favor of the Spanish Bourbonen: The second son of the queen Elizabeth, Philipp (1748-1765),justified at that time the herzogliche line of this dynasty, whose members led due to their royal-Spanish birth however also the title of a “Infanten Spain” with the address” royal sovereignty “. The 1769 closed marriage between of Philipps son duke Ferdinand (1765-1802) and Maria Theresias daughter ore duchess Maria Amalia (1746-1804) led also in Parma Piacenza to a bourbonisch habsburgischen marriage alliance - just like in France 1770 between Ludwig XVI. and Maria Amalias sister Marie Antoinette and also in Neapel Sicilies.
In the French revolution wars the double duchy end of the 1790er was occupied years by the Frenchmen. Napoleon agreed upon 1801 with Spain and the house Bourbon Parma that the double duchy should fall after death duke Ferdinands at France, while its ruling family should be compensated in the Toskana, where for it a new “Kingdom of Etrurien “was created. Parma Piacenza fell 1802 at France(where Napoleon used two of his favourites later to nominal dukes), Etrurien was removed from the parmesischen Bourbonen likewise 1807.
nevertheless also after the end of the rule Napoleon 1814 knew that inheritance of the bourbonischen requirements, Karl II. of Bourbon Parma (* 1799; † 1883), notreturn, there the double duchy on the Viennese congress from the great powers for the Austrian emperor daughter and the past French empress Marie Louise (* 1791; † 1847) on lifetime were reserved. Only after their death Parma and Piacenza should drop back to the house Bourbon Parma, for the meantimebecame the bourbonische duchess widow Maria Luisa (1817-1824) and Karl II. (1824-1847) after initial Sträuben compensated with the small, particularly again created duchy Lucca. There Karl II. did without. however already before the agreed upon change to its master country from fear of revolutionary developments in October 1847 upthe throne, Lucca as stipulated Toskana fell to the habsburgische Grand Duchy.
After death in December 1847 then at short notice landless Bourbone Karl II. stepped the empress Marie Luise. its traditional rule in Parma and Piacenza on, where it however already in the subsequent year 1848 -how all governments of Italy - again with the revolution and the tendency after national unit was confronted. Twice - in April 1848 and (after his return in August 1848) in March 1849 the duke from the country fled, to which he never returned to it more,there it weakens Karl III. in favor of its son. (1849-1854) resigned.
The young duke Karl III. a reactionary arbitrariness regime in August 1849 under the protection of Austrian troops to Parma and established, which made it in such a manner hated, returned that he - of hardly someone entrusting ore -in March 1854 in Parma on open road by unknown quantities to be stabbed could. For the still minor heir to the throne duke Robert (1854-1859/60) took over its nut/mother, the native French Bourbonen princess Louise Marie of Bourbon (* 1819, † 1864), the regency. Their intelligent government provided it personallyhigh reputation, knew however the fall of the dynasty after the military defeat of the protecting power Austria against the France Napoleon's III. do not prevent and against Sardinien in the year 1859. In June 1859 the duchess Regentin with its children fled later into Switzerland and to Austria. In The revolutionary double duchies Parma and came up Piacenza the Kingdom of Sardinien followed March 1860 and 1861 in the new unit state Italy.
A daughter of the last duke Robert von Bourbon Parma (* 1848, † 1907) was a princess Zita (* 1892, † 1989), those as a wife of theHaving citizen Karl I. between 1916 and 1918 empress of Austria and queen from Hungary were. Zitas brother prince Sixtus (Sizzo) of Bourbon Parma was the name giver of the diplomatic Sixtus affair in the First World War. Both nephew prince Carlos Hugo of Bourbon Parma (* 1930) inherited the requirements for throne thatKarlistic Gegenkönige of the Spanish Bourbonen (see also Karlistenkriege), did without however after the effective reestablishment of the Spanish monarchy after 1975 in favor of the governing king Juan Carlo I. from the bourbonischen line of the queen Isabella II.
see also: List of the rulers of Parma
Culture and objects of interest
much is the Parmaschinken [
of sons and daughters of the city
- Bernardo Bertolucci, Italian film director
- Clemens III. (Gegenpapst), Gegenpapst
- Francesca Cuzzoni, Italian Sopranistin
- Paolo Dezza, Italian medal general, cardinal
- Elisabetta Farnese,Queen of Spain
- Parmigianino, painter of the mannersism
- Ildebrando Pizzetti, composer
- Antonio Rolla, violin virtuoso
- Arturo Toscanini, Italian conductor
- Lino Ventura, actor
the German early romantic Ludwig Tieck (1773 - 1853), and. A. as authors of thatif gestiefelte Kater admits, after its Italy stay the following Bonmot is to have coined/shaped 1804/05: “Nobody legend, it saw, if it did not visit you, Parma, and your cathedral to Italy. ”
In December 2003 it was decided that Parma the future seat that European food security authority is.
Web on the left of
Coordinates: 44° 48 ′ N, 10° 20 ′ O
|Commons: Parma - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
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