of these articles treats the Wagneroper Parsifal; for the hero of this opera and to the Epos of the same name of tungsten of ash brook, see Parzival.

Parsifal is the title of the last music-dramatic work in three documents of smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Wagner. Wagner called his age work„Bühnenweihfestspiel “, with which it wanted to weihen its stage in the Native of Bayreuth Festspielhaus.

Table of contents

developing history

Wagner busy itself already 1845 alsothe material of the legend, but the first scenes with the title „Parzival “originate only from the year 1865. At this time Wagner already enjoyed the generous sponsor shank king Ludwig Bavaria. Wagner other topics employed long time: the completion of the Festspielhauses, its removalinto the mansion „Wahnfried “(1872), the first festivals and the production of its most extensive work, the ring of the Nibelungen (1876).

Only in April 1877 Wagner finished the libretto for the Parsifal. In this framework also the change of the name took place: Wagnercreated a wordplay, which unbefleckt itself to the vorgeblich Arab words for „“(parsi) and „fool “(fal) to lean should. As a fool pure in the heart the figure of the Parsifal in the work is also drawn.

In the summer following on it orchestra-play and to 1879 were the orchestra sketches developedfor the three document completes. But it should last still until January 1882, until all instruments were through-composed. The premiere found to 26. July 1882 under the direction of gentleman Mr. Levi instead of. The scenery created Paul von Joukowsky, the Wagner on its regular Italy journeysaround 1880 in Neapel know had learned. Therefore the stage was affected mediterran: The Gralstempel reminded of the cathedral of Siena, Klingsors charm lock was affected of the Palazzo Rufalo in Ravello.

After the express will of Wagners and its inheriting should the Parsifal originally exclusive inBayreuth to the performance come. But after the death of the composer Cosima became already short a performance in Munich for king Ludwig II. of its widow. permitted. 1913, when copyright for the work ran out - about what it come to controversies an argument into Reichstagwas - stood to his world-wide performance nothing more in the way.

action and prehistory

the action lean against ash brook the 'sche Epos, remains on that not limited however. Gawan withdraws in the action far and becomes casual only in the first elevatormentioned. Thereby however release props become and - work of the main figure only the more strongly stresses.

King Titurel is in the possession of two miracle-active Reliquien. The Gral served Christi at the cross, which flowed from the wound as drinking cup with the last communion and it caught the blood,to it one of the soldiers with a lance caused. Gral and lance possesses the king, and it keeps both treasures in its Gralsburg. Titurel surrounds itself with knights, who, by the Reliquien strengthened, pull into the world, in order to do property. Also Klingsor endeavored, a Gralsritter to become, rejected itself however because of its Unkeuschheit. Thereupon it sterilized, created themselves in the desert a charm garden with seductive women and swore to actually bring the king and its knights to entmachten and the Reliquien.

Ever more knight fellthe seduction arts of the beautifulnesses to the victim, so that Titurels decided son Amfortas as young Gralskönig to pull with the holy lance armed against Klingsor into the fight. But also it is enticed by a mysterious woman, Klingsor steals to it the lance and hurts it onthe side. The knights withdraw themselves with the wounded Amfortas, whose wound does not want to heal, to the Gralsburg.

Ouvertüre and first act

on a clearing the close Gralsburg wake knight Gurnemanz its comrades. It demands it on to pray and the morning bathto prepare the young king Amfortas. Kundry, the mysterious, rejecting aid of the Gralsritter, comes hasty here-ridden. With last Kraft she presents heilendes balsam for the hurt king, who is now here-carried. But half desperately, half spöttisch notices it, it will help probably so little howthe herbs, which knight had already brought to Gawan. Kundry thereupon of the Knappen as „Heidin “and „charm woman “designates. Only Gurnemanz takes it in protection, when the Knappen demand, to Kundry is to loose-pull, in order to fetch the stolen lance back.

Now Gurnemanz opens that after a prophecythis only a hero certain of God is able. Only „a fool pure in the heart “can save the young king and fetch the lance back. It tells history of Titurel and the Gralsburg, of the refusal Klingsors and of its revenge.

The scene becomes by noisedisturbed by the close lake and the knights catch a boy, who killed a swan with arrow and elbow. It is Parsifal, the son heart-suffers and the knight Gamuret pleased in a fight. The boy grew under the Obhut his nut/mother in the forestwithout contact to the external world up. He does not know even, who it is, but Kundry knows its history and tells it to the men. Gurnemanz believes the prophesied „pure fool “to have found and takes it, while Kundry falls into a hypnotischen sleep, also to the Gralsburg. Theremeet the knights, Amfortas, Titurel and, as mute spectators, Parsifal for the exposure of the Grals. Amfortas deplores its pain, which only the Gral can do lindern. Titurel and the knights request him to reveal the Gral. The blood Christi is found in it, there shinesin a magic light light. The knights take the communion, but the Amfortas troubled by pain must be carried away thereafter. Gurnemanz had expected and throws from Parsifals presence more it zornig from the castle. One „voice from the height “repeats the words of the prophecy.

second act

the second act leads suddenly into another, fantastische world. Klingsor observes from its charm lock from Parsifal, which approaches the charm garden. With Kundry as tool it wants to rob the innocence from the fool. Now the role of the Kundry comesto the daylight: By verhöhnt Jesus on its cross way, she adjusted and looks for themselves the release way “him now from world to world”, in always new Wiedergeburten. It serves full death longing since that time on the one hand voluntarily paying for the Gralsrittern as an aid, on the other hand Klingsor assakeless, beautiful tools of its Rachegelüste. It was it, which in changed shape Amfortas enticed and into the trap lured.

Release can attain it only if you resist a man, so that you do not come up “the verfluchte laughter” again. Therefore it adds itself only against-striving thatTo entice instruction Klingsors Parsifal. After Parsifal defeated the dropped Gralsritter, to him Klingsor against-sent, receives it Kundry in the charm garden. There it opens its true identity to it and tells the boy of the death of its nut/mother. Comfort-end, but with the intention of enticing it closesit Parsifal into their arms. But in the moment, where both sink into a long kiss, the hero awakes and recognizes the connections with Amfortas' suffering. Parsifal rejects Kundry and requires of it to get the way to the Gralskönig pointed. It has now itsRegulation as rescuers of the Grals and the lance recognized.

Kundry complains it their wrong and expects from it release. But when it refuses, their erotischen desires to give way and to her only its pure renunciation as release of the unstillbaren demand, verflucht it offers it and callsafter Klingsor. This wants to kill the young man with the holy lance, but the notice fails.Parsifal seizes the weapon in air, where they stand had remained. In this instant Klingsors charm realm, the garden purges dried up suddenly, and the Spuk is past. Parsifal makes itselfon the way back to the Gralsburg.

third act

play represents by the unresolved and always increased harmonious tensions and melodischen dead ends the labyrinthische erring travel of the hero, who is struck with Kundrys of paradoxical longing: Only then if Kundry arrives resigning in the Gralsgebiet,also it can regain its goal.

Years passed. Gurnemanz lives as an a settler in the forest and finds there a daily Kundry in deep faint. After she awakes, she is gently, helpful and silent, which surprises the old Gralsritter much. A knight in full armament entersthe scene and as it its visor opens, recognizes Gurnemanz high-pleased that it is Parsifal, which fetched the holy lance back.

He welcomes it as a rescuer and reports of death Titurels and of it that the Gralsrunde disintegrated and the Gralszeremonie by Amfortas never to moreone carried out. Only to the shortly taking place dead celebration the young king wants to carry out the ceremony a last mark. Now Kundry Parsifal washes the feet, and Gurnemanz salbt him and washes it from its sins freely. By these actions Parsifal becomes the new Gralskönig. He baptizesKundry and make themselves them common on the way to the Gralsburg.

In the castle the knights met. Amfortas deplores its dead father and erfleht desperately from it release. The Gralsritter urge on the ceremony, but Amfortas refuses. There Parsifal and its enterCompanion the scene. With the holy lance Parsifal closes the still gaping wound Amfortas' and reveals the Gral. From the height a white pigeon slides down and floats over Parsifals head. The dramatic scene ends with the release Kundrys, which falls dead to soil,the Huldigung of all knights at the new Gralskönig and the opening of the Grals for all times: “The more is not to be locked! ”


  • Amfortas, Gralskönig (Bariton)
  • Titurel, Amfortas' father (bass)
  • Gurnemanz, Gralsritter (bass)
  • Parsifal (tenor)
  • Klingsor (bass)
  • Kundry (Sopran or Mezzosopran)
  • twoGralsritter (tenor and bass)
  • four Knappen (Sopran and tenor)
  • voice from the height (alto)


  • WWV (daring he list of works): 111
  • premiere: to 26. July 1882 in the Festspielhaus Bayreuth under the direction of Hermann Levi
  • form: through-composed (no scene data!)
  • Duration: 3½to 4 ½ Std
  • publishing house: B. Schott's of sons, Mainz (smelling pool of broadcasting corporations daring he total expenditure)

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