of these articles is occupied with partisan, an armed fighter. For partisans, an impact weapon, see the there article.

A partisan (of Italian partigiano party men) is an armed fighter, who does not belong to regular armed forces of an army. For the opponent is not itas fighters recognizably, because it does not carry uniform or other badges. Partisan fight is nearly always a defensive war against conquerers, Besatzer or colonialists. Also in civil wars or other domestic Konfliken arise to partisans. Usually defend partisans a at least partially developed national requirement for release.

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partisans accomplish fighting in area occupied by the enemy. They are equipped generally only with light weapons. To the operations accomplished by partisans enumerate acts of sabotage, espionage, attackssmaller military federations of the enemy and fight against Kollaborateuren. Partisans operate mostly from the covering of a civilian population out. The danger for the aggressor through partisans is only with difficulty seizable, but binds in areas already befriedeten additional troops.

To partisans fight usually only within their ownNational territory, but always regionally, as in the Spanish civil war, in the war against the Soviet Union, with Tito or Mao was not it shown. The function partisans is a defensive, their advantage is the exact local knowledge and the possibility of submerging in the population.

Partisans and partisan inside become for a long timeafter the arguments often part of the folklore, how itself for example at the own category of the partisan films in Tito - Yugoslavia to reconstruct leaves.

The prominent, but most disputed lawyer of the German Reich and former president of the combination of National Socialist lawyers, Carl Schmitt, dekretierte in its theory of thePartisans of 1963 four characteristics - politicalization, irregularity, mobility, a tellurischer character - as connecting. The individual characteristics are again described in the following:

A) Irregularity

partisan is that, which avoids it to carry weapons openly which fights from the ambush, both the thoseUniformly the enemy and firm or loose badges uses. Acting in the darkness from the ambush are its strongest weapons, without which it cannot do, without losing the area of the irregularity. To stop and thus to be partisan. The hostile soldierin uniform is the actual firing goal modern partisans. The partisan fighting with the weapon is always dependent on co-operation with a regular organization. The partisan fight can be accompanying only preparing or (see. in addition also he knew Mao, in the course of the civil war itself increasinglyby regular troops support, which from the Kuomintang to it overflowed, with them could it only the victory in the Chinese civil war achieve).

b) Increased mobility of the active fight

the partisan enjoys the advantages of the area, it knows retreat areas etc. Partisans can itselfto their environment up to the indiscernibility chamäleonartig adapt and from this protection the opponent fight. Mobility, speed and surprising change of attack and retreat (increased mobility thus) are characteristics partisans. The partisan does not have a location, like a regiment or the regular troop. It movesitself many faster and many more incalculably. By the mobility above all the incalculability of its emerging is to be understood. This again hangs together with its release from regular regulations and v.a. of the uniform. Humans, that the uniform or also only a prescribed badge withoutfurther to change can, is mobile. Mobility may be understood not only in the sense about movement, but also in the sense of a rapid change, the kind of the occurrence. The partisan must move like a fish in the water.

C) Increased intensity of the political commitment

Supports the national or private troops and fights for traditional values/ideas. In contrast to it the Guerillero: Fights for an idea/an ideology, under normal conditions against the national guidance. The criterion of the political one is with partisans the distinction of friend and enemy, the genuine political enmity is thatcrucial moment. By the intensive political commitment the partisan e.g. differs. of the criminal, whose motives are directed toward a private enriching. Partisan fights in a political front and the straight etymologische character refers to it. The word partisan can be derived from a party and referson the connection at a fighting, war-prominent or politically active party/group. These connections become straight in revolutionary times (here v.a.: Guerillero) strongly and/or by the repression of the enemy strengthens. On German partisan is called as much as party men. The kind of a party/front, with which the partisan goes alongcan be most different regarding going along, Mitkämpfens and running along. Carl Schmitt: “The partisan is that, which seized by hundred percent a party. ”

D) A Telluri character

the partisan is in principle defensive despite the enormous tactical mobility. The partisan becomes however the Guerillero, if he onean offensive character takes care of and with the absolute aggressiveness world revolution eras of an ideology identified. The tellurische character describes the defensive partisans, its autochthonen character, i.e. the delimitation of the enmity on a certain area, the connection with its soil („its Scholle “) remains existing. After successful fightthe partisan returns to his soil, he is aligned at no long-continuous fight, on no expansive intentions. Schmitt: „The partisan will represent at least still so long a specifically terranen type of the active fighter, how anti-colonialistic wars on our planet are possible. “(S.27) however: Alsothe autochthone partisan agraischer origin is in-torn into „the field of the irresistible, technical technisch-industriellen of progress. “Its mobility is increased in such a way by motorizing that it can be completely entortet. Question: Is partisan therefore an outdated figure? A motorized partisan loses gradually his tellurischen character, it is only the transportable and replaceable tool of one „powerful, world politics driving center. “(Examples: Expansion of communism or attempts, the Cuban revolution e.g. to transport to Angola).

Afterwards is still aforementioned that Carl Schmitt did not make a difference between partisan and Guerillero, it equated both.But it applies to consider crucial distinguishers:

A) The character partisan is defensive, after the fight turns it to its Scholle back (a tellurischer character). The Guerillero however fights offensively, for an ideology (a revolutionary character).

b) From this follows: The partisan wants to receive the existing order,and/or. to the before existing order (e.g. before the invasion) return the Guerillero wants the existing order to abolish.

This distinction was however not created by Carl Schmitt. Rather later e.g. the Munkler, which introduced the “partisan of the tradition” (thus partisan) and the “partisan of the revolution” (Guerillero).Over the distinction between partisan and Guerillero however no agreement exists. Without a doubt it is however Carl Schmitt, which began with its work to manifest the partisans theoretically.

legal status

the legal status of partisans is codified by the international law of war and defines partisans asirregular fighters. Partisans do not enjoy therefore the protection of the prisoners of war. Their acts can be accordingly criminally pursued. Hague the land war order of 1907 looked for a compromise following the Franktireur (French and Belgian snipers of the French-German war of 1871): As condition for the fact that thatimprovised Krieger with improvised uniform as Kombattant in the international-law sense one recognizes, the LKO requires: responsible person superior, far away visible badge and open carrying of weapons.

Straight one this way shows up the dominant misunderstanding in relation to the combat form partisans. Partisan is straight that, which avoids it, weaponsto carry openly, which fights from the ambush, which uses both the uniform of the enemy and firm or loose badges. Acting in the darkness from the ambush are its strongest weapons, without which it cannot do, without the area of the irregularityto lose. To stop and thus to be partisan.

Hague the land war order from 1907 was resumed after the Second World War by the four Geneva conventions (12.August) from 1949. Always large categories of war participants, who are considered also as Kombattanten, were developed, over among other things the phenomenon of theTo become fair Partisanentums. Also some facets partisans became now the regular fighters on an equal footing and to have their rights. Those Geneva conventions is however quite eurocentric and seized too little new phenomena like the Chinese civil war under Mao Tse Tung. (After Schmitt the partisan was, afterour definition however a Guerillero is. Mao transformed from the revolutionary Guerillero in the fight against the Kuomintang to tellurischen partisans against the Japanese Besatzer, and to the regular general in the last phase of the Chinese civil war.)

partisans hurt usually valid martial law, toDistinction between Kombattanten and civilians and. A. Uniform one, visible carrying of weapons etc. compellingly prescribes. This serves for the protection of the non-university-formed civilians, because after martial law it is forbidden to an army attacking civilians. Turned around it follows from the fact that civilians in addition, no army members may attack.This mutual attack prohibition lies in the fact justified that wars take place usually in settled, final area.

If one of the two parties acts against this in the martial law defined attack prohibition, the right to self-defense steps to its place after usual view. If soldiers are thus attacked by non--university-formed, they may with them the available the weapons strike back - mostly they are not very selective thereby, for the damage of indifferent civilians. In war history there are numerous war crimes, with which whole populations of village were executed due to partisan activity.

partisans as Kombattanten

speaks a minorityPartisans however the status of Kombattanten and thus the protection by the martial law too. This opinion is justified with the fact that wars of aggression contradict international law or are illegal from moral considerations and so that the aggressor may be fought also with means of the guerilla warfare.

In the defense doctrinethe Red Army was firmly taken into account the partisan fight since center of the 1930er years. In the Yugoslav army the partisan fight was raised after 1945 to the main strategy, and the French Résistance had to be active also in the fight against Kollaborateure.

examples of organized groups of partisans

partisans in the German Reich

1944 the Red Army the Baltic could back-conquer and

in Poland einmaschieren resistance against Soviet Okkupation in Poland and in the Baltic in the autumn, it a communist government in Poland, Lithuania, Lettland and Estland was used, whereby latter threeas Soviet republics directly into the USSR still 1939-1940 were integrated. The Warsaw rebellion 1944 was formally against Nazi Germany directed should politically an occupation of Poland by the Soviet Union prevent. Kollaborateure and aids of the German Besatzer in the Baltic were partially arrested or resettled (deportiert). Thousandsfled to the west and emigrierten later to Canada, Australia, south and North America, where Chicago should develop to one of the centers for emigration. Altogether are itself since at the beginning of the 2. World war alone in the USA several millions Poland and over 1 million Balten establishedhave. Many thousands went however into the resistance and fought (until about 1953) as partisans from the forests against the Soviet rule and Russifikation, in whose process in the Baltic over 100.000 further persons were killed.

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individuals Tadeusz

work on] called


  • Carl Schmitt: Theory partisans. Incidental remark for the term of the political one, Berlin 2002, ISBN 3-428-08439-x
  • Mao Tse tung: “Theory of the guerrilla war or strategy of the third world”, Reinbek 1966, with an introduction of Sebastian Haffner.

See also: Resistance fighter, Guerilla, liberation movement

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