a participle (v. lat. particeps „participating “; Pl.: Participles) is a infinite verb form. The designation points on the sharing (participation) at the characteristics both from adjectives and from verbs. Something similar brings from the mode designation come to central word toExpression, because the participle stands quasi in the center between verb and adjective.
The participle can be DEK-lined like an adjective . It is also often called for this reason verbal adjective. The participle attributes by a participle and an extension to be possibly formed can stand,attributiv to a noun. A participle attribute can be always dissolved by a relative clause. Thus the sentence becomes more easily understandable.
- the message coming from above (as relative clause: the message, which comes from above)
- with the message table of contents 1 participle
, participle present
the participle present asset (PPA, in German also participle 1) is to be assigned in a general manner to the active form of the verb.
- the loving nut/mother
- that the time relationship
of the simultaneousness between the action and that of the superordinate sentence expressed by the participle expresses singing girls the PPA. This form gives it also in latin and in the Greek one. The Greek has beyond that also a participle present the passive.
The children thoughtNut/mother has two children
the nut/mother, that nachdenkte children, has two children.
this form can not be formed in German - contrary to the old languages -, but not only described. This becomes necessary, if for instance latin Participle Futur asset (PFA) to be translated is.
Ex.: Morituri of width unit salutant - the Todgeweihten/those, those will die/those, in the term is to be died, greets you
in Litaui gives it both active and passive participle Futur, e.g. rašysima knyga (the book, which is written), Gimė vaikas valdysiantis pasaulį (a child was born, that the world will govern). In the Russian one colloquially the active participle present of the perfektiven verbs with Futurbedeutung is used.
Balto slawische participles
many Partizipialformen are particularly there in the Baltic and slawischen languages. The syntheticVerb forms are modified after tense and Genus verbi, in addition like Adjektiva after Kasus and number. Beyond that participles differentiate between short and long forms (the slawischen resultativen participles have today usually only more short forms). As a result of combination of these grammatical categories arise totoo several dozen of forms, which collapse usually only rarely. However in some languages the participles are displaced and paraphrasiert with subordinate clauses. Participles of the Futurs, which seems only to more in the Czech one, are particularly rare (exclusive in older texts). In the Russian one they are more frequently used,are considered there however as ungrammatisch.
Example from Litaui: Inf. matyti “see”, act. Present MASK. Nom. Sg. matąs/matantis “”, act sees. Perfectly MASKs. Nom. Sg. matęs “”, act saw. more iter. Perfectly MASKs. Nom. Sg. matydavęs “that saw”, act repeating. Futur MASK. Nom.Sg.matysiąs/matysiantis “that will see”, passport. Present MASK. Nom. Sg. matomas “”, passport is seen. Perfectly MASKs. Nom. Sg. matytas “seen is”, passport. Present MASK. Nom. Sg. matysimas “one will see”.
Prädikativ can express some Baltic Paritizipen the mode relativus, e.g. litauisch Jis sako buvęs namie (he says, he was at home), kuršiai gyvenę šiaurėje (the cures lived in the north; see. the Indikativform gyveno) and/or. in the passive kuršių gyventa šiaurėje (that. ; in the Indikativ still the auxiliary verb would be added : buvo gyventa). Becomes similar alsothe Transgressiv uses, if the subject of the main clause differs from that the indirect speech, e.g.jis sakė tėvą išęjus (he said that the father had left; this construction is called in latin Accusativus cum participio).
For the education of periphrastischer tenses it gives in Litaui furtherprogressive (active) participles, e.g.jis buvo bemiegąs “it slept straight (it was at sleeping)”.
Usually colloquially or dialektal both active and passive participles are consulted for the education of periphrastischer (more perfektiver) tenses:
- Polish: Wtedy miałem wypite. (I had at that time drunk)
- Russian: Мытогдабылиуехавши.(We were at that time travels - PPA)
- Russian: Уменякороваподоено. (With me the cow is milked/I the cow milked - PPP)
- Macedonian: Gi nemam videno. (I do not have it seen)
- altkirchenslawisch: běx stoję (I was at standing - process form)
- Byelorussian litauisch: Manip karvė pamelžta.(I have the cow milked)
there are infinite verb forms in
the slawischen languages, derived from participles, the Transgressiv and to the Baltic quasi-participle (e.g. lit. matant, mačius, of matyti ) as well as half participles “see matysiant ”, e.g. litauisch rašydamas (writing, infinitive rašyti), lettisch likdams (putting, infinitive likt). Half participles can be used only as verbal cliches. Into German they are usually paraphrasiert by subordinate clauses.
In some languages the infinite verb form with the reference word in Genus and number kongruiert, e.g. in the Czech one (Transgressiv) or Litaui(Half participle), see. litauisch Jis įėjo verkdam as (it is crying come in) vs. Ji įėjo verkdam A (it…).
some languages know special Partizipialformen, which express modale aspects. For example in Litaui there is the participle of the Müssens (Participium Necessitatis), its meaningthe German Gerundiv similarly is, e.g. rašytinas straipsnis (the essay which can be written). In some slawischen languages there is the participle of the possibility, e.g. in Obersorbi (korigujomny correctable, wobdźiwajomny admirablly), in Niedersorbi (widobny sehbar, zranjobny hurtable) or in the Czech one (korigovatelný correctable). Some modalenParticiples lost however their modality gradually. Beyond that also the usual participles can be used as modality expressions, e.g.lettisch dzerams (drinkable), into Litaui and Russian one usually the negated forms have a modalen Nebensinn, e.g. lit. neištariamas (unpronounceable), soot. nerešaemyj (inseparably). Whether a participle modaleAspects to express knows, depends on its tense, aspect of verbal and Genus verbi , the criteria vary from language to language. Modale participles are paraphrasierbar by subordinate clauses with Modalverben.
the participle serves use ways in latin and Greek one also as sentence satzverkürzung in the constructionthe Participium coniunctum (PC). Special case in latin Ablativ is the Ablativus absolutus, in the Greek one the Accusativus cum Participio (AcP).
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