Paul Frölich

Paul Frölich (* 7. August 1884 in Leipzig; † 16. March 1953 in Frankfurt/Main), communist politician, author, administrator of the estate and bio graph of pink Luxembourg

table of contents

lives

youth

Paul Frölich was born as the second of eleven children in a worker family (the father was fitter, the nut/mother factory female worker), by these came it already early with socialist ideas into contact and joined 1902 of the SPD . As talented pupils received it the possibility of visiting free of charge the six-form high school in Leipzig on it following completed it in Dresden, new city/floats and Leipzig two-year teachings as commercial employees and trained myself further by courses of the Leipziger of worker association , also 1905 it visited two terms long economical lectures at the Leipziger university as a guest listener. Since this time Frölich for different social-democratic newspapers began to write, then he completed a Volontariat with that the left SPD wing intimate Leipziger people newspaper under Paul Lensch and co-operated with Hermann Duncker , and was starting from 1908 as an editor first during the old person citizens people newspaper, starting from 1910 with Hamburg echoes employed, at the same time was he a city delegate in Altona.


in IKD, KPD, KPD-O and SAPD

1914 Frölich, which was drawn in briefly as an NCO and superseded after an injury as unfit, belonged to the radical war opponents in the SPD and belonged to the editorship until 1916 of Bremen of the citizen newspaper standing on sides of the war opponents . After this had been brought SPD line, he published the weekly paper worker politics together with Johann Knief in Bremen as organ of the radically left-wing ones of Bremen . As a representative of the radically left-wing ones of Bremen Frölich participated 1916 in the second conference Zimmerwalder linking in the Swiss Kienthal . At the end of of 1916 was drawn Frölich for the second time to the east front to the military, arrested here it because of anti-militaryistic propaganda by in the middle of 1918 up to the end of war in a mental hospital into talking castle. On the KPD - establishment Party Congress was selected Frölich as a representative of Bremen of the international communists of Germany (IKD), come out from the radically left-wing ones, into the executive committee of the party, to which it belonged until 1924. In the first years belonged Frölich the left party wing on, followed however not like many former IKD members of the 1920 created KAPD . Both to the residents of Munich soviet republic and in the March fights in Central Germany 1921 involved, approached to Frölich starting from 1922 together with August Thalheimer and Heinrich Brandler more moderate positions aligned to unit front politics with the SPD on and became due to its 1924 after the ultralinke group around Ruth Fischer and Arkadij Maslow had interspersed no more after the failed Hamburg one rebellion, into the party executive committee selected. In this time it represented the KPD from 1921 to 1924 in Reichstag and 1921 on that 3. Congress of the communist international ones. In the following years Frölich was first editorisch and journalistic actively, like that in the administration of the deduction of and the publication of the works of pink Luxembourg, of which the first three volumes appeared 1925-1928; beside it was active at the party university of the KPD.

After he had been selected 1928 on the list of the KPD in Reichstag, merry at the end of of 1928, after he had followed the KPD-O around Brandler and Thalheimer, was excluded from the KPD. Frölich ranked August Enderle mill ago in the line of the KPD-O with the Jakobs and among those, which for a closer Zusammengehen with other revolutionary small's groups and against the perspective of the line majority occurred that the KPD was to be criticized reformable and in addition the internal development in the Soviet Union not. In January 1932 impossible from the KPD-O, Frölich with several hundred companions and comrade crossed to the SAPD , in whose executive committee he was selected in the March of the same yearly. Beside Fritz star mountain it was considered as prominent theoreticians of the left, revolutionary party wing; thus he wrote the document by program “which wants SAP”. After second (in the unlawfulness already it takes place Party Congress of the SAPD) Frölich was arrested with the attempt of the departure to Norway, where he should develop the foreign center of the party, at the end of March 1933 and kept imprisoned up to the end of the yearly in the KZ Lichtenberg.

to exile and return

at the beginning of of 1934 Frölich the escape succeeded into the Czechoslovakian republic, from there continued to travel it in the spring 1934 to Paris, where the foreign line of the SAPD, to which it belonged up to their purge 1939/40, resided. Beside the Jakobs mill ago Frölich can be regarded in this time as a chairman of the party. In the two party organs he published new front and Marxist grandstand in this time under the aliases K (arl) Franz, William merry and Hans's wolf and participated as a SAPD representative in the committee for the preparation of a German people front and in the working group for socialist inland work (AGSI). Starting from 1936 Frölich referred occasionally positions, which deviated from those the party majority by mill ago, then criticized it those its opinion after to close support of the SAPD to the KPD and divided substantial positions of the 1937 impossible group of new way around Erwin Heinz field farmhand and walter Fabian further held it, following its positions during the First World War, the support of imperialistic countries during future wars for inadmissible. Further he, supported by the left British publisher Victor Gollancz financially wrote the well-known Luxembourg biography pink Luxembourg in this time - thought and act, which he placed briefly before beginning of war completely. 1939 with outbreak of war in the camps Vernet and Bassens interned succeeded to flee it it 1941 over Martinique into the USA to New York, where he operated himself among other things research work for French revolution. At the end of of 1950 it returned to the FRG and established themselves in Frankfurt/Main, here attached it the SPD, to which it belonged up to its death 1953, besides took part it in the left-socialist magazine spark published by Fritz lamb and conversed a close discussion contact to the marxism researcher novel Rosdolsky.

Paul Frölich was associated the 1920er for years with the communist politician Rosi wolf stone (1888-1987), since 1948 also married.

thinking

its own contribution for Marxist theory formation supplied Frölich in its last Lebensjahren in some texts only published after its death. In these fragments for the analysis of the stalinistischen Soviet Union Frölich rejected it to provide the Soviet company with terms such as state capitalism or distorted worker state to kennzeichenen separates held it due to the unstable nature of the there society for better to describe these than with a label. Frölich proceeded from the assumption that the before-revolutionary Russian society for a transition was objectively not ripe to socialism. After the revolution a society developed, which by a precarious, only temporarly stable equilibrium between different social contradictions is coined/shaped and in which one tendentious itself ever more partitioning and ever more solidifying bureaucratic caste a diktatorische, non-socialist and totalitarian rule exercises. Economic is to be spoken from a non-capitalistic planned economy to.

works

  • the way to socialism, Hamburg, 1919
  • the syndicalistic illness, o.O., 1919
  • the Bavarian soviet republic. Facts and criticism, o.O. 1920 (under the alias P. Werner)
  • Eugen Leviné, o.O., 1922 (under the alias P. Werner)
  • 10 years war and Nachkrieg. Bd.1: The war, Berlin, 1924 (Bd. 2 did not appear)
  • Dantons speeches, Berlin, 1926 (introduced and given change of Frölich)
  • pink of Luxembourg speeches, Berlin, 1928 (introduced and given change of Frölich)
  • the German social-democracy. Fourteen years together with the capital, Berlin, 1928
  • the citizen of Berlin blood May, Berlin, o.J. (vermutl. 1929 or 1930)
  • which wants SAP? , Berlin, 1932, an excerpt from this here
  • pink Luxembourg. Thought and act, Paris, 1939
  • for the crisis marxism, Hamburg, 1949
  • from the way to socialism, Stuttgart 1952 (appeared in the spark, April 1952)
  • 1789 - the large turn of an era. Of the bureaucracy of the absolutism for the parliament of the revolution (from the deduction), Frankfurt/Main, 1957
  • contributions for the analysis of the Stalinismus. Two unpublished manuscripts from the deduction. In: Claudio Pozzoli (Hg.): Yearbook workers' movement. Bd. 4., Frankfurt/Main, 1976, S. 141-155, ISBN 3-436-02392-2

literature

  • Bernd wedge: Paul Frölich. In: International scientific correspondence for the history of the German workers' movement (IWK), 19. Jg., Berlin, 1983

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